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Review

A Review of Sample Analysis at Mars-Evolved Gas Analysis Laboratory Analog Work Supporting the Presence of Perchlorates and Chlorates in Gale Crater, Mars

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GeoControls Systems Inc—Jacobs JETS Contract at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
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Jacobs JETS Contract at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
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NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
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Institito de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
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Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Planetary Sciences, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK
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Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased 28 January 2021.
Academic Editor: Dominic Papineau
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050475
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover has detected evidence of oxychlorine compounds (i.e., perchlorates and chlorates) in Gale crater, which has implications for past habitability, diagenesis, aqueous processes, interpretation of in situ organic analyses, understanding the martian chlorine cycle, and hazards and resources for future human exploration. Pure oxychlorines and mixtures of oxychlorines with Mars-analog phases have been analyzed for their oxygen (O2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) releases on SAM laboratory analog instruments in order to constrain which phases are present in Gale crater. These studies demonstrated that oxychlorines evolve O2 releases with peaks between ~200 and 600 °C, although the thermal decomposition temperatures and the amount of evolved O2 decrease when iron phases are present in the sample. Mg and Fe oxychlorines decompose into oxides and release HCl between ~200 and 542 °C. Ca, Na, and K oxychlorines thermally decompose into chlorides and do not evolve HCl by themselves. However, the chlorides (original or from oxychlorine decomposition) can react with water-evolving phases (e.g., phyllosilicates) in the sample and evolve HCl within the temperature range of SAM (<~870 °C). These laboratory analog studies support that the SAM detection of oxychlorine phases is consistent with the presence of Mg, Ca, Na, and K perchlorate and/or chlorate along with possible contributions from adsorbed oxychlorines in Gale crater samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: perchlorates; chlorates; oxychlorines; chlorides; Sample Analysis at Mars; Curiosity Gale crater; evolved gas analysis; MSL perchlorates; chlorates; oxychlorines; chlorides; Sample Analysis at Mars; Curiosity Gale crater; evolved gas analysis; MSL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clark, J.; Sutter, B.; Archer, P.D., Jr.; Ming, D.; Rampe, E.; McAdam, A.; Navarro-González, R.; Eigenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Martin-Torres, J.; Morris, R.; Tu, V.; Ralston, S.J.; Mahaffy, P. A Review of Sample Analysis at Mars-Evolved Gas Analysis Laboratory Analog Work Supporting the Presence of Perchlorates and Chlorates in Gale Crater, Mars. Minerals 2021, 11, 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050475

AMA Style

Clark J, Sutter B, Archer PD Jr., Ming D, Rampe E, McAdam A, Navarro-González R, Eigenbrode J, Glavin D, Zorzano M-P, Martin-Torres J, Morris R, Tu V, Ralston SJ, Mahaffy P. A Review of Sample Analysis at Mars-Evolved Gas Analysis Laboratory Analog Work Supporting the Presence of Perchlorates and Chlorates in Gale Crater, Mars. Minerals. 2021; 11(5):475. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050475

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clark, Joanna, Brad Sutter, P. D. Archer Jr., Douglas Ming, Elizabeth Rampe, Amy McAdam, Rafael Navarro-González, Jennifer Eigenbrode, Daniel Glavin, Maria-Paz Zorzano, Javier Martin-Torres, Richard Morris, Valerie Tu, S. J. Ralston, and Paul Mahaffy. 2021. "A Review of Sample Analysis at Mars-Evolved Gas Analysis Laboratory Analog Work Supporting the Presence of Perchlorates and Chlorates in Gale Crater, Mars" Minerals 11, no. 5: 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050475

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