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Minerals, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 130 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Garnet is cubic and optically isotropic par excellence. However, some garnets are optically anisotropic. Oscillatory compositional zoning occurs in some garnet samples. Monochromatic synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction traces of grossular garnet samples show single cubic phases for isotropic samples, and two or more different cubic phases in anisotropic samples. The different phases in a crystal are resolved using X-ray elemental line scans, backscattered electron images, and elemental maps. Structural mismatch from the two cubic phases intergrown in the birefringent samples gives rise to strain-induced optical anisotropy. The formation of intergrowths in grossular occurs because of changes in the physical and chemical conditions during crystal growth. View this paper
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Article
Estimation of Mining-Induced Horizontal Strain Tensor of Land Surface Applying InSAR
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070788 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1176 | Correction
Abstract
Horizontal strains related to mining-induced subsidence may endanger infrastructure and surface users’ safety. While directional horizontal strains should be well determined, appropriate solutions for a complete assessment of the terrain surface deformation field are still required. As a result, the presented study examined [...] Read more.
Horizontal strains related to mining-induced subsidence may endanger infrastructure and surface users’ safety. While directional horizontal strains should be well determined, appropriate solutions for a complete assessment of the terrain surface deformation field are still required. As a result, the presented study examined a new method for calculating horizontal strain tensor based on the decomposition of satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) observations into vertical and azimuth look direction (ALD) displacements. Based on a geometric integral model, we tested our method on experimental data before applying it to an underground copper ore mine in Poland. In the case study, the displacement field was determined using the Multi-Temporal InSAR method on Sentinel-1 data. The model data relative error did not exceed 0.02 at σ = ±0.003. For the case study, land subsidence of up to −167 mm and ALD displacements ranging from −110 mm to +62 mm was obtained, whereas the extreme values of horizontal strains ranged from −0.52 mm/m to +0.36 mm/m at σ = ±0.050 mm/m. Our results demonstrate the high accuracy of the method in determining the horizontal strain tensor. As a result, the approach can broaden the assessment of the environmental impact of land subsidence worldwide. Full article
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Article
Geochemistry and Geochronology of Early Paleozoic Intrusive Rocks in the Terra Nova Bay Area, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070787 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
The Terra Nova Intrusive Complex (TNIC) in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, results from widespread magmatism during the Early Paleozoic Ross Orogeny. According to field relationships, geochemistry, and geochronology data, the northern part of the TNIC comprises the Browning Intrusive Unit (BIU), which is [...] Read more.
The Terra Nova Intrusive Complex (TNIC) in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, results from widespread magmatism during the Early Paleozoic Ross Orogeny. According to field relationships, geochemistry, and geochronology data, the northern part of the TNIC comprises the Browning Intrusive Unit (BIU), which is associated with an arc crustal melting including migmatization of the Wilson Metamorphic Complex, and the later Campbell Intrusive Unit (CIU), which is attributed to the mantle and crustal melting processes. Zircon U-Pb ages suggest Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian protolith with Late Cambrian metamorphism (502 ± 15 Ma) in the WMC, Late Cambrian formation (~500 Ma) of the BIU, and Early Ordovician formation (~480–470 Ma) of the CIU. Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of the BIU indicate predominant crustal component (εNd(t) = −8.7 to −8.9), whereas those of the CIU reflect both mantle (εNd(t) = 1.8 to 1.6) and crustal (εNd(t) = −4.0 to −7.5) compositions. These results suggest that the northern TNIC magmatism occurring at ~500–470 Ma originated from partial melting of the mantle–mafic crust components and mixing with felsic crust components. By integrating the results with previous studies, the TNIC is considered to be formed by a combination of the mantle and mafic crust melting, crustal assimilation, felsic crust melting, and magma mixing during the Ross Orogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granite: The Signature Rock of the Earth’s Continental Crust)
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Article
Distribution, Separation and Characterisation of Valuable Heavy Minerals from the Brahmaputra River Basin, Kurigram District, Bangladesh
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070786 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Bangladesh’s heavy minerals deposits in river systems remain largely unexplored with past research restricted to beach placer deposits along the south-eastern coastline of the country. In this study, 64 samples were collected from stable sand bars from the northern Brahmaputra River. The average [...] Read more.
Bangladesh’s heavy minerals deposits in river systems remain largely unexplored with past research restricted to beach placer deposits along the south-eastern coastline of the country. In this study, 64 samples were collected from stable sand bars from the northern Brahmaputra River. The average total heavy minerals (THM) from all sample sites was 10.73 wt%, with the THM concentrations generally highest at the outermost edges of the river and lowest within the mid-channel regions. There was no variation in THM content from north (upstream) to south (downstream). Valuable heavy minerals (VHMs) magnetite, ilmenite, garnet and zircon made up around 25–30 wt% of the THM content, with other heavy minerals including amphibole, pyroxene, kyanite, sillimanite, monazite, apatite and xenotime making up the remaining 70–75 wt%. A VHM distribution map showed that the upstream division of the studied area appeared to be the most prospective for valuable heavy minerals. A bench scale heavy mineral sands beneficiation flowsheet involving unit processes employing gravity, magnetic and electrostatic properties was designed and based on a detailed characterisation and phase analysis of the resulting fractions, it was determined that VHMs made up ~2 wt% of the material recovered. Of these, garnet and ilmenite made up the bulk of the VHMs at levels of 0.88 and 0.51 wt%, respectively, with recoveries of >83%. Characterisation of the concentrates showed that further refinement of the processing conditions is required to generate concentrates that are potentially suitable for commercial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Phosphorus-Rich Ash from Poultry Manure Combustion in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070785 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the physico-chemical and phase characteristics of ash obtained in the process of the combustion of Polish poultry manure in a laboratory reactor with a bubbling fluidized bed. Three experiments, differing in the grain size and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the physico-chemical and phase characteristics of ash obtained in the process of the combustion of Polish poultry manure in a laboratory reactor with a bubbling fluidized bed. Three experiments, differing in the grain size and morphology of the raw material, the method of its dosing and the type of fluidized bed, were carried out. The contents of the main chemical components and trace elements in the obtained ash samples were determined using WDXRF, and the phase composition was examined through the XRD method. The morphology and the chemical composition of grains in a given micro-area using the SEM/EDS method were also investigated. The highest concentration of phosphorus (from 28.07% wt. to 29.71% wt. as P2O5 equivalent), the highest proportion of amorphous substance (from 56.7% wt. to 59.0% wt.) and the lowest content of unburned organic substance (LOI from 6.42% to 9.16%) (i.e., the best process efficiency), was obtained for the experiment in which the starting bed was quartz sand and poultry manure was fed to the reactor in the form of pellets. It has been calculated that in this case, the amorphous phase contains more than half of the phosphorus. The method of carrying out the combustion process has a significant impact on the phase composition and, consequently, on the availability of phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Fly Ashes—Characteristics and Use)
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Article
Worth from Waste: Utilizing a Graphite-Rich Fraction from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries as Alternative Reductant in Nickel Slag Cleaning
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070784 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
One possible way of recovering metals from spent lithium-ion batteries is to integrate the recycling with already existing metallurgical processes. This study continues our effort on integrating froth flotation and nickel-slag cleaning process for metal recovery from spent batteries (SBs), using anodic graphite [...] Read more.
One possible way of recovering metals from spent lithium-ion batteries is to integrate the recycling with already existing metallurgical processes. This study continues our effort on integrating froth flotation and nickel-slag cleaning process for metal recovery from spent batteries (SBs), using anodic graphite as the main reductant. The SBs used in this study was a froth fraction from flotation of industrially prepared black mass. The effect of different ratios of Ni-slag to SBs on the time-dependent phase formation and metal behavior was investigated. The possible influence of graphite and sulfur contents in the system on the metal alloy/matte formation was described. The trace element (Co, Cu, Ni, and Mn) concentrations in the slag were analyzed using the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) technique. The distribution coefficients of cobalt and nickel between the metallic or sulfidic phase (metal alloy/matte) and the coexisting slag increased with the increasing amount of SBs in the starting mixture. However, with the increasing concentrations of graphite in the starting mixture (from 0.99 wt.% to 3.97 wt.%), the Fe concentration in both metal alloy and matte also increased (from 29 wt.% to 68 wt.% and from 7 wt.% to 49 wt.%, respectively), which may be challenging if further hydrometallurgical treatment is expected. Therefore, the composition of metal alloy/matte must be adjusted depending on the further steps for metal recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Minerals)
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Article
The Effect of pH, Ionic Strength and the Presence of PbII on the Formation of Calcium Carbonate from Homogenous Alkaline Solutions at Room Temperature
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070783 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Precipitation of calcium carbonates in aqueous systems is an important factor controlling various industrial, biological, and geological processes. In the first part of this study, the well-known titration approach introduced by Gebauer and coworkers in 2008 s used to obtain reliable experimental dataset [...] Read more.
Precipitation of calcium carbonates in aqueous systems is an important factor controlling various industrial, biological, and geological processes. In the first part of this study, the well-known titration approach introduced by Gebauer and coworkers in 2008 s used to obtain reliable experimental dataset for the deep understanding of CaCO3 nucleation kinetics in supersaturated solutions over a broad range of pH and ionic strength conditions. In the second part, the effect of impurities, i.e., 1 mol% of Pb2+, was assessed in the same range of experimental conditions. Divalent lead has been shown to have an inhibitory effect in all ranges of the conditions tested except for pH 8 and low ionic strength (≤0.15 mol/L). Future investigations might take advantage of the methodology and the data provided in this work to investigate the effect of other system variables. The investigation of all the major variables and the assessment of eventual synergic effects could improve our ability to predict the formation of CaCO3 in complex natural systems. Full article
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Article
Consistent Characterization of Color Degradation Due to Artificial Aging Procedures at Popular Pigments of Byzantine Iconography
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070782 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
The degradation effects of artificial aging on the “true” pigment color of Byzantine iconography are thoroughly investigated in this work. For this purpose, a multi-material palette is fabricated, consisting of various popular egg-tempera pigments, while the original recipes from the literature are utilized [...] Read more.
The degradation effects of artificial aging on the “true” pigment color of Byzantine iconography are thoroughly investigated in this work. For this purpose, a multi-material palette is fabricated, consisting of various popular egg-tempera pigments, while the original recipes from the literature are utilized in order to mimic the genuine art of Byzantine painters. Then, artificial aging procedures are appropriately employed to simulate environmental fluctuations in historical buildings, such as churches. A total of four time steps are investigated, including the initial condition, and pigments’ spectra in the ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) area are acquired in the diffuse reflectance mode at each individual step. Moreover, a color characterization procedure is realized via the quantification of lightness and saturation by means of the measured UV/Vis spectrum. The main objectives of this work are to determine the color stability, the type of color degradation, and generally the color response through time of the studied pigments. The extracted results indicate that a couple of pigments suffer severe color degradation while the majority present moderate darkening or discoloration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Behavior of Mineral Pigments)
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Article
Characterization and Analysis of the Mortars in the Church of the Company of Jesus—Quito (Ecuador)
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070781 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
The Church of the Company of Jesus in Quito (1605–1765) is one of the most remarkable examples of colonial religious architecture on the World Heritage List. This church has multiple constructive phases and several interventions with no clear record of the entire architectural [...] Read more.
The Church of the Company of Jesus in Quito (1605–1765) is one of the most remarkable examples of colonial religious architecture on the World Heritage List. This church has multiple constructive phases and several interventions with no clear record of the entire architectural site, including the historical mortars. A total of 14 samples of coating mortars inside the central nave were taken, with the protocols suggested by the research team and a comparative sample of the architectural group that does not have intervention. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on mineralogical characterization, semi-quantitative analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis of the samples. The results showed the presence of volcanic aggregate lime and gypsum, used in lining mortars and joint mortars. Mineralogical and textural composition data have allowed the mortar samples to be relatively dated. Full article
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Article
Nitrogen under Super-Reducing Conditions: Ti Oxynitride Melts in Xenolithic Corundum Aggregates from Mt Carmel (N. Israel)
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070780 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Titanium oxynitrides (Ti(N,O,C)) are abundant in xenolithic corundum aggregates in pyroclastic ejecta of Cretaceous volcanoes on Mount Carmel, northern Israel. Petrographic observations indicate that most of these nitrides existed as melts, immiscible with coexisting silicate and Fe-Ti-C silicide melts; some nitrides may also [...] Read more.
Titanium oxynitrides (Ti(N,O,C)) are abundant in xenolithic corundum aggregates in pyroclastic ejecta of Cretaceous volcanoes on Mount Carmel, northern Israel. Petrographic observations indicate that most of these nitrides existed as melts, immiscible with coexisting silicate and Fe-Ti-C silicide melts; some nitrides may also have crystallized directly from the silicide melts. The TiN phase shows a wide range of solid solution, taking up 0–10 wt% carbon and 1.7–17 wt% oxygen; these have crystallized in the halite (fcc) structure common to synthetic and natural TiN. Nitrides coexisting with silicide melts have higher C/O than those coexisting with silicate melts. Analyses with no carbon fall along the TiN–TiO join in the Ti–N–O phase space, implying that their Ti is a mixture of Ti3+ and Ti2+, while those with 1–3 at.% C appear to be solid solutions between TiN and Ti0.75O. Analyses with >10 at% C have higher Ti2+/Ti3+, reflecting a decrease in fO2. Oxygen fugacity was 6 to 8 log units below the iron–wüstite buffer, at or below the Ti2O3–TiO buffer. These relationships and coexisting silicide phases indicate temperatures of 1400–1100 °C. Ti oxynitrides are probably locally abundant in the upper mantle, especially in the presence of CH4–H2 fluids derived from the deeper metal-saturated mantle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Minerals: Frontiers of Mineral Science)
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Article
Damage Evolution of Granodiorite after Heating and Cooling Treatments
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070779 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The awareness of the impact of high temperatures on rock properties is essential to the design of deep geotechnical applications. The purpose of this research is to assess the influence of heating and cooling treatments on the physical and mechanical properties of Egyptian [...] Read more.
The awareness of the impact of high temperatures on rock properties is essential to the design of deep geotechnical applications. The purpose of this research is to assess the influence of heating and cooling treatments on the physical and mechanical properties of Egyptian granodiorite as a degrading factor. The samples were heated to various temperatures (200, 400, 600, and 800 °C) and then cooled at different rates, either slowly cooled in the oven and air or quickly cooled in water. The porosity, water absorption, P-wave velocity, tensile strength, failure mode, and associated microstructural alterations due to thermal effect have been studied. The study revealed that the granodiorite has a slight drop in tensile strength, up to 400 °C, for slow cooling routes and that most of the physical attributes are comparable to natural rock. Despite this, granodiorite thermal deterioration is substantially higher for quick cooling than for slow cooling. Between 400:600 °C is ‘the transitional stage’, where the physical and mechanical characteristics degraded exponentially for all cooling pathways. Independent of the cooling method, the granodiorite showed a ductile failure mode associated with reduced peak tensile strengths. Additionally, the microstructure altered from predominantly intergranular cracking to more trans-granular cracking at 600 °C. The integrity of the granodiorite structure was compromised at 800 °C, the physical parameters deteriorated, and the rock tensile strength was negligible. In this research, the temperatures of 400, 600, and 800 °C were remarked to be typical of three divergent phases of granodiorite mechanical and physical properties evolution. Furthermore, 400 °C could be considered as the threshold limit for Egyptian granodiorite physical and mechanical properties for typical thermal underground applications. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Mineral-Based Mixtures Containing Coal Fly Ash and Sewage Sludge on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Selected Morphological Parameters of Deciduous and Coniferous Trees
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070778 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Coal fly ash (CFA), which is generated in huge quantities in coal-fired power plants, is a problem worldwide. Mixtures with ash and sewage sludge alter morphological and biochemical characteristics of plants. In this experiment, the response of pine, spruce, beech and alder growing [...] Read more.
Coal fly ash (CFA), which is generated in huge quantities in coal-fired power plants, is a problem worldwide. Mixtures with ash and sewage sludge alter morphological and biochemical characteristics of plants. In this experiment, the response of pine, spruce, beech and alder growing for four years to mineral mixtures based on coal fly ash and high salinity sewage sludge (SS) was studied. The four-year experiment determined the chlorophyll a fluorescence of the tested plants, their height and yield, the salinity level of the tested mixtures and their phytotoxicity. Mixtures of coal ash with sewage sludge proved to be more beneficial to plants than their separate application. After four years, among the studied species, the highest increase in height and biomass was recorded for European alder and Scots pine. These species were also characterized by high photosynthetic indices. Mixtures containing 29% SS created optimal conditions for the development of the studied tree species. Grey alder and ponderosa pine can be recommended for reclamation of degraded areas where CFA and SS mixtures are used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments, Volume II)
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Article
Assessment of Selected Characteristics of Enrichment Products for Regular and Irregular Aggregates Beneficiation in Pulsating Jig
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070777 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Article concerns problem of jig beneficiation of mineral aggregates and focuses especially on problem of separation of hard-enrichable materials. Investigative programme covered tests in laboratory and semi-plant scale and material with different content of regular and irregular particles, along with various particle size [...] Read more.
Article concerns problem of jig beneficiation of mineral aggregates and focuses especially on problem of separation of hard-enrichable materials. Investigative programme covered tests in laboratory and semi-plant scale and material with different content of regular and irregular particles, along with various particle size fractions, was under analysis. Two patented solutions were utilized as methodological approach and densities and absorbabilities of individual products were determined and major novelty of approach consist in separate beneficiation of regular and irregular particles. Results of laboratory investigations showed that more favorable separation effectiveness was observed for the narrow particle size fractions of feed material. In terms of absorbability difference between separation products from I and IV layer was 0.4–0.5% higher for regular particles, and up to 0.5% higher for irregular grains. Differences in densities of respective products were 0.1% higher for regular particles. Results of semi-plant tests confirmed the outcomes achieved in laboratory scale. The qualitative characteristics of separation products in terms of micro-Deval and LA comminution resistance indices were one category higher for regular particles, and two categories higher for irregular grains, comparing to the raw material. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Natural Language Processing Based Machine Learning in Analyzing Incident Narratives at a Mine
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070776 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
To achieve the goal of preventing serious injuries and fatalities, it is important for a mine site to analyze site specific mine safety data. The advances in natural language processing (NLP) create an opportunity to develop machine learning (ML) tools to automate analysis [...] Read more.
To achieve the goal of preventing serious injuries and fatalities, it is important for a mine site to analyze site specific mine safety data. The advances in natural language processing (NLP) create an opportunity to develop machine learning (ML) tools to automate analysis of mine health and safety management systems (HSMS) data without requiring experts at every mine site. As a demonstration, nine random forest (RF) models were developed to classify narratives from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) database into nine accident types. MSHA accident categories are quite descriptive and are, thus, a proxy for high level understanding of the incidents. A single model developed to classify narratives into a single category was more effective than a single model that classified narratives into different categories. The developed models were then applied to narratives taken from a mine HSMS (non-MSHA), to classify them into MSHA accident categories. About two thirds of the non-MSHA narratives were automatically classified by the RF models. The automatically classified narratives were then evaluated manually. The evaluation showed an accuracy of 96% for automated classifications. The near perfect classification of non-MSHA narratives by MSHA based machine learning models demonstrates that NLP can be a powerful tool to analyze HSMS data. Full article
Review
Contamination of the Soil–Groundwater–Crop System: Environmental Risk and Opportunities
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070775 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
The increasing development of industries, resulting in a large volume of mining, smelting, and combustion wastes, and intense agricultural activities, due to demand for food and energy, have caused environmental hazards for food quality and ecosystems. This is a review on the contamination [...] Read more.
The increasing development of industries, resulting in a large volume of mining, smelting, and combustion wastes, and intense agricultural activities, due to demand for food and energy, have caused environmental hazards for food quality and ecosystems. This is a review on the contamination of the soil–groundwater–crop system and a potential reduction of the contamination by a gradual shift towards green economy within the European Union and on a worldwide scale. Available mineralogical and geochemical features from contaminated Neogene basins have shown a diversity in the contamination sources for soil and groundwater, and highlighted the need to define the contamination sources, hot spots, degree/extent of contamination, and provide ways to restrict the transfer of heavy metals/metalloids into the food chain, without the reduction of the agricultural and industrial production. Among harmful elements for human health and ecosystems, the contamination of groundwater (thousands of μg/L Cr(VI)) by industrial activities in many European countries is of particular attention. Although Cr(VI) can be reduced to Cr(III) and be completely attenuated in nature under appropriate pH and Eh conditions, the contamination by Cr(VI) of coastal groundwater affected by the intrusion of seawater often remains at the hundreds μg/L level. A positive trend between B and Cr(VI) may provide insights on the role of the borate [B(OH)4] ions, a potential buffer, on the stability of Cr(VI) in coastal groundwater. Efforts are needed towards reducing toxic metal(loids) from the industrial wastewaters prior to their discharge into receptors, as well as the transformation of hazardous mining/industrial wastes to new products and applications to the optimization of agricultural management strategies. Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Physical, Chemical, and Adsorption Properties of Coal-Fly-Ash–Hydroxyapatite Composites
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070774 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
(1) Hydroxyapatite (HAp), which can be obtained by several methods, is known to be a good adsorbent. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a commonly reused byproduct also used in environmental applications as an adsorbent. We sought to answer the following question: Can CFA [...] Read more.
(1) Hydroxyapatite (HAp), which can be obtained by several methods, is known to be a good adsorbent. Coal fly ash (CFA) is a commonly reused byproduct also used in environmental applications as an adsorbent. We sought to answer the following question: Can CFA be included in the method of HAp wet synthesis to produce a composite capable of adsorbing both heavy metals and dyes? (2) High calcium lignite CFA from the thermal power plant in Bełchatów (Poland) was used as the base to prepare CFA–HAp composites. Four types designated CFA–HAp1–4 were synthesized via the wet method of in situ precipitation. The synthesis conditions differed in terms of the calcium reactants used, pH, and temperature. We also investigated the equilibrium adsorption of Cu(II) and rhodamine B (RB) on CFA–HAp1–4. The data were fitted using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich–Peterson models and validated using R2 and χ2/DoF. Surface changes in CFA–HAp2 following Cu(II) and RB adsorption were assessed using SEM, SE, and FT-IR analysis. (3) The obtained composites contained hydroxyapatite (Ca/P 1.67) and aluminosilicates. The mode of Cu(II) and RB adsorption could be explained by the Redlich–Peterson model. The CFA–HAp2 obtained using CFA, Ca(NO3)2, and (NH4)2HPO4 at RT and pH 11 exhibited the highest maximal adsorption capacity: 73.6 mg Cu/g and 87.0 mg RB/g. (4) The clear advantage of chemisorption over physisorption was indicated by the Cu(II)–CFA–HAp system. The RB molecules present in the form of uncharged lactone were favorably adsorbed even on strongly deprotonated CFA–HAp surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Fly Ashes—Characteristics and Use)
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Article
Trace-Element Geochemistry of Sulfides in Upper Mantle Lherzolite Xenoliths from East Antarctica
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070773 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
Sulfides in upper mantle lherzolite xenoliths from Cretaceous alkaline-ultramafic rocks in the Jetty Peninsula (East Antarctica) were studied for their major and trace-element compositions using SEM and LA-ICP-MS applied in situ. Modal abundance of sulfides is the lowest in Cpx-poor lherzolites ≤ Spl-Grt [...] Read more.
Sulfides in upper mantle lherzolite xenoliths from Cretaceous alkaline-ultramafic rocks in the Jetty Peninsula (East Antarctica) were studied for their major and trace-element compositions using SEM and LA-ICP-MS applied in situ. Modal abundance of sulfides is the lowest in Cpx-poor lherzolites ≤ Spl-Grt lherzolites << Cpx-rich lherzolites. Most sulfides are either interstitial (i-type) or inclusions in rock-forming minerals (e-type) with minor sulfide phases mostly present in metasomatic veinlets and carbonate-silicate interstitial patches (m-type). The main sulfide assemblage is pentlandite + chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite; minor sulfides are polydymite, millerite, violarite, siegenite, and monosulfide solution (mss). Sulfide assemblages in the xenolith matrix are a product of the subsolidus re-equilibration of primary mss at temperatures below ≤300 °C. Platinum group elements (PGE) abundances suggest that most e-type sulfides are the residues of melting processes and that the i-type sulfides are crystallization products of sulfide-bearing fluids/liquids. The m-type sulfides might have resulted from low-temperature metasomatism by percolating sulfide-carbonate-silicate fluids/melts. The PGE in sulfide record processes are related to partial melting in mantle and intramantle melt migration. Most other trace elements initially partitioned into interstitial sulfide liquid and later metasomatically re-enriched residual sulfides overprinting their primary signatures. The extent of element partitioning into sulfide liquids depends on P, T, fO2, and host peridotite composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Minerals: Frontiers of Mineral Science)
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Article
Chromite Mineralization in the Sopcheozero Deposit (Monchegorsk Layered Intrusion, Fennoscandian Shield)
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070772 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
In 1990, the Sopcheozero Cr deposit was discovered in the Monchegorsk Paleoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion (Monchepluton). This stratiform early-magmatic deposit occurs in the middle part of the Dunite Block, which is a member of the Monchepluton layered series. The Cr2O [...] Read more.
In 1990, the Sopcheozero Cr deposit was discovered in the Monchegorsk Paleoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion (Monchepluton). This stratiform early-magmatic deposit occurs in the middle part of the Dunite Block, which is a member of the Monchepluton layered series. The Cr2O3 average-weighted content in ordinary and rich ores of the deposit is 16.65 and 38.76 wt.%, respectively, at gradually changing concentrations within the rich, ordinary and poor ore types and ore body in general. The ores of the Sopcheozero deposit, having a ratio of Cr2O3/FeOtotal = 0.9–1.7, can serve as raw materials for the refractory and chemical industries. The ore Cr-spinel (magnochromite and magnoalumochromite) is associated with highly magnesian olivine (96–98 Fo) rich in Ni (0.4–1.1 wt.%). It confirms a low S content in the melt and complies with the low oxygen fugacity. The coexisting Cr-spinel-olivine pairs crystallized at temperatures from 1258 to 1163 °C, with accessory Cr-spinel crystallizing at relatively low, while ore Cr-spinel at higher temperatures. The host rock and ore distinguish with widespread plastic deformations of olivine at the postcrystallization phase under conditions of high temperature (above 400 °C) and pressure (5 kbar). At the post magmatic Svecofennian stage (1.84 Ga), the deposit, jointly with the Monchepluton, was subject to diverse tectonic deformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromite Deposits: Mineralogy, Petrology and Genesis)
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Article
Revealing Artists’ Collaboration in a 14th Century Manuscript by Non-Invasive Analyses
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070771 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
In the last decades, the working methods of late medieval illuminators have been widely discussed by art historians and codicologists. Non-invasive analyses are able to characterise the painting methods of illuminators as well as investigate artistic collaborations among them. The aim of this [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the working methods of late medieval illuminators have been widely discussed by art historians and codicologists. Non-invasive analyses are able to characterise the painting methods of illuminators as well as investigate artistic collaborations among them. The aim of this study was to characterise the painting palettes and techniques of different artists who illuminated two leaves from an early fourteenth century manuscript. The analyses were carried out with non-invasive and portable techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry, Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and Raman spectroscopy. The paper highlights the differences among three rich and varied palettes and examines the pigments ultramarine, azurite, verdigris, earths, orpiment, red lead, vermillion, lead white, yellow lake, indigo, brazilwood and lac, used independently or in mixtures. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of non-invasive analyses as a tool to differentiate hands of artists who have worked on the same page. Furthermore, the comparison with analyses carried out on leaves attributed to the workshop of Pacino di Bonaguida allows to investigate in-depth the production of the main illuminators active in Florence at the dawn of the Renaissance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Behavior of Mineral Pigments)
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Article
Tests of Strength Parameters of Hydro-Mixtures Based on Ashes from a Fluidized Bed Boiler in the In-Situ Approach
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070770 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
The paper presents the practical use of a solidifying hydro-mixture based on ashes from fluidized bed boilers under hard coal mine conditions for filling an incline connecting the headgate and tailgate of a longwall running along the strike with roof caving. The reason [...] Read more.
The paper presents the practical use of a solidifying hydro-mixture based on ashes from fluidized bed boilers under hard coal mine conditions for filling an incline connecting the headgate and tailgate of a longwall running along the strike with roof caving. The reason for filling the incline with a material of preset strength parameters was to minimize the methane hazard in the extracted coal seam. Due to a great demand for fill material, which translates into economic considerations, the option of applying fine-fraction waste material was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests of the physical and mechanical properties of hydro-mixtures based on ash obtained from a fluidized bed boiler of a power plant, allowed us to select a specific hydro-mixture meeting the requirements. After 95 days, the incline filled with the proposed hydro-mixture was subjected to exploitation along with the advance of longwall working. This enabled the in-situ collection of a number of fill material samples from various places along the entire length of the incline. Then their strength was tested and the results compared with the obtained test results of identical material seasoned under laboratory conditions. The obtained results constitute a unique research material since it is practically impossible to verify the laboratory-determined strength parameters of the solidifying fine-fraction hydro-mixtures under in-situ conditions. Thsis results mainly from the lack of technical capabilities and poor access to the places where fine-fraction hydro-mixtures are applied, mostly abandoned cavings or parts of workings separated by dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Fly Ashes—Characteristics and Use)
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Article
Mineral Geochemistry of Basaltic Rocks from IODP Expeditions 334 and 344: Implications for Magmatic Processes of Cocos Ridge Segment Being Subducted Beneath the Middle America Trench
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070769 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 769
Abstract
The Cocos Ridge, which is subducted beneath the Central American Volcanic Arc, has a complex tectonic evolution history due to plume-ridge interaction between the Galápagos plume and the Cocos—Nazca spreading center. This study presents major and trace element analyses of plagioclase and clinopyroxenes [...] Read more.
The Cocos Ridge, which is subducted beneath the Central American Volcanic Arc, has a complex tectonic evolution history due to plume-ridge interaction between the Galápagos plume and the Cocos—Nazca spreading center. This study presents major and trace element analyses of plagioclase and clinopyroxenes hosted by Cocos Ridge basaltic rocks that were drilled in three holes (U1381A, U1381C and U1414A) of Sites U1381 and U1414 on the Cocos Ridge close to the Middle America Trench during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 334 and 344. The results show that (1) plagioclases are mainly bytownite and labradorite with subordinate andesine, which are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and some large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and exhibit marked positive Eu anomalies; and (2) that clinopyroxenes are augites, which are depleted in highly incompatible elements such as LREE and LILE, have nearly flat heavy rare earth elements patterns (HREE) and lack Eu anomalies in chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) diagrams. During the ascent to the surface, the primary magmas experienced fractional crystallization of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Ti-Fe oxides and possibly olivine (complete replacement of olivine by secondary minerals). The crystallization temperatures of plagioclase phenocrysts and microlites are 1050 to 1269 °C, and 866 to 1038 °C, respectively, and the pressures of plagioclase phenocrysts are 0.3–0.7 GPa. The crystallization temperatures of clinopyroxene phenocrysts/micro-phenocrysts is 1174–1268 °C, similar to those of plagioclase phenocrysts, suggesting some of clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts cotectic crystallized during early stage of magmatic evolution. In addition, the equilibrium pressures of clinopyroxene phenocrysts/micro phenocrysts are 0.02–0.97 GPa, implying that the clinopyroxene started to crystallize within the mantle, and magma evolution has undergone an early crystallization stage with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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Article
Thermally Assisted Grinding of Cassiterite Associated with Pollimetallic Ore: A Comparison between Microwave and Conventional Furnaces
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070768 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
We investigated the influence of microwave and conventional heating pretreatments on the grinding of cassiterite associated with pollimetallic ore. The minerals that exhibited a stronger microwave absorption ability crushed first, which is the main difference between the microwave and the traditional heating pretreatments. [...] Read more.
We investigated the influence of microwave and conventional heating pretreatments on the grinding of cassiterite associated with pollimetallic ore. The minerals that exhibited a stronger microwave absorption ability crushed first, which is the main difference between the microwave and the traditional heating pretreatments. The distribution of Fe, Pb, Zn, and Sn increased in the fine size range (−0.425 mm). The Fe and Pb grades in the size ranges of −3.2 + 2 mm and −2 + 1 mm after the microwave pretreatment (6 kW, 1 min) were lower than those of the traditional heating (12 kW, 400 °C, 20 min), indicating that the microwave selective heating was beneficial for pyrite and jamesonite. The grade and distribution of Sn decreased significantly in the size ranges of −3.2 + 2 mm and −2 + 1 mm and increased in the size ranges of −0.425 + 0.15 mm and −0.15 + 0.074 mm. Microwave heating treatment promoted the grinding of sulfide ore and reduced the cassiterite overgrinding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Separation and Purification Techniques)
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Article
Crystal Chemistry of Six Grossular Garnet Samples from Different Well-Known Localities
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070767 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Two isotropic grossular (ideally Ca3Al2Si3O12) samples from (1) Canada and (2) Tanzania, three optically anisotropic grossular samples (3, 4, 5) from Mexico, and one (6) anisotropic sample from Italy were studied. The crystal structure of [...] Read more.
Two isotropic grossular (ideally Ca3Al2Si3O12) samples from (1) Canada and (2) Tanzania, three optically anisotropic grossular samples (3, 4, 5) from Mexico, and one (6) anisotropic sample from Italy were studied. The crystal structure of the six samples was refined in the cubic space group Ia3¯d, using monochromatic synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and the Rietveld method. The compositions of the samples were obtained from electron microprobe analyses (EPMA). The HRPXRD traces show a single cubic phase for two isotropic samples, whereas the four anisotropic samples contain two different cubic phases that were also resolved using X-ray elemental line scans, backscattered electron (BSE) images, and elemental maps. Structural mismatch from two cubic phases intergrown in the birefringent samples gives rise to strain-induced optical anisotropy. Considering the garnet general formula, [8]X3[6]Y2[4]Z3[4]O12, the results of this study show that with increasing unit-cell parameter, the Y-O distance increases linearly and rather steeply, the average <X-O> distance increases just slightly in response to substitution mainly on the Y site, while the Z-O distance remains nearly constant. The X and Z sites in grossular contain Ca and Si atoms, respectively; both sites show insignificant substitutions by other atoms, which is supported by a constant Z-O distance and only a slight increase in the average <X-O> distance. The main cation exchange is realized in the Y site, where Fe3+ (ionic radius = 0.645 Å) replaces Al3+ (ionic radius = 0.545 Å), so the Y-O distance increases the most. Full article
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Article
Alterations and Contaminations in Ceramics Deposited in Underwater Environments: An Experimental Approach
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070766 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
Ancient ceramics recovered after a long burial period have probably undergone several alterations and contaminations, introducing a chemical variability, affecting the ceramic’s natural variability. That is, the chemical and the mineralogical compositions of the ceramic pastes after their deposition will not be the [...] Read more.
Ancient ceramics recovered after a long burial period have probably undergone several alterations and contaminations, introducing a chemical variability, affecting the ceramic’s natural variability. That is, the chemical and the mineralogical compositions of the ceramic pastes after their deposition will not be the same as they originally were. Therefore, it is known that the alteration and contamination processes, and the discrimination of some elements, should be considered when studying the ceramics to avoid incorrect interpretations about their provenance, technology and the use of the artefact, as well as its proper preservation. In the present work, the authors performed an experimental approach in order to study the alterations and contaminations that occurred in 60 ceramic cylinders buried in two different underwater environments. Once the pieces were taken out from the water environments, they were characterized by a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS) and Raman spectroscopy were used. Newly formed minerals of different forms have been identified, with different crystallization grades. Some examples are the needles, flakes, sponges and long and short prisms composed of several elements such as Ca, F, S and O. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Ceramic Diagenesis)
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Article
Ore Genesis of the Takatori Tungsten–Quartz Vein Deposit, Japan: Chemical and Isotopic Evidence
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070765 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
The Takatori hypothermal tin–tungsten vein deposit is composed of wolframite-bearing quartz veins with minor cassiterite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and lithium-bearing muscovite and sericite. Several wolframite rims show replacement textures, which are assumed to form by iron replacement with manganese postdating the wolframite precipitation. Lithium [...] Read more.
The Takatori hypothermal tin–tungsten vein deposit is composed of wolframite-bearing quartz veins with minor cassiterite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and lithium-bearing muscovite and sericite. Several wolframite rims show replacement textures, which are assumed to form by iron replacement with manganese postdating the wolframite precipitation. Lithium isotope ratios (δ7Li) of Li-bearing muscovite from the Takatori veins range from −3.1‰ to −2.1‰, and such Li-bearing muscovites are proven to occur at the early stage of mineralization. Fine-grained sericite with lower Li content shows relatively higher δ7Li values, and might have precipitated after the main ore forming event. The maximum oxygen isotope equilibrium temperature of quartz–muscovite pairs is 460 °C, and it is inferred that the fluids might be in equilibrium with ilmenite series granitic rocks. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of the Takatori ore-forming fluid range from +10‰ to +8‰. The δ18O values of the fluid decreased with decreasing temperature probably because the fluid was mixed with surrounding pore water and meteoric water. The formation pressure for the Takatori deposit is calculated to be 160 MPa on the basis of the difference between the pressure-independent oxygen isotope equilibrium temperature and pressure-dependent homogenization fluid inclusions temperature. The ore-formation depth is calculated to be around 6 km. These lines of evidence suggest that a granitic magma beneath the deposit played a crucial role in the Takatori deposit formation. Full article
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Article
Competing Sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on Schwertmannite
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070764 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Schwertmannite (SHM) is a naturally occurring mineral that has been shown to effectively scavenge oxyanions from contaminated water. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques in combination with wet-chemical techniques were used to study the competitive sorption of Se(IV) [...] Read more.
Schwertmannite (SHM) is a naturally occurring mineral that has been shown to effectively scavenge oxyanions from contaminated water. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques in combination with wet-chemical techniques were used to study the competitive sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) at pH 3. The experiments were conducted with three types of schwertmannite obtained from oxidative synthesis, biogenic synthesis and high-pressure compaction at different initial Se concentrations and mixing ratios for 48 h and 56 days, respectively. A threshold value for the uptake mechanisms was identified, which reflects the amount of easily exchangeable sulphate (~0.5 mmol/g). At adsorbate concentrations below this threshold, an inner-sphere corner-sharing bidentate binuclear complex forms upon exchange with sulphate. At higher concentrations, both oxyanions become bound to SHM through co-occurrence of mainly inner-sphere and partly outer-sphere corner-sharing bidentate binuclear complexes with Fe(III) containing surface sites. Single species experiments clearly indicate a higher affinity of SHM for Se(IV). However, in mixed species experiments, competitive sorption occurs with equal or even preferential uptake of Se(VI) at concentrations much lower than the threshold value, presumably due to geometrical similarity between selenate and sulphate, and increasing preference for Se(IV) at high Se concentrations. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Sedimentary Basins as Recorded in Silica Concretions: An Example from the Ionian Zone, Western Greece
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070763 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Chert concretions in thick limestone successions preserve a more complete paragenetic sequence of diagenetic minerals than their host limestone and interbedded shale. The goal of this study was to test the possible presence of a high-temperature mineralising system in the Ionian basin of [...] Read more.
Chert concretions in thick limestone successions preserve a more complete paragenetic sequence of diagenetic minerals than their host limestone and interbedded shale. The goal of this study was to test the possible presence of a high-temperature mineralising system in the Ionian basin of western Greece. Upper Cretaceous chert nodules were sampled at Araxos, where rocks are highly faulted and uplifted by salt diapirism, and on Kastos Island, on the flanks of a regional anticline. Chert concretions have microporosity produced by recrystallisation of opal to quartz and fractures produced in the brittle chert during basin inversion. Diagenetic mineral textures were interpreted from backscattered electron images, and minerals were identified from their chemistry. Diagenetic minerals in pores and veins include sedimentary apatite (francolite), dolomite, Fe-chlorite, Fe oxide-hydroxide mixtures, sphalerite, barite and calcite. Sphalerite is restricted to Araxos, suggesting that inferred basinal fluids were hotter and more saline than at Kastos. At Araxos, the Fe oxide-hydroxide also includes minor Cu, Zn, and Ni. Whether the transported metals were derived from sub-salt clastic rocks and basement, or from enriched Mesozoic black shales, is unclear. The effectiveness of this novel approach to understanding fluid flow history in thick limestone successions is validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mineralogy of the Siliceous Concretions)
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Article
Transport Direction and Scandinavian Source Regions of the Saalian Glacial and Glaciofluvial Deposits in a Case Study of Łubienica-Superunki (Central Poland)
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070762 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The article contains detailed petrographic studies, which covered a coarse and medium-grain gravel fraction of two layers of glacial till (units ŁS II and ŁS IV) and two layers of sand-gravelly outwash deposits (units ŁS I and ŁS III) related to the Odranian [...] Read more.
The article contains detailed petrographic studies, which covered a coarse and medium-grain gravel fraction of two layers of glacial till (units ŁS II and ŁS IV) and two layers of sand-gravelly outwash deposits (units ŁS I and ŁS III) related to the Odranian Glaciation (MIS6, Saalian) in Łubienica-Superunki, North Mazovian Lowland, central Poland. Additionally, the indicator erratics were identified to indicate their Scandinavian source areas and the directions of the ice sheet transgressions. This case study is discussed against the background of similar sediments and forms from the same age but from other places in the Polish Lowlands. Regardless of the facies types and fractions, crystalline rocks dominated over all other petrographic groups in all samples. The most common were the indicator erratics derived from the Åland Islands, followed by those from the south-eastern area of Sweden (Småland) and from Dalarna in central Sweden. Amongst the erratics of limited indicative significance, the most common were Lower Palaeozoic limestones and the Jotnian red sandstones. The complex petrographic analyses point to the dipartite nature of the studied profile. This separateness was confirmed by the TBC: 59.1–59.2° N and 18.0–18.2° E for the lower units and 58.8–59.4° N and 17.3–17.9° E for the upper ones. Full article
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Article
What Affects Dewatering Performance of High Density Slurry?
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070761 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
The dewatering of flocculated high density slurry presents a significant challenge to most mining industries. The new technologies to treat high density slurry require a consistent and robust flocculation method in order to enter the market of tailings management. The flocculation of high [...] Read more.
The dewatering of flocculated high density slurry presents a significant challenge to most mining industries. The new technologies to treat high density slurry require a consistent and robust flocculation method in order to enter the market of tailings management. The flocculation of high density slurry, however, due to its complexity, is always a challenge to be undertaken appropriately and to evaluate the dewatering performance correctly. This paper probes the complexity by using a torque-controlled mixing technique to demonstrate the influence of feed properties, polymer type, polymer dosage, and mixing conditions on dewatering performance. The study shows that flocculant should be dosed at the optimal range to achieve the highest dewatering performance. A full dosage responsive curve including under dosage, optimal dosage, and overdosage is critical to evaluate the dewatering performance of high density slurries and flocculants. The mixing conditions such as mixing speed, mixing time, and geometry of the mixing impeller affect the flocculation efficacy. It was found that the dewatering performance of high density slurry is sensitive to solids content, water chemistry, and clay activity. High sodicity and high clay activity in the high density slurry decreases the dewatering performance. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate flocculants across multiple feeds and dosages with replication in order to select optimal dewatering performance. Using multiple key performance indicators (KPIs) to build technical and economic criteria is also critical for polymer evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flocculation Process of Tailings)
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Article
Halogens in Eclogite Facies Minerals from the Western Gneiss Region, Norway
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070760 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) eclogites and ultramafites and associated fluid inclusions from the Western Gneiss Region, Norwegian Caledonides, have been analysed for F, Cl, Br and I using electron-probe micro-analysis, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and neutron-irradiated noble gas mass spectrometry. Textures of multi-phase and [...] Read more.
Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) eclogites and ultramafites and associated fluid inclusions from the Western Gneiss Region, Norwegian Caledonides, have been analysed for F, Cl, Br and I using electron-probe micro-analysis, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and neutron-irradiated noble gas mass spectrometry. Textures of multi-phase and fluid inclusions in the cores of silicate grains indicate formation during growth of the host crystal at UHP. Halogens are predominantly hosted by fluid inclusions with a minor component from mineral inclusions such as biotite, phengite, amphibole and apatite. The reconstructed fluid composition contains between 11.3 and 12.1 wt% Cl, 870 and 8900 ppm Br and 6 and 169 ppm I. F/Cl ratios indicate efficient fractionation of F from Cl by hydrous mineral crystallisation. Heavy halogen ratios are higher than modern seawater by up to two orders of magnitude for Br/Cl and up to three orders of magnitude for I/Cl. No correlation exists between Cl and Br or I, while Br and I show good correlation, suggesting that Cl behaved differently to Br and I during subduction. Evolution to higher Br/Cl ratios is similar to trends defined by eclogitic hydration reactions and seawater evaporation, indicating preferential removal of Cl from the fluid during UHP metamorphism. This study, by analogy, offers a field model for an alternative source (continental crust) and mechanism (metasomatism by partial melts or supercritical fluids) by which halogens may be transferred to and stored in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle during transient subduction of a continental margin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviour of Volatiles and Fluid-Mobile Elements in Subduction Zones)
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Article
Polyphase Deformation of the High-Grade Metamorphic Rocks along the Neusspruit Shear Zone in the Kakamas Domain: Insights into the Processes during the Namaquan Orogeny at the Eastern Margin of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province, South Africa
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070759 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The central part of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province was subjected to intense deformation under high-grade metamorphic conditions up to granulite facies, but also shows greenschist facies overprints denoting the metamorphic nature during the 1.2–1.0 Ga Namaquan Orogeny. This study examines the structural development [...] Read more.
The central part of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province was subjected to intense deformation under high-grade metamorphic conditions up to granulite facies, but also shows greenschist facies overprints denoting the metamorphic nature during the 1.2–1.0 Ga Namaquan Orogeny. This study examines the structural development of the central Kakamas Domain of the eastern Namaqua Metamorphic Province, which has not been extensively studied previously. The compressional orogenic phase is associated with D1 and D2 deformation events during which northeast–southwest-directed shortening resulted in southwest-directed thrusting illustrated by an intra-domain thrust and southwest-verging isoclinal folds. The post-tectonic Friersdale Charnockite of the Keimoes Suite is emplaced during the D3 deformation event. Late reactivation of the intra-domain thrust in the Kakamas Domain to form the Neusspruit Shear Zone during the D4 event is of a monoclinic nature and is described as a deeply rooted structure with shear direction towards the east. This structure, together with the more local Neusberg Thrust Fault, forms part of an intensely flattened narrow basin in the eastern Namaqua Metamorphic Province. Strain and vorticity indices suggest a transpressional shearing across the Neusspruit Shear Zone and adjacent regions probably initiated during the reactivation of the intra-domain thrust. The ~1.2 to 1.8 km-wide, northwest–southeast striking dextral-dominated Neusspruit Shear Zone constitutes a western regional boundary for the supracrustal Korannaland Group and is composed of steep, narrow zones of relatively high strain, characterised by ductile deformation and penetrative strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province)
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