Next Issue
Volume 12, April
Previous Issue
Volume 12, February

Insects, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 84 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Subterranean termites cause damage to man-made structures around the world and are continuing to invade new areas. Current practices for controlling termites generally target a single colony at a time, and, although effective in most instances, never reduce the overall termite pressure. An area-wide approach to pest management could offer a way of controlling termites at the population level. We tracked individual termite colonies within two field plots, before and after the introduction of termite baits, to assess the fate of these colonies and to determine if a termite-free area could be maintained with continued baiting. This approach was successful in significantly reducing the overall termite population, as well as eliminating both well-established and newly invading colonies. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Sterile Insect Technique in an Integrated Vector Management Program against Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus in the Valencia Region (Spain): Operating Procedures and Quality Control Parameters
Insects 2021, 12(3), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030272 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the main vectors of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. About a third of the world population is currently at risk of contracting Aedes-borne epidemics. In recent years, A. albopictus has drastically increased [...] Read more.
Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the main vectors of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. About a third of the world population is currently at risk of contracting Aedes-borne epidemics. In recent years, A. albopictus has drastically increased its distribution in many countries. In the absence of efficient mosquito vector control methods, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is presented as a very promising and environment-friendly control tool. The Agriculture Department of the Valencian Region is promoting an ongoing pilot project to evaluate the efficacy of an integrated vector management program (IVM) based on the use of the SIT as the main method of control. The laboratory studies for evaluating the entomological efficacy of SIT through the phased conditional testing process recommended by World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO-IAEA) are addressed. This study describes the routine operating procedures and quality control parameters for the medium-scale rearing of sterile male A. albopictus. More than 15 million sterile males have been produced and released in an area of 80 ha between 2018 and 2020. Of the initial L1 larvae, we recovered 17.2% of male pupae after sex sorting to be sterilized and released on the field, while the rest of the pupae remained available to maintain the rearing colony. The residual percentage of females after sex sorting was on average 0.17%. The obtained values in terms of production and quality control as well as the proposed rearing methodology can be useful for designing a medium-scale mosquito-rearing pipeline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Differential Gene Expression in the Heads of Behaviorally Divergent Culex pipiens Mosquitoes
Insects 2021, 12(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030271 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Host preferences of Cx. pipiens, a bridge vector for West Nile virus to humans, have the potential to drive pathogen transmission dynamics. Yet much remains unknown about the extent of variation in these preferences and their molecular basis. We conducted host choice [...] Read more.
Host preferences of Cx. pipiens, a bridge vector for West Nile virus to humans, have the potential to drive pathogen transmission dynamics. Yet much remains unknown about the extent of variation in these preferences and their molecular basis. We conducted host choice assays in a laboratory setting to quantify multi-day human and avian landing rates for Cx. pipiens females. Assayed populations originated from five above-ground and three below-ground breeding and overwintering habitats. All three below-ground populations were biased toward human landings, with rates of human landing ranging from 69–85%. Of the five above-ground populations, four had avian landing rates of >80%, while one landed on the avian host only 44% of the time. Overall response rates and willingness to alternate landing on the human and avian hosts across multiple days of testing also varied by population. For one human- and one avian-preferring population, we examined patterns of differential expression and splice site variation at genes expressed in female heads. We also compared gene expression and splice site variation within human-seeking females in either gravid or host-seeking physiological states to identify genes that may regulate blood feeding behaviors. Overall, we identified genes with metabolic and regulatory function that were differentially expressed in our comparison of gravid and host-seeking females. Differentially expressed genes in our comparison of avian- and human-seeking females were enriched for those involved in sensory perception. We conclude with a discussion of specific sensory genes and their potential influence on the divergent behaviors of avian- and human-seeking Cx. pipiens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Cytogenetics of Mosquitoes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification and Expression Characterization of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Melon Fly
Insects 2021, 12(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030270 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 263
Abstract
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a protein superfamily that transports specific substrate molecules across lipid membranes in all living species. In insects, ABC transporter is one of the major transmembrane protein families involved in the development of xenobiotic resistance. Here, we report [...] Read more.
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a protein superfamily that transports specific substrate molecules across lipid membranes in all living species. In insects, ABC transporter is one of the major transmembrane protein families involved in the development of xenobiotic resistance. Here, we report 49 ABC transporter genes divided into eight subfamilies (ABCA-ABCH), including seven ABCAs, seven ABCBs, 10 ABCCs, two ABCDs, one ABCE, three ABCFs, 16 ABCGs, and three ABCHs according to phylogenetic analysis in Zeugodacus cucurbitae, a highly destructive insect pest of cucurbitaceous and other related crops. The expressions level of 49 ABC transporters throughout various developmental stages and within different tissues were evaluated by quantitative transcriptomic analysis, and their expressions in response to three different insecticides were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). These ABC transporter genes were widely expressed at developmental stages but most highly expressed in tissues of the midgut, fat body and Malpighian tube. When challenged by exposure to three insecticides, abamectin, β-cypermethrin, and dinotefuran, the expressions of ZcABCB7 and ZcABCC2 were significantly up-regulated. ZcABCB1, ZcABCB6, ZcABCB7, ZcABCC2, ZcABCC3, ZcABCC4, ZcABCC5, and ZcABCC7 were significantly up-regulated in the fat body at 24 h after β-cypermethrin exposure. These data suggest that ZcABCB7 and ZcABCC2 might play key roles in xenobiotic metabolism in Z. cucurbitae. Collectively, these data provide a foundation for further analysis of ABCs in Z. cucurbitae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Molecular Biology and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Within-Season Changes in Land-Use Impact Pest Abundance in Smallholder African Cassava Production Systems
Insects 2021, 12(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030269 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), an important commercial and food security crop in East and Central Africa, continues to be adversely affected by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. In Uganda, changes in smallholder farming landscapes due to crop rotations can impact pest populations [...] Read more.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), an important commercial and food security crop in East and Central Africa, continues to be adversely affected by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. In Uganda, changes in smallholder farming landscapes due to crop rotations can impact pest populations but how these changes affect pest outbreak risk is unknown. We investigated how seasonal changes in land-use have affected B. tabaci population dynamics and its parasitoids. We used a large-scale field experiment to standardize the focal field in terms of cassava age and cultivar, then measured how Bemisia populations responded to surrounding land-use change. Bemisia tabaci Sub-Saharan Africa 1 (SSA1) was identified using molecular diagnostics as the most prevalent species and the same species was also found on surrounding soybean, groundnut, and sesame crops. We found that an increase in the area of cassava in the 3–7-month age range in the landscape resulted in an increase in the abundance of the B. tabaci SSA1 on cassava. There was a negative relationship between the extent of non-crop vegetation in the landscape and parasitism of nymphs suggesting that these parasitoids do not rely on resources in the non-crop patches. The highest abundance of B. tabaci SSA1 nymphs in cassava fields occurred at times when landscapes had large areas of weeds, low to moderate areas of maize, and low areas of banana. Our results can guide the development of land-use strategies that smallholder farmers can employ to manage these pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of the Brazilian Poduromorpha (Collembola: Hexapoda) with Special Emphasis on the Equatorial Oceanic Islands
Insects 2021, 12(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030268 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
We present new species and records of Poduromorpha for the Brazilian oceanic islands and synthesis of this order in Brazil. Friesea noronhaensis sp. nov., Friesea rochedoensis sp. nov., Willemia insularum sp. nov. and Paraxenylla zeliae sp. nov. are described and a diagnosis of [...] Read more.
We present new species and records of Poduromorpha for the Brazilian oceanic islands and synthesis of this order in Brazil. Friesea noronhaensis sp. nov., Friesea rochedoensis sp. nov., Willemia insularum sp. nov. and Paraxenylla zeliae sp. nov. are described and a diagnosis of the morphospecies Acherontiella sp. Lima and Zeppelini 2015 is provided. We present comparative tables, distribution and taxonomic keys of the Friesea, Arlesia, Brachystomella, Acherontiella, Paraxenylla, Xenylla, and Willemia found in the Brazilian oceanic islands and their respective congeners recorded in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reducing Pesticides and Increasing Crop Diversification Offer Ecological and Economic Benefits for Farmers—A Case Study in Cambodian Rice Fields
Insects 2021, 12(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030267 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Rice production is often associated with high pesticide input. To improve farmers’ practice, sustainable management approaches are urgently needed, such as ecological engineering (EE), which aims at enhancing beneficial arthropods while reducing pesticides. Here, we implemented and tested EE in Cambodian rice fields [...] Read more.
Rice production is often associated with high pesticide input. To improve farmers’ practice, sustainable management approaches are urgently needed, such as ecological engineering (EE), which aims at enhancing beneficial arthropods while reducing pesticides. Here, we implemented and tested EE in Cambodian rice fields by comparing: (i) fields not treated with pesticides (control); (ii) fields not treated with pesticides but with non-rice crops planted in the surrounding (EE); and (iii) conventionally farmed fields using pesticides (CR). Using benefit-cost analysis, we compared the economic value of each treatment. The non-rice crops preferred by men and women farmers as well as farmers’ willingness to implement EE were assessed using surveys. We sampled arthropod abundance and richness in rice fields and bunds during two seasons. During the dry season, we compared EE and CR among three Cambodian provinces. During the wet season, we specifically assessed the differences in EE, control and CR in arthropod abundance and rice yield in one province. While withholding from using pesticides did not result in a decrease in yield in EE and control treatments, parasitoid abundance was higher in both treatments during the wet season. The benefit–cost ratio was highest for EE and control treatments. Pesticides were likely the main driver causing low arthropod abundance, without any benefit towards increased rice yield. The proper implementation of EE coupled with farmers’ knowledge of ecologically based pest management is a promising solution towards sustainable rice production. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neelipleona and Symphypleona (Collembola) from a Sampling in the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (Madrid and Segovia, Spain): Taxonomy and Biogeography
Insects 2021, 12(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030266 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Megalothorax minimus (Neelidae) and Sphaeridia pumilis (Sminthurididae) had already been identified in surface sampling from Sierra de Guadarrama. In Europe, Sminthurinus gisini (Katiannidae) seems to be associated with environments at specific altitudes, and has little representation in this sampling. Pygmarrhopalites custodum Baquero and [...] Read more.
Megalothorax minimus (Neelidae) and Sphaeridia pumilis (Sminthurididae) had already been identified in surface sampling from Sierra de Guadarrama. In Europe, Sminthurinus gisini (Katiannidae) seems to be associated with environments at specific altitudes, and has little representation in this sampling. Pygmarrhopalites custodum Baquero and Jordana sp. nov. (Arrhopalitidae) coexists with two previously identified surface occurring species of the same family (P. elegans and Arrhopalites caecus). However, P. custodum is more abundant, indicating that it occupies an ecological niche tending to troglophile in the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS). Moreover, it is also more abundant in the MSS of higher altitude corresponding to the bioclimatic zones cryo-oro-Mediterranean and oro-Mediterranean supra forest. Allacma cryptica Baquero and Jordana sp. nov. (Sminthuridae), is another species that had not been previously detected on the surface in the study area. A. cryptica is an addition to a genus which has eight described species. Gisinurus malatestai (Sminthuridae) appears well represented in the MSS, being a species present very occasionally in the Mediterranean area. Two species of the genera Sminthurides (Sminthurididae) and Fasciosminthurus (Bourletiellidae) have been found, but they could not have been identified to the species level. Finally, a few specimens of Dicyrtomina minuta (Dicyrtomidae), an abundant species on the surface, have been captured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Other Arthropods and General Topics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Augmenting Nesidiocoris tenuis (Nesidiocoris) with a Factitious Diet of Artemia Cysts to Control Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato Plants under Greenhouse Conditions
Insects 2021, 12(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030265 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Natural predators such as Nesidiocoris tenuis are known for their role in managing greenhouse pests. However, techniques in maximizing the biological control potential of N. tenuis under field conditions are still lacking. We evaluated under greenhouse conditions the prospects of Artemia cysts enhanced [...] Read more.
Natural predators such as Nesidiocoris tenuis are known for their role in managing greenhouse pests. However, techniques in maximizing the biological control potential of N. tenuis under field conditions are still lacking. We evaluated under greenhouse conditions the prospects of Artemia cysts enhanced with high fructose corn syrup and honey, and delivered using hemp strings (hemp rope) as supplementary factitious dietary in augmenting the proliferation and spread of N. tenuis on tomato plants. Results showed that N. tenuis supplemented with hemp rope could establish, proliferate and disperse among tomato plants compared to the N. tenuis supplemented with banker plants. Even though N. tenuis proliferated exponentially on banker plants, their movement and relocation to tomato plants, as expected, were only congested on tomato plants near the banker plants. However, as the survey continued, they relocated to the rest of the tomato plants. Furthermore, the number of Bemisia tabaci eggs and nymphs, a serious greenhouse pest of tomato, was observed to be significantly reduced in hemp rope greenhouse compared to banker plants and the negative control (no pest control system) greenhouses. This study, therefore, establishes foundational data on the usage of Artemia cysts enhanced with isomerized sugar (high fructose corn syrup) and honey under greenhouse conditions as factitious supplementary dietary in supporting N. tenuis establishment and spread, traits that are essential towards development of whitefly Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system. enhanced with isomerized sugar (high fructose corn syrup) and honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Sap-Sucking Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Accumulated Degree-Days and Entomological Approaches in Post Mortem Interval Estimation
Insects 2021, 12(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030264 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Establishing the post mortem interval (PMI) is a key component of every medicolegal death investigation. Several methods based on different approaches have been suggested to perform this estimation. Among them, two methods based their evaluation on the effect of the temperature and time [...] Read more.
Establishing the post mortem interval (PMI) is a key component of every medicolegal death investigation. Several methods based on different approaches have been suggested to perform this estimation. Among them, two methods based their evaluation on the effect of the temperature and time on the considered parameters: total body score (TBS)/accumulated degree-days (ADDs) and insect development. In this work, the two methods were compared using the results of minPMI and PMI estimates of 30 forensic cases occurring in northern Italy. Species in the family Calliphoridae (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vomitoria and Chrysomya albiceps) were considered in the analyses. The results highlighted the limits of the TBS/ADD method and the importance of the entomological approach, keeping in mind that the minPMI is evaluated. Due to the fact that the majority of the cases occurred in indoor conditions, further research must also be conducted on the different taxa to verify the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the minPIM estimation based on the entomological approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Salivary Digestion Extends the Range of Sugar-Aversions in the German Cockroach
Insects 2021, 12(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030263 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Saliva has diverse functions in feeding behavior of animals. However, the impact of salivary digestion of food on insect gustatory information processing is poorly documented. Glucose-aversion (GA) in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a highly adaptive heritable behavioral resistance trait that [...] Read more.
Saliva has diverse functions in feeding behavior of animals. However, the impact of salivary digestion of food on insect gustatory information processing is poorly documented. Glucose-aversion (GA) in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is a highly adaptive heritable behavioral resistance trait that protects the cockroach from ingesting glucose-containing-insecticide-baits. In this study, we confirmed that GA cockroaches rejected glucose, but they accepted oligosaccharides. However, whereas wild-type cockroaches that accepted glucose also satiated on oligosaccharides, GA cockroaches ceased ingesting the oligosaccharides within seconds, resulting in significantly lower consumption. We hypothesized that saliva might hydrolyze oligosaccharides, releasing glucose and terminating feeding. By mixing artificially collected cockroach saliva with various oligosaccharides, we demonstrated oligosaccharide-aversion in GA cockroaches. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, prevented the accumulation of glucose and rescued the phagostimulatory response and ingestion of oligosaccharides. Our results indicate that pre-oral and oral hydrolysis of oligosaccharides by salivary alpha-glucosidases released glucose, which was then processed by the gustatory system of GA cockroaches as a deterrent and caused the rejection of food. We suggest that the genetic mechanism of glucose-aversion support an extended aversion phenotype that includes glucose-containing oligosaccharides. Salivary digestion protects the cockroach from ingesting toxic chemicals and thus could support the rapid evolution of behavioral and physiological resistance in cockroach populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross Talking between Insects and Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Volunteering in the Citizen Science Project “Insects of Saxony”—The Larger the Island of Knowledge, the Longer the Bank of Questions
Insects 2021, 12(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030262 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
In a cross-sectional survey study (N = 116), volunteers of the project Insects of Saxony were asked about their current and past volunteering activities, their motivations, their rating of organisational offers, their knowledge, their satisfaction with the project and their personal contribution, [...] Read more.
In a cross-sectional survey study (N = 116), volunteers of the project Insects of Saxony were asked about their current and past volunteering activities, their motivations, their rating of organisational offers, their knowledge, their satisfaction with the project and their personal contribution, and their intended future involvement. Participants in the study were mostly male, well-educated, over 50 years old, and had been volunteering in biodiversity projects for a long time. They were driven by both pro-social (altruistic) and self-serving (egoistic) motivations, but rated the pro-social functions as more important for their engagement. Communication and feedback were rated the most important organisational offers. Participants also reported a knowledge increase during project participation. While the volunteers were satisfied with the overall project, they were significantly less content with their own contribution. Results from the survey were followed up with a group discussion (N = 60). The anecdotes revealed the participants’ regret of not having more time for their hobby, and they emphasised the challenges that arise from the different scientific approaches of the various disciplines. Most participants indicated that they want to continue their volunteering. Implications for measuring motivations in citizen science projects and for volunteer management are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Citizen Science Approach for Expanding the Research on Insects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Small Bait Traps May Not Accurately Reflect the Composition of Necrophagous Diptera Associated to Remains
Insects 2021, 12(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030261 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Small bait traps are beginning to emerge in forensic entomology as a new approach to sample early-colonizing necrophagous Diptera species while reducing the investment in time and energy in obtaining information. To test the hypothesis conveyed by the literature that these traps can [...] Read more.
Small bait traps are beginning to emerge in forensic entomology as a new approach to sample early-colonizing necrophagous Diptera species while reducing the investment in time and energy in obtaining information. To test the hypothesis conveyed by the literature that these traps can be a substitute for whole carcasses, we simultaneously documented the Diptera assemblages visiting and colonizing domestic pig carcasses and small traps baited with pork liver. Results indicated that Diptera species occurrence and assemblage composition in the small bait traps and on the carcasses differed, while they were similar when comparing only the pig carcasses. These results are in agreement with the literature that examined insect colonization of other decaying substrates. Although small bait traps can be useful tools to document the communities of necrophagous Diptera in a given area, we stress that caution must be exercised when extending the data obtained by these traps to courtroom proceedings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Is High Whitefly Abundance on Cassava in Sub-Saharan Africa Driven by Biological Traits of a Specific, Cryptic Bemisia tabaci Species?
Insects 2021, 12(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030260 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
In East Africa, the prevalent Bemisia tabaci whiteflies on the food security crop cassava are classified as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) species. Economically damaging cassava whitefly populations were associated with the SSA2 species in the 1990s, but more recently, it has been to SSA1 [...] Read more.
In East Africa, the prevalent Bemisia tabaci whiteflies on the food security crop cassava are classified as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) species. Economically damaging cassava whitefly populations were associated with the SSA2 species in the 1990s, but more recently, it has been to SSA1 species. To investigate whether biological traits (number of first instar nymphs, emerged adults, proportion of females in progeny and development time) of the cassava whitefly species are significant drivers of the observed field abundance, our study determined the development of SSA1 sub-group (SG) 1 (5 populations), SG2 (5 populations), SG3 (1 population) and SSA2 (1 population) on cassava and eggplant under laboratory conditions. SSA1-(SG1-SG2) and SSA2 populations’ development traits were similar. Regardless of the host plant, SSA1-SG2 populations had the highest number of first instar nymphs (60.6 ± 3.4) and emerged adults (50.9 ± 3.6), followed by SSA1-SG1 (55.5 ± 3.2 and 44.6 ± 3.3), SSA2 (45.8 ± 5.7 and 32.6 ± 5.1) and the lowest were SSA1-SG3 (34.2 ± 6.1 and 32.0 ± 7.1) populations. SSA1-SG3 population had the shortest egg–adult emergence development time (26.7 days), followed by SSA1-SG1 (29.1 days), SSA1-SG2 (29.6 days) and SSA2 (32.2 days). Regardless of the whitefly population, development time was significantly shorter on eggplant (25.1 ± 0.9 days) than cassava (34.6 ± 1.0 days). These results support that SSA1-(SG1-SG2) and SSA2 B. tabaci can become highly abundant on cassava, with their species classification alone not correlating with observed abundance and prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Automated Applications of Acoustics for Stored Product Insect Detection, Monitoring, and Management
Insects 2021, 12(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030259 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Acoustic technology provides information difficult to obtain about stored insect behavior, physiology, abundance, and distribution. For example, acoustic detection of immature insects feeding hidden within grain is helpful for accurate monitoring because they can be more abundant than adults and be present in [...] Read more.
Acoustic technology provides information difficult to obtain about stored insect behavior, physiology, abundance, and distribution. For example, acoustic detection of immature insects feeding hidden within grain is helpful for accurate monitoring because they can be more abundant than adults and be present in samples without adults. Modern engineering and acoustics have been incorporated into decision support systems for stored product insect management, but with somewhat limited use due to device costs and the skills needed to interpret the data collected. However, inexpensive modern tools may facilitate further incorporation of acoustic technology into the mainstream of pest management and precision agriculture. One such system was tested herein to describe Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult and larval movement and feeding in stored grain. Development of improved methods to identify sounds of targeted pest insects, distinguishing them from each other and from background noise, is an active area of current research. The most powerful of the new methods may be machine learning. The methods have different strengths and weaknesses depending on the types of background noise and the signal characteristic of target insect sounds. It is likely that they will facilitate automation of detection and decrease costs of managing stored product insects in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Survey for Adventive Populations of the Samurai Wasp, Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in Pennsylvania at Commercial Fruit Orchards and the Surrounding Forest
Insects 2021, 12(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030258 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The samurai wasp, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), is an egg parasitoid associated with the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Trissolcus japonicus is a candidate for classical biological control of H. halys populations. Since 2014, adventive populations of T. [...] Read more.
The samurai wasp, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), is an egg parasitoid associated with the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Trissolcus japonicus is a candidate for classical biological control of H. halys populations. Since 2014, adventive populations of T. japonicus have been detected in 14 US states, in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Ontario, and in two European countries, Switzerland and Italy. Establishing baseline information about populations of T. japonicus is important, as this species is not host specific to H. halys and the potential ecological effects of the accidental introductions are not fully known. In this study, yellow sticky cards were deployed at commercial fruit orchards in nine counties in Pennsylvania separated by more than 400 km. Trissolcus japonicus was detected on cards in eight counties, and in two habitats, in the orchard and at the forest border. Other native species of Scelionidae known to attack the eggs of H. halys were also identified, including Trissolcus euschisti (Ashmead), Trissolcus brochymenae (Ashmead), and Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). These results are important baseline ecological knowledge for both T. japonicus, which appears to be established in orchards throughout Pennsylvania, and other native Scelionidae. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Old Parasitoids for New Mealybugs: Host Location Behavior and Parasitization Efficacy of Anagyrus vladimiri on Pseudococcus comstocki
Insects 2021, 12(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030257 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 297
Abstract
The Comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of orchards in the North and Northwest of China. This pest appeared recently in Europe, including Italy, where it is infesting mainly vineyards as well as apple and pear orchards. The present [...] Read more.
The Comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of orchards in the North and Northwest of China. This pest appeared recently in Europe, including Italy, where it is infesting mainly vineyards as well as apple and pear orchards. The present study investigated the efficacy of Anagyrus vladimiri, a known biological control agent (BCA) of Planococcus ficus, on P. comstocki to evaluate a potential use for the management of this new pest. No-choice tests were conducted to quantify the parasitoid behavior against P. ficus and P. comstocki. The parasitoid successfully parasitized both species (parasitization rate: 51% and 67% on P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively). The A.vladimiri developmental time (19.67 ± 1.12 vs. 19.70 ± 1.07 days), sex ratio (1.16 ± 1.12 vs. 1.58 ± 1.07) and hind tibia length of the progeny showed no differences when P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively, were exploited as hosts. Two-choice tests, conducted by providing the parasitoid with a mixed population of P. ficus and P. comstocki, showed no host preference for either of the two mealybug species (23 vs. 27 first choices on P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively). The parasitization rate (61.5% and 64.5% in P. comstocki and P. ficus, respectively) did not differ between the two hosts. Overall, our study adds basic knowledge on parasitoid behavior and host preferences and confirms the use of this economically important encyrtid species as an effective BCA against the invasive Comstock mealybug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Pest Management in Vineyards)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Fixed-Precision Sampling Plan of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Florida Blueberry
Insects 2021, 12(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030256 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an invasive and foliar pest of Florida blueberry that reduces plant growth by feeding on new leaf growth. A sampling plan is needed to make informed control decisions for S. dorsalis in blueberry. Fourteen blueberry fields in central Florida [...] Read more.
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an invasive and foliar pest of Florida blueberry that reduces plant growth by feeding on new leaf growth. A sampling plan is needed to make informed control decisions for S. dorsalis in blueberry. Fourteen blueberry fields in central Florida were surveyed in 2017 and 2018 after summer pruning to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of S. dorsalis and to develop a fixed-precision sampling plan. A sampling unit of ten blueberry shoots (with four to five leaves each) was collected from one blueberry bush at each point along a 40 × 40 m grid. Field counts of S. dorsalis varied largely ranging from zero to 1122 adults and larvae per sampling unit. Scirtothrips dorsalis had aggregated distribution that was consistent within fields and temporally stable between summers, according to Taylor’s power law (TPL) (aggregation parameter, b = 1.57), probability distributions (56 out of 70 sampling occasions fit the negative binomial distribution), Lloyd’s index (b > 1 in 94% occasions), and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (31% had significant clusters). The newly developed fixed-precision sampling plan required 167, 42, seven, or three sampling units to estimate a nominal mean density of 20 S. dorsalis per sampling unit with a precision of 5%, 10%, 25%, or 40%, respectively. New knowledge on S. dorsalis distribution will aid in evaluating the timing and effectiveness of control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Field Cage Assessment of Feeding Damage by Riptortus pedestris on Soybeans in China
Insects 2021, 12(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030255 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a major pest of soybeans. In order to assess the critical stages of soybean damage by R. pedestris, we tested the damage to soybeans at different growth stages (R2, R4, and [...] Read more.
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a major pest of soybeans. In order to assess the critical stages of soybean damage by R. pedestris, we tested the damage to soybeans at different growth stages (R2, R4, and R6) caused by five densities of R. pedestris (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) through a field cage experiment. The results show that the R4 stage was the most sensitive stage in terms of suffering R. pedestris injury damage, followed by the R6 stage and then the R2 stage. The number of stay green leaves was 7.04 per plant, the abortive pod rate of the soybeans was 56.36%, and the abortive seed rate of the soybeans was 46.69%. The dry weight of the soybeans was 14.20 g at the R4 stage; these values of R4 were significantly higher than at the R2 and R6 stages. However, the dry weight of soybean seed was 4.27 g and the nutrient transfer rate was 27.01% in the R4 stage; these values were significantly lower than in the R2 and R6 stages. The number of stay green leaves, abortive pod rates, and abortive seed rates were all increased significantly with increasing pest density at each stage of soybean growth. However, the nutrient transfer rate was significantly decreased with the increase in the pest density. Soybean nutrition factors changed after they suffered R. pedestris injury; the lipid content of the soybean seed decreased and the lipid content of the soybean plant increased compared to controls, when tested with a density of five R. pedestris in the R4 stage. These results will be beneficial to the future management of R. pedestris in soybean fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving IPM of Specialty Crop Pests and Global Food Security)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Chitinase-Like Gene Family in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Insects 2021, 12(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030254 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Chitinases are of great importance in chitin degradation and remodeling in insects. However, the genome-wide distribution of chitinase-like gene family in Bemsia tabaci, a destructive pest worldwide, is still elusive. With the help of bioinformatics, we annotated 14 genes that encode putative [...] Read more.
Chitinases are of great importance in chitin degradation and remodeling in insects. However, the genome-wide distribution of chitinase-like gene family in Bemsia tabaci, a destructive pest worldwide, is still elusive. With the help of bioinformatics, we annotated 14 genes that encode putative chitinase-like proteins, including ten chitinases (Cht), three imaginal disk growth factors (IDGF), and one endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) in the genome of the whitefly, B. tabaci. These genes were phylogenetically grouped into eight clades, among which 13 genes were classified in the glycoside hydrolase family 18 groups and one in the ENGase group. Afterwards, developmental expression analysis suggested that BtCht10, BtCht5, and BtCht7 were highly expressed in nymphal stages and exhibit similar expression patterns, implying their underlying role in nymph ecdysis. Notably, nymphs exhibited a lower rate of survival when challenged by dsRNA targeting these three genes via a nanomaterial-promoted RNAi method. In addition, silencing of BtCht10 significantly resulted in a longer duration of development compared to control nymphs. These results indicate a key role of BtCht10, BtCht5, and BtCht7 in B. tabaci nymph molting. Our research depicts the differences of chitinase-like family genes in structure and function and identified potential targets for RNAi-based whitefly management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Antagonism between PTP1B and PTK Mediates Adults’ Insulin-Like Signaling Regulation of Egg Diapause in the Migratory Locust
Insects 2021, 12(3), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030253 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Diapause is a physiological development arrest state that helps insects to adapt to seasonality and overcome adverse environmental conditions. Numerous reports have indicated that insulinlike and fork head transcription factor (FOXO) are involved in the regulation of diapause in insects. However, the upstream [...] Read more.
Diapause is a physiological development arrest state that helps insects to adapt to seasonality and overcome adverse environmental conditions. Numerous reports have indicated that insulinlike and fork head transcription factor (FOXO) are involved in the regulation of diapause in insects. However, the upstream modulators of the insulin-like signaling pathway (ISP) involved in diapause regulation are still unknown. Here, we used RNAi and an inhibitor to treat PTK and PTP1B in adult tissues and injected Prx V or RNAi Prx V under both short and long photoperiod conditions and monitored effects on the expression of ISP genes, the phosphorylation levels for IR and IRS, the activity of NADPH oxidase, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and energy metabolism, seeking to identify both proteins and broader cellular metabolism influences on diapause regulation. We found that under short photoperiod conditions PTP1B in female adults induces egg diapause, whereas PTK in female adults inhibits egg diapause. Intriguingly, we also found that the antioxidant enzyme Prx V is a negative regulator of NADPH oxidizing reaction and apparently decreases ROS production and NADPH-OX activity. In contrast, all the eggs laid by adults that were treated with a series of knockdown or purified-protein injection experiments or inhibitor studies and that were reared under long photoperiod conditions hatched successfully. Thus, our results suggest a mechanism wherein diapause-related proteins (PTP1B, PTK, and Prx V) of female adults are the upstream modulators that regulate offspring eggs’ diapause process through the insulin-like signaling pathway under short photoperiod conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Molecular Biology and Genomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Advances in the Study of Olfaction in Eusocial Ants
Insects 2021, 12(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030252 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Over the past decade, spurred in part by the sequencing of the first ant genomes, there have been major advances in the field of olfactory myrmecology. With the discovery of a significant expansion of the odorant receptor gene family, considerable efforts have been [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, spurred in part by the sequencing of the first ant genomes, there have been major advances in the field of olfactory myrmecology. With the discovery of a significant expansion of the odorant receptor gene family, considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding the olfactory basis of complex social behaviors in ant colonies. Here, we review recent pivotal studies that have begun to reveal insights into the development of the olfactory system as well as how olfactory stimuli are peripherally and centrally encoded. Despite significant biological and technical impediments, substantial progress has been achieved in the application of gene editing and other molecular techniques that notably distinguish the complex olfactory system of ants from other well-studied insect model systems, such as the fruit fly. In doing so, we hope to draw attention not only to these studies but also to critical knowledge gaps that will serve as a compass for future research endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavior and Ecology of Social Insects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integrative Taxonomy of the Spinous Assassin Bug Genus Sclomina (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) Reveals Three Cryptic Species Based on DNA Barcoding and Morphological Evidence
Insects 2021, 12(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030251 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Sclomina Stål, 1861 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is endemic to China and Vietnam, with only two species, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861 and Sclomina guangxiensis Ren, 2001, characterized by spinous body and dentate abdominal connexivum. However, due to variable morphological characteristics, Sclomina erinacea, which [...] Read more.
Sclomina Stål, 1861 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is endemic to China and Vietnam, with only two species, Sclomina erinacea Stål, 1861 and Sclomina guangxiensis Ren, 2001, characterized by spinous body and dentate abdominal connexivum. However, due to variable morphological characteristics, Sclomina erinacea, which is widely distributed in South China, is possibly a complex of cryptic species, and Sclomina guangxiensis was suspected to be an extreme group of the S. erinacea cline. In the present study, we conducted species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences of 307 Sclomina specimens collected from 30 sampling localities combined with morphological evidence. The result showed that all samples used in this study were identified as five species: Sclomina guangxiensis is a valid species, and Sclomina erinacea actually includes three cryptic species: Sclomina xingrensis P. Zhao and Cai sp. nov., Sclomina pallens P. Zhao and Cai sp. nov., and Sclomina parva P. Zhao and Cai sp. nov. In this paper, the genus Sclomina is systematically revised, and the morphological characteristics of the five species are compared, described, and photographed in detail. We elucidate the evolutionary history of Sclomina based on results of estimated divergence time. The body shape and coloration (green in nymph and brown in adult) of Sclomina match their environment and mimic the Rubus plants on which they live. The symbiotic relationship between Sclomina and spinous Rubus plants is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Embryonic Development of Hypera postica Gyllenhal (Col.: Curculionidae)
Insects 2021, 12(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030250 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
The combined effect of the temperature and relative humidity on the survival and development time of the eggs of Spanish populations of the weevil Hypera postica, a key pest of alfalfa around the world, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The experimental temperatures [...] Read more.
The combined effect of the temperature and relative humidity on the survival and development time of the eggs of Spanish populations of the weevil Hypera postica, a key pest of alfalfa around the world, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The experimental temperatures ranged from 8 to 36 °C, in 4 °C increments. Three relative humidity ranges were defined: high, medium, and low. Eggs of the alfalfa weevil successfully developed until larval emergence at all of the 24 conditions tested. However, the temperature and relative humidity affected the survival of the eggs. The egg developmental time decreased as the temperature increased from 8 to 32 °C, and the longest time was recorded at a low relative humidity (RH). The relationship between the development rate and temperature fit well to the lineal model for relative humidity. The minimum development threshold (T0) and the thermal requirement for egg development (K) ranged between 3 and 4 °C and 209 and 246 degree-days, respectively. According to these values and the occurrence of eggs and larvae (in winter) and adults (in autumn) in field samplings, the period of oviposition was determined. The results of the study contribute to better understanding the annual cycle and phenology of H. postica in the Iberian Peninsula and southern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Spider Community Variability and Response to Restoration in Arid Grasslands of the Pacific Northwest, USA
Insects 2021, 12(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030249 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Grassland restoration in North America has intensified but its impact on major invertebrate groups, including spiders, is unclear. We studied three grassland locations in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to (1) describe variability in spider communities, (2) identify environmental variables that may underlie patterns [...] Read more.
Grassland restoration in North America has intensified but its impact on major invertebrate groups, including spiders, is unclear. We studied three grassland locations in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to (1) describe variability in spider communities, (2) identify environmental variables that may underlie patterns in spider communities, and (3) determine whether spiders and environmental variables differ between actively (removal of disturbances, then plant with natives) vs. passively restored sites (removal of disturbance only). We found spider richness, diversity, and composition differed among the three locations but abundance did not. Sites with more litter and invasive grass cover had more spiders while sites at higher elevation and with more forb and biological soil crust cover had increased spider richness and diversity. Spider community composition was associated with elevation and litter cover. Surprisingly, no spider community or environmental variables differed between actively and passively restored sites, except that litter cover was higher in passively restored sites. This study demonstrates that even in superficially similar locations, invertebrate communities may differ greatly and these differences may prevent consistent responses to active vs. passive restoration. If increasing biodiversity or the abundance of invertebrate prey are goals, then environmental factors influencing spider communities should be taken into account in restoration planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Dengue-2 and Guadeloupe Mosquito Virus RNA Detected in Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. Collected in a Vehicle Impound Yard in Santo André, SP, Brazil
Insects 2021, 12(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030248 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
In 2018–2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission [...] Read more.
In 2018–2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission of arboviruses in an urban environment in Brazil. We captured the mosquitoes using human-landing catches and processed them for arbovirus detection by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR assays. We captured two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (73 total specimens; 18 females and 55 males) and Ae. albopictus (34 specimens; 27 females and 7 males). The minimum infection rate for DENV-2 was 11.5 per 1000 (CI95%: 1–33.9). The detection of DENV-2 RNA in an Ae. albopictus female suggests that this virus might occur in high infection rates in the sampled mosquito population and is endemic in the urban areas of Santo André. In addition, Guadeloupe mosquito virus RNA was detected in an Ae. aegypti female. To our knowledge, this was the first detection of the Guadeloupe mosquito virus in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Vector-Borne Diseases in a Changing World)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Diversity of the Fossil Genus Palaeoglaesum Wagner (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Upper Cretaceous Amber of Myanmar
Insects 2021, 12(3), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030247 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Cretaceous Myanmar amber is abundant in inclusions belonging to the genus Palaeoglaesum. In addition, a significant morphological diversity among representatives of Palaeoglaesum can be observed. However, none of its representatives have been found in other fossil materials. Herein three new species: P. [...] Read more.
Cretaceous Myanmar amber is abundant in inclusions belonging to the genus Palaeoglaesum. In addition, a significant morphological diversity among representatives of Palaeoglaesum can be observed. However, none of its representatives have been found in other fossil materials. Herein three new species: P. stebneri sp. nov., Skibińska and Krzemiński P. teres sp. nov. Skibińska and Albrycht, and P. pilosus sp. nov. Skibińska, Krzemiński and Zhang from Cretaceous Myanmar amber are described and illustrated. The very small size and characters of male hypopygium with aedeagus strongly bent and apically forked are pertinent to diagnosing the genus and species. New materials show that this genus and the whole subfamily Bruchomyiinae were probably more abundant and more diverse than the presently known extant fauna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Plant Pathogen Invasion Modifies the Eco-Evolutionary Host Plant Interactions of an Endangered Checkerspot Butterfly
Insects 2021, 12(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030246 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
New plant pathogen invasions typified by cryptic disease symptoms or those appearing sporadically in time and patchily in space, might go largely unnoticed and not taken seriously by ecologists. We present evidence that the recent invasion of Pyrenopeziza plantaginis (Dermateaceae) into the Pacific [...] Read more.
New plant pathogen invasions typified by cryptic disease symptoms or those appearing sporadically in time and patchily in space, might go largely unnoticed and not taken seriously by ecologists. We present evidence that the recent invasion of Pyrenopeziza plantaginis (Dermateaceae) into the Pacific Northwest USA, which causes foliar necrosis in the fall and winter on Plantago lanceolata (plantain), the primary (non-native) foodplant for six of the eight extant Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly populations (Euphydryas editha taylori, endangered species), has altered eco-evolutionary foodplant interactions to a degree that threatens butterfly populations with extinction. Patterns of butterfly, larval food plant, and P. plantaginis disease development suggested the ancestral relationship was a two-foodplant system, with perennial Castilleja spp. supporting oviposition and pre-diapause larvae, and the annual Collinsia parviflora supporting post-diapause larvae. Plantain, in the absence of P. plantaginis disease, provided larval food resources throughout all butterfly life stages and may explain plantain’s initial adoption by Taylor’s checkerspot. However, in the presence of severe P. plantaginis disease, plantain-dependent butterfly populations experience a six-week period in the winter where post-diapause larvae lack essential plantain resources. Only C. parviflora, which is rare and competitively inferior under present habitat conditions, can fulfill the post-diapause larval feeding requirements in the presence of severe P. plantaginis disease. However, a germination timing experiment suggested C. parviflora to be suitably timed for only Washington Taylor’s checkerspot populations. The recent invasion by P. plantaginis appears to have rendered the ancestrally adaptive acquisition of plantain by Taylor’s checkerspot an unreliable, maladaptive foodplant interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Ecology, Diversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Hylotelephium spectabile, a New Host for Carnation Tortrix Moth (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) and Molecular Characterization in Greece
Insects 2021, 12(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030245 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide range of crop and ornamental plants. It is of Mediterranean origin and widespread in European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) region. For the first time, infestations of Hylotelephium spectabile [...] Read more.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) is a highly polyphagous pest of a wide range of crop and ornamental plants. It is of Mediterranean origin and widespread in European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) region. For the first time, infestations of Hylotelephium spectabile (Boreau) Ohba (syn.: Sedum spectabile Boreau) (Saxifragales, Crassulaceae) ornamental plants by C. pronubana larvae, in private gardens in urban area of Drama, Greece, were found. Species identification was conducted based on morphology of female genitalia. In addition, due to reports on occurrence of cryptic C. pronubana species within Europe, DNA barcoding was carried out to determine the molecular status of the pest. This communication reports a new host of C. pronubana and places the Greek pest population along with European species clade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Other Arthropods and General Topics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Natural Substances against Insect Pests: Assets and Liabilities
Insects 2021, 12(3), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030244 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Many insect pests directly compete with humans for food, damaging several crops in the field and during the processing and storage [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances against Insect Pests: Assets and Liabilities)
Open AccessReview
Lessons from Drosophila: Engineering Genetic Sexing Strains with Temperature-Sensitive Lethality for Sterile Insect Technique Applications
Insects 2021, 12(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030243 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
A major obstacle of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs is the availability of robust sex-separation systems for conditional removal of females. Sterilized male-only releases improve SIT efficiency and cost-effectiveness for agricultural pests, whereas it is critical to remove female disease-vector pests prior to [...] Read more.
A major obstacle of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs is the availability of robust sex-separation systems for conditional removal of females. Sterilized male-only releases improve SIT efficiency and cost-effectiveness for agricultural pests, whereas it is critical to remove female disease-vector pests prior to release as they maintain the capacity to transmit disease. Some of the most successful Genetic Sexing Strains (GSS) reared and released for SIT control were developed for Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata, and carry a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that eliminates female but not male embryos when heat treated. The Medfly tsl mutation was generated by random mutagenesis and the genetic mechanism causing this valuable heat sensitive phenotype remains unknown. Conditional temperature sensitive lethal mutations have also been developed using random mutagenesis in the insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, and were used for some of the founding genetic research published in the fields of neuro- and developmental biology. Here we review mutations in select D. melanogaster genes shibire, Notch, RNA polymerase II 215kDa, pale, transformer-2, Dsor1 and CK2α that cause temperature sensitive phenotypes. Precise introduction of orthologous point mutations in pest insect species with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology holds potential to establish GSSs with embryonic lethality to improve and advance SIT pest control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop