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Article

Racial Profiling, Surveillance and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia

School of Early Childhood and Inclusive Education, Faculty of Creative Industries, Education and Social Justice, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
Academic Editor: Toby-Miles Johnson
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policing Vulnerable People: Police Practice, Policy, and Engagement)
Historically, countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand have witnessed an increased over-representation of minority groups who are exposed to the criminal justice system. For many years in Australia, young First Nations males have been over-represented in the juvenile justice system in all states and territories. Many of these young males have disengaged from their schooling early, some through deliberate exclusion from the education system and others by choice. However, the choices for many young First Nations males may not be as clear cut as first might seem. This paper shows that over-representation in the juvenile justice system may be as a direct result of racial profiling, surveillance and over-policing of First Nations peoples within Australia. The literature addresses the ways in which young First Nations males experience these phenomena from an early age, and the long-term effects and consequences that can arise from these occurrences. An analysis of the current research both internationally and within Australia is thus conducted. View Full-Text
Keywords: over-policing; First Nations males; surveillance; over-incarceration; exclusion; racial profiling over-policing; First Nations males; surveillance; over-incarceration; exclusion; racial profiling
MDPI and ACS Style

O’Brien, G. Racial Profiling, Surveillance and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068

AMA Style

O’Brien G. Racial Profiling, Surveillance and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(2):68. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Brien, Grace. 2021. "Racial Profiling, Surveillance and Over-Policing: The Over-Incarceration of Young First Nations Males in Australia" Social Sciences 10, no. 2: 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020068

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