Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Buildings, Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Stricter building regulations have resulted in the construction of buildings with a low energy use [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-19
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Printing Using Recycled High-Density Polyethylene: Technological Challenges and Future Directions for Construction
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110165
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
Viewed by 286 | PDF Full-text (12467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across many disciplines, but their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries. They have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across many disciplines, but their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries. They have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to applications in the fabrication of functional products, large objects, and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have been realised in recent years, and the construction industry is beginning to make use of such dynamic technologies. Advantages of integrating 3D printing with house construction are significant. They include the capacity for mass customisation of designs and parameters to meet functional and aesthetic purposes, the reduction in construction waste from highly precise placement of materials, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, the researchers applied Strand 7 Finite Element Analysis software to a numerical model designed for 3D printing a cement mix that incorporates the recycled waste product high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The result: construction of an arched, truss-like roof was found to be structurally feasible in the absence of steel reinforcements, and lab-sized prototypes were manufactured according to the numerical model with 3D printing technology. 3D printing technologies can now be customised to building construction. This paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations, and future directions of this innovative and viable solution to affordable housing construction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Shear Walls on the Active Vibration Control of Buildings
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110164
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
Viewed by 172 | PDF Full-text (1546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study aims to assess the impact of shear walls on active vibration control of the buildings. It has evaluated the design of a smart 20-story building equipped with an Active Mass Damper to mitigate earthquakes. The design has combined shear walls with
[...] Read more.
The study aims to assess the impact of shear walls on active vibration control of the buildings. It has evaluated the design of a smart 20-story building equipped with an Active Mass Damper to mitigate earthquakes. The design has combined shear walls with an Active Mass Damper (AMD) added on the top floor. The control configuration used a force actuator combined with a displacement sensor and was examined with Direct Velocity Feedback. The effect of the presence of wall braces in the design of tall buildings on the performances as well as the control effort has been studied. The results have stated that the shear walls designed for mitigating earthquake loads are capable of reducing the displacement of the tall building somewhat but failed to reduce the acceleration of the top floor. The combination between shear walls and AMD has incredible damping capability on the displacement and acceleration of the building. However, the shear walls tend to increase the control cost since they require more control energy. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Transient Radiator Room Heating—Mathematical Model and Solution Algorithm
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110163
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
Viewed by 285 | PDF Full-text (4625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A mathematical model and robust numerical solution algorithm for radiator heating of an arbitrary room is presented in this paper. Three separate and coupled transient thermal energy equations are solved. A modified transient heat conduction equation is used for solving the heat transfer
[...] Read more.
A mathematical model and robust numerical solution algorithm for radiator heating of an arbitrary room is presented in this paper. Three separate and coupled transient thermal energy equations are solved. A modified transient heat conduction equation is used for solving the heat transfer at multi-layer outer walls and room assembly. Heat exchange between the inner walls and the observed room are represented with their own transport equation and the transient thermal energy equation is solved for radiators as well. Explicit coupling of equations and linearization of source terms result in a simple, accurate, and stabile solution algorithm. Verification of the developed methodology is demonstrated on three carefully selected test cases for which an analytical solution can be found. The obtained results show that even for the small temperature differences between inner walls and room air, the corresponding heat flux can be larger than the transmission heat flux through outer walls or windows. The benefits of the current approach are stressed, while the plans for the further development and application of the methodology are highlighted at the end. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of Alternative Seismic-Resisting Systems for CLT Buildings
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110162
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
Viewed by 439 | PDF Full-text (4129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes to building codes that enable use of materials such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) in mid- and high-rise construction are facilitating sustainable urban development in various parts of the world. Keys to this are the transition to multi-performance-based design approaches along with fewer
[...] Read more.
Changes to building codes that enable use of materials such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) in mid- and high-rise construction are facilitating sustainable urban development in various parts of the world. Keys to this are the transition to multi-performance-based design approaches along with fewer limitations on heights or the number of storeys in superstructures constructed from combustible materials. Architects and engineers have increased freedom to apply new design and construction concepts and methods, as well as to combine timber with other structural materials. They also have started to develop wall arrangements that optimise interior space layouts and take advantage of the unique characteristics of CLT. This paper discusses the seismic response of multi-story buildings braced with a CLT core and perimeter shear walls anchored to foundations and floor platforms using modern high-capacity angle brackets and hold-downs, or X-Rad connectors. Linear dynamic finite element (FE) models of seismic responses of superstructures of various heights are presented, based on experimentally determined characteristics of wall anchor connections. Particular attention is given to fundamental vibration periods, base shear and uplift forces on walls, as well as inter-story drift. Discussion of FE model results focuses on structural engineering implications and advantages of using CLT to create shear walls, with emphasis on how choice of wall anchoring connections impacts the possible number of storeys and configurations of superstructures. Employing CLT shear walls with X-Rad or other types of high capacity anchoring connections makes possible the creation of building superstructures having eight and potentially more storeys even in high seismicity regions. However, it is important to emphasise that proper selection of suitable arrangements of shear walls for CLT buildings depends on accurate representation of the semi-rigid behaviors of anchoring connections. The linear dynamic analyses presented here demonstrates the need during engineering seismic design practices to avoid use of FE or other design models which do not explicitly incorporate connection flexibilities while estimating parameters like fundamental periods, base shear and uplift forces, as well as inter-story drift. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Acoustic Issues in Open Plan Offices: A Typological Analysis
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110161
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 235 | PDF Full-text (5405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports the acoustic issues of open plan office environments. According to a detailed research based on the scientific literature of the most suitable acoustic descriptors recommended for the open plan offices analysis, the main typological-functional configurations of these environments have been
[...] Read more.
This paper reports the acoustic issues of open plan office environments. According to a detailed research based on the scientific literature of the most suitable acoustic descriptors recommended for the open plan offices analysis, the main typological-functional configurations of these environments have been analyzed in order to identify six spatial typologies. The variation of acoustic parameters of these typologies has been evaluated by using a sound pyramid tracing software. The analysis procedure was calibrated in a case study of an office environment, where a measurement campaign was carried out. Results point out that the acoustic improvement of open plan offices can usually be achieved by introducing a sound absorbing false ceiling and dividing panels between working positions, but there are different issues depending on spatial geometries of the office. Better results are referred to office typologies characterized by reduced height and equal plan dimensions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Creating a Market for Disability Specific Housing on Indigenous Land: A Case Study from Yarrabah, Australia
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110160
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Viewed by 183 | PDF Full-text (2238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Australia’s National Disability Insurance Scheme Specialist Disability Accommodation (NDIS SDA) program anticipates new, disability specific, housing stock being built by private investors incentivized by cash payments and rental income. To date, very few new SDA dwellings have been constructed and the majority of
[...] Read more.
Australia’s National Disability Insurance Scheme Specialist Disability Accommodation (NDIS SDA) program anticipates new, disability specific, housing stock being built by private investors incentivized by cash payments and rental income. To date, very few new SDA dwellings have been constructed and the majority of the research and analysis of the program’s potential has been in the context of apartment construction in major capital city markets in Australia. This paper uses a hypothetical case study of building SDA accommodation in a discrete regional Indigenous community, Yarrabah, in Queensland. It investigates underlying assumptions within the scheme, particularly around the relationship of land to investment outcomes, as well as cultural considerations. An important aspect is to test how effectively the design guidelines associated with the scheme translate into an appropriate built form that is culturally and environmentally appropriate in locations outside major urban centres. The results suggest that housing actors from the not-for-profit sector may benefit from the SDA at the expense of profit-driven, market-based housing developers, and that the SDA design categories offer limited flexibility for participants with changing care needs, potentially restricting resident continuity in occupancy and ongoing return on investment. The work offers an early assessment on the workability of the SDA in the context of housing investment in a new market for the private housing industry. Full article
Open AccessArticle Why Not Wood? Benefits and Barriers of Wood as a Multistory Construction Material: Perceptions of Municipal Civil Servants from Finland
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110159
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Viewed by 346 | PDF Full-text (1010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the construction sector continues to be associated with highly energy-intensive practices leading to excessive carbon emissions, governments in many countries are promoting a shift towards greener building practices, like the use of wood in multistory construction (WMC). Meanwhile, local-government actors (e.g., municipalities)
[...] Read more.
As the construction sector continues to be associated with highly energy-intensive practices leading to excessive carbon emissions, governments in many countries are promoting a shift towards greener building practices, like the use of wood in multistory construction (WMC). Meanwhile, local-government actors (e.g., municipalities) often act as important gatekeepers of urban development given their authority to oversee or approve zoning and land-use plans. Despite this fact, they are not much focused on in existing WMC research. This qualitative interview study serves to fill a gap by studying municipal civil servant perceptions regarding WMC, using Finland as a case study. Civil servants were asked to elicit their personal opinions on WMC, and what they perceived as favorable or unfavorable about using wood as a multistory construction material. Results show increasing support for WMC, and that this is due to key benefits made possible by the technical qualities of engineered wood products in emerging WMC projects. These products permit both the adoption of rapid construction practices that enhance citizens’ quality of living, and also the sourcing of local renewable building materials that support local industries. On the other hand, barriers to the use of wood were identified, such as inadequate information distribution, a limited number of WMC industry actors, and inefficient policy measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Building Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Image Post-Processing Method for Quantification of Cracking in RC Precast Beams under Bending
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110158
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
Viewed by 188 | PDF Full-text (7491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Image processing methods are increasingly used in civil engineering, especially in the maintenance of concrete structures. Current digital cameras and post-processing methods allow verifying qualitatively the state of conservation of wide areas of concrete in dams and bridges. When dealing with building refurbishments
[...] Read more.
Image processing methods are increasingly used in civil engineering, especially in the maintenance of concrete structures. Current digital cameras and post-processing methods allow verifying qualitatively the state of conservation of wide areas of concrete in dams and bridges. When dealing with building refurbishments and rehabilitation, it is important to verify that existing structural elements fit the requirements of the standards; in the case of structures formed by traditional RC joists, cracking of the bottom-face provides information about the serviceability of these elements. This research proposed and put in practice through experimental tests an image post-processing method for quantification of cracking (five specimens were used and calibrated). Based on a sequence of shots and through a complex step-by-step post-processing, cracks were identified and measured to calibrate this method for real purposes. The method quantifies the crack opening width and spacing by analyzing the bottom-face of the joists through the shots. Measured values of crack spacing are very similar to those predicted by the standards, while the values of crack opening width differ more from theoretical ones due to the scattering of results. However, the proposed method has been proved as suitable and useful for fast inspections of RC elements under bending. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identification and Assessment of Uncertainty Factors that Influence the Transaction Cost in Public Sector Construction Projects in Pakistan
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110157
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Viewed by 184 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Like other kinds of projects, construction projects are exposed to uncertainty, which plays a critical role in determining the transaction cost (TC). This study explores the uncertainty factors that are associated with construction projects that substantially influence the TC. To obtain the opinions
[...] Read more.
Like other kinds of projects, construction projects are exposed to uncertainty, which plays a critical role in determining the transaction cost (TC). This study explores the uncertainty factors that are associated with construction projects that substantially influence the TC. To obtain the opinions of construction professionals, a survey questionnaire was developed after identifying 30 relevant causes of uncertainty from the literature. A survey of 216 professionals was conducted in Pakistan, and the relative importance index (RII) was used to prioritize the significant uncertainty factors that escalate the TC. Based on the responses from various construction professionals, this study determined that the most significant uncertainty factors that influence TC are: competitive tendering, incomplete design and specifications, late payments, conflict management, delayed possession of sites, force majeure, and work acceleration. This study also compared and analyzed the views of project managers and consultants and found that uncertainty from internal sources has a more significant influence on TC than that from external sources. The political and environmental groups do not contribute much escalating the TC. However, uncertainties that arise from the commercial, project site, and technical groups are more of an influence on TC. This research helps practitioners and professionals to adopt integrative systems in most uncertain situations proactively to find opportunities in volatile markets to reduce the impact of uncertainty on the total project cost. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Post-Occupancy Evaluation and IEQ Measurements from 64 Office Buildings: Critical Factors and Thresholds for User Satisfaction on Thermal Quality
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110156
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Viewed by 260 | PDF Full-text (7227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of buildings can have a strong influence on occupants’ comfort, productivity, and health. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is necessary in assessing the IEQ of the built environment, and it typically relies on the subjective surveys of thermal quality, air
[...] Read more.
The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of buildings can have a strong influence on occupants’ comfort, productivity, and health. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is necessary in assessing the IEQ of the built environment, and it typically relies on the subjective surveys of thermal quality, air quality, visual quality, and acoustic quality. In this research, we expanded POE to include both objective IEQ measurements and the technical attributes of building systems (TABS) that may affect indoor environment and user satisfaction. The suite of three tools, including user satisfaction survey, workstation IEQ measurements, and TABS in the National Environmental Assessment Toolkit (NEAT) has been deployed in 1601 workstations in 64 office buildings, generating a rich database for statistical evaluation of possible correlations between the physical attributes of workstations, environmental conditions, and user satisfaction. Multivariate regression and multiple correlation coefficient statistical analysis revealed the relationship between measured and perceived IEQ indices, interdependencies between IEQ indices, and other satisfaction variables of significance. The results showed that overall, 55% of occupants responded as “satisfied” or “neutral”, and 45% reported being “dissatisfied” in their thermal quality. Given the dataset, air temperature in work area, size of thermal zone, window quality, level of temperature control, and radiant temperature asymmetry with façade are the critical factors for thermal quality satisfaction in the field. As a result, the outcome of this research contributes to identifying correlations between occupant satisfaction, measured data, and technical attributes of building systems. The presented integrated IEQ assessment method can further afford robust predictions of building performance against metrics and guidelines for IEQ standards to capture revised IEQ thresholds that impact building occupants’ satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupant Comfort and Well-Being)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modelling the Technical–Economic Relevance of the ETICS Construction Process
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110155
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
Viewed by 270 | PDF Full-text (4948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased number of energy efficiency requirements of the European Union has increased the renovation rate of apartment buildings. The external thermal insulation composite system (ETICS) is often used to upgrade the façade. However, the construction process shortcomings very often cause defects shortly
[...] Read more.
The increased number of energy efficiency requirements of the European Union has increased the renovation rate of apartment buildings. The external thermal insulation composite system (ETICS) is often used to upgrade the façade. However, the construction process shortcomings very often cause defects shortly after completion. This paper develops a technical–economic relevance assessment model of the onsite degradation factors for better quality assurance in an SME. The model quantifies the technical significance of the degradation factors along with the future repair costs. The technical severity of 103 factors is evaluated by 12 experts, and the data is validated with the Friedman’s test. The occurrence ratio, detectability, and latency period are foreseen by five experts and validated with the Delphi technique. The results of the three sample simulations emphasize the activities during substrate preparation and application of adhesive as well as a base coat with reinforcement mesh. The application of a finishing coat and installation of insulation plates have less relevance. It is recommended to upskill the craftsmen in regard to working with mixtures as the shortcomings are covered simultaneously and the failure detection period is short. The measures to protect against external weather effects are recommended due to their relatively high impact. Half of the shortcomings appear during the first two years. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle State of Knowledge of Thermal Bridges—A Follow up in Sweden and a Review of Recent Research
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110154
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
Viewed by 253 | PDF Full-text (2997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is important to minimize transmission heat transfer losses through the building envelope when designing and building energy efficient buildings in heating dominated climates. In such a climate, a large part of the space heating demand is caused by transmission heat transfer losses
[...] Read more.
It is important to minimize transmission heat transfer losses through the building envelope when designing and building energy efficient buildings in heating dominated climates. In such a climate, a large part of the space heating demand is caused by transmission heat transfer losses through the building envelope. Calculations of these losses must be carried out in a correct way to ensure a properly sized heating system and a good indoor climate. Furthermore, underestimating the transmission heat transfer may lead to energy costs that exceed expectations. A Swedish study was published five years ago which concluded that the state of knowledge was low and simplified methods used were not accurate. Five years has passed since the previous study. The purpose of this follow-up is to investigate whether the state of knowledge among Swedish consultants has increased and to review the progress within the international field. The study shows that little has changed in Sweden. The state of knowledge regarding different measuring methods and the effect on thermal bridges is still not satisfying. Furthermore, the review of recent research shows that the relative effect of thermal bridges vary greatly. More guidelines and education/training are needed. Further research should be carried out with a holistic approach where thermal bridges are investigated with varying construction types, energy efficiency of building envelopes and different measuring methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Durability and Compressive Strength of High Cement Replacement Ratio Self-Consolidating Concrete
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110153
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 214 | PDF Full-text (5872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines durability and mechanical properties of sustainable self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in which 80% of the cement is replaced with combinations of recycled industrial by-products including fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The water to binder (w/b)
[...] Read more.
This study examines durability and mechanical properties of sustainable self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in which 80% of the cement is replaced with combinations of recycled industrial by-products including fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The water to binder (w/b) ratio of SCC mixes studies was maintained at 0.36. The study proposes empirical relationships to predict 28-day compressive strengths based on the results of three-day and seven-day compressive strengths. In addition, the chloride penetration resistance of the various sustainable SCC mixes was determined after three days, seven days, and 28 days of moist curing of concrete standards. It was concluded that fly ash, silica fume, and GGBS contribute favorably to enhancing strength development, fresh properties, and durability of SCC in comparison to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The compressive strength of the sustainable SCC mixes falls within ranges suitable for structural engineering applications. Replacing cement with 15% silica fume produced a 28-day average compressive strength of 95.3 MPa, which is 44.2% higher than the control mix. Replacing cement with 15% or 20% silica fume reduced the chloride ion permeability to very low amounts compared to high permeability in a control mix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Building Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Review of Performance Specifications and Studies of Trickle Vents
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110152
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 255 | PDF Full-text (29470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The air quality of indoor spaces is the most significant parameter in providing a healthy living environment. Low indoor air quality (IAQ) leads to Sick Building Syndrome—one of the major reasons for labor loss in office buildings. The fundamental measure to ensure indoor
[...] Read more.
The air quality of indoor spaces is the most significant parameter in providing a healthy living environment. Low indoor air quality (IAQ) leads to Sick Building Syndrome—one of the major reasons for labor loss in office buildings. The fundamental measure to ensure indoor air quality is ventilation, which includes two basic types: mechanical ventilation and natural ventilation. Natural ventilation is an exchange of stale indoor air with fresh outdoor air by means of a pressure difference due to wind and/or stack effect. Trickle Vents, known also as background ventilators, are natural ventilation devices which can be integrated into façades or window systems as an alternative to operable vents, specifically in high-rise buildings. The major design criteria of Trickle Vents are ventilation capacity, controllability, actuation, thermal insulation, air permeability, water tightness, climatic adaptation, security, and acoustic attenuation. Other important parameters in Trickle Vents design are positioning, equivalent area, and control strategy. This paper aims to review all these aspects, particularly with reference to building regulations and commercial products. Furthermore, simulation, experimental, monitoring, and survey studies of Trickle Vents are also discussed. This literature review is presented from the perspective of performance parameters, control strategies, positioning, etc., with an aim to provide a comprehensive overview of such technology. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Feasibility of Using Neural Networks to Obtain Simplified Capacity Curves for Seismic Assessment
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110151
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 289 | PDF Full-text (3545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The selection of a given method for the seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings is mostly dependent on the scale of the analysis. Results obtained in large-scale studies are usually less accurate than the ones obtained in small-scale studies. In this paper a study
[...] Read more.
The selection of a given method for the seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings is mostly dependent on the scale of the analysis. Results obtained in large-scale studies are usually less accurate than the ones obtained in small-scale studies. In this paper a study about the feasibility of using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to carry out fast and accurate large-scale seismic vulnerability studies has been presented. In the proposed approach, an ANN was used to obtain a simplified capacity curve of a building typology, in order to use the N2 method to assess the structural seismic behaviour, as presented in the Annex B of the Eurocode 8. Aiming to study the accuracy of the proposed approach, two ANNs with equal architectures were trained with a different number of vectors, trying to evaluate the ANN capacity to achieve good results in domains of the problem which are not well represented by the training vectors. The case study presented in this work allowed the conclusion that the ANN precision is very dependent on the amount of data used to train the ANN and demonstrated that it is possible to use ANN to obtain simplified capacity curves for seismic assessment purposes with high precision. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Design for Deconstruction in the Design Process: State of the Art
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110150
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 230 | PDF Full-text (818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stricter building regulations have resulted in the construction of buildings with a low energy use during the operation phase. It has now become increasingly important to also look at the embodied energy, because it might, over the lifespan of the building, equal the
[...] Read more.
Stricter building regulations have resulted in the construction of buildings with a low energy use during the operation phase. It has now become increasingly important to also look at the embodied energy, because it might, over the lifespan of the building, equal the energy used for operating the building. One way to decrease the embodied energy is to reuse building materials and components or to prepare the building for deconstruction; a term called design for deconstruction (DfD). While design for deconstruction has showed environmental, social, and economic benefits, hardly any building designed and built today is designed for deconstruction. The aim of this literature review is to understand the state-of-art of design for deconstruction and how it affects the design process. In most of the literature, general construction principles are specified that promote the design for deconstruction and focus on (a) the overall building design, (b) materials and connections, (c) construction and deconstruction phase, and (d) communication, competence, and knowledge. Furthermore, the reuse potential of specific building materials is discussed, as well as the available tools for DfD. Additionally, the current barriers for DfD as specified by the literature show lack of competence, regulations, and other related elements. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Properties of Latex Polymer Modified Mortars Reinforced with Waste Bamboo Fibers from Construction Waste
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110149
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
Viewed by 193 | PDF Full-text (5769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the properties of latex modified cement mortars from ordinary paints which were reinforced with treated bamboo fibers from construction waste. Fiber variations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% at 10% of the weight of cement were utilized. Mechanical properties were
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the properties of latex modified cement mortars from ordinary paints which were reinforced with treated bamboo fibers from construction waste. Fiber variations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% at 10% of the weight of cement were utilized. Mechanical properties were determined according to standards; similarly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyze the microstructural and elemental properties of the samples. The experimental results revealed that the addition of 1.5% bamboo fibers and 10% latex solution produced excellent mechanical properties. This was as a result of improved fiber adhesion to the matrix through pre-treatment, coupled with the contributed high strength from the latex paint modified mortars. The micrograph showed that latex precipitated in the voids and on the surface of the bamboo fibers as well as gels of calcium silicate hydrates which contributed to the observed improvement in strength of the tested samples. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Solar Radiation Quantity of High-Rise Residential Areas in Typical Layout Patterns: A Case in North-East China
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110148
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Viewed by 233 | PDF Full-text (18470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of energy-saving and emission-reduction, solar energy as a clean energy with excellent characteristics has bright prospects for development and application in residential environment with high energy consumption. With the intensification of land use, there are more and more high-rise residential
[...] Read more.
With the development of energy-saving and emission-reduction, solar energy as a clean energy with excellent characteristics has bright prospects for development and application in residential environment with high energy consumption. With the intensification of land use, there are more and more high-rise residential areas in the city. If the residential construction becomes more compact, the solar radiation of the buildings will be in loss. Therefore, there may exist some restrictive relationship between the residential layout patterns and the solar radiation quantity. Through the multiple response frequency analysis method of SPSS, the study summarizes three typical high-rise residential layout patterns, which are parallel determinant, non-parallel determinant and three-sided enclosure. The Autodesk Ecotect is used to simulate the solar radiation quantity of each building roof and south facade. Last, obtain the relationship between the residential layout index and the solar radiation quantity. The results show that there actually exists certain correlativity between solar radiation quantity and floor area ratio, building density and building height; meanwhile, each annual solar radiation quantity changed by residential layout index has its own variable curve. The results also indicate that three-sided enclosure layout pattern has greater solar radiation potential than parallel determinant and non-parallel determinant. By summarizing the corresponding conclusions, the optimal mode of high-rise settlements with high solar radiation is explored, which can provide reference for further residential planning. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Evaluation of Carbon Emissions for the Development of High-Rise Residential Building
Buildings 2018, 8(11), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8110147
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Viewed by 313 | PDF Full-text (1117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the fact that many novel initiatives have been put forward to reduce the carbon emissions of buildings, there is still a lack of comprehensive investigation in analyzing a buildings’ life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in high-density cities. In addition, no
[...] Read more.
Despite the fact that many novel initiatives have been put forward to reduce the carbon emissions of buildings, there is still a lack of comprehensive investigation in analyzing a buildings’ life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in high-density cities. In addition, no studies have made attempt to evaluate GHG emissions by considering the whole life cycle of buildings in Hong Kong. Knowledge of localized emission at different stages is critical, as the emission varies greatly in different regions. Without a reliable emission level of buildings, it is difficult to determine which aspects can reduce the life cycle GHG emissions. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions of buildings by considering “cradle-to-grave” system boundary, with a case-specific high-rise residential housing block as a representative public housing development in Hong Kong. The results demonstrated that the life cycle GHG emission of the case residential building was 4980 kg CO2e/m2. The analysis showed that the majority (over 86%) of the emission resulted from the use phase of the building including renovation. The results and analysis presented in this study can help the relevant parties in designing low carbon and sustainable residential development in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top