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Investigating the Difference in Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite in Bainitic and Martensitic High-Carbon Bearing Steels using in situ Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Modeling

1
The Timken Company, North Canton, OH 44720, USA
2
Neutron Scattering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(5), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050482
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
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Abstract

In situ neutron diffraction of the uniaxial tension test was used to study the effect of the surrounding matrix microstructure on the mechanical stability of retained austenite in high-carbon bearing steels. Comparing the samples with bainitic microstructures to those with martensitic ones, it was found that the retained austenite in a bainitic matrix starts transforming into martensite at a lower strain compared to that within a martensitic matrix. On the other hand, the rate of transformation of the austenite was found to be higher within a martensitic microstructure. Crystal plasticity modeling was used to analyze the transformation phenomenon in these two microstructures and determine the effect of the surrounding microstructure on elastic, plastic, and transformation components of the strain. The results showed that the predominant difference in the deformation accumulated was from the transformation strain and the critical transformation driving force within the two microstructures. The retained austenite was more stable for identical loading conditions in case of martensitic matrix compared to the bainitic one. It was also observed that the initial volume fraction of retained austenite within the bainitic matrix would alter the onset of transformation to martensite, but not the rate of transformation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bearing steels; transformation induced plasticity; steel; crystal plasticity; in-situ neutron diffraction; kinematic stability; bainite; martensite bearing steels; transformation induced plasticity; steel; crystal plasticity; in-situ neutron diffraction; kinematic stability; bainite; martensite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Voothaluru, R.; Bedekar, V.; Yu, D.; Xie, Q.; An, K.; Pauskar, P.; Hyde, R.S. Investigating the Difference in Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite in Bainitic and Martensitic High-Carbon Bearing Steels using in situ Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Modeling. Metals 2019, 9, 482.

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