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Land, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 180 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Access and exposure to urban green spaces are associated with various health benefits. As urban green spaces are often distributed unequally, understanding patterns of access and exposure can help cities identify and address environmental justice and health equity issues. We developed a comprehensive methodology to identify urban green space inequities on a city-level scale, combining assessments of park quality, park availability, and green cover and applying it to Portland, Oregon, USA. We used a suite of statistical tests to evaluate the distribution of parks and green cover based on a Census block group of socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., race, ethnicity, income, and educational attainment). The results were used to identify priority locations for urban green space investments. View this paper
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32 pages, 7262 KiB  
Article
Assessing Industrial Past and Cultural Changes in Industrial Lands along the Hangzhou Section of the Grand Canal in China
by Furan Cao, Bin Zhu, Lingyan Huang and Chao Liu
Land 2024, 13(6), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060898 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The Grand Canal has been fundamental in supporting Chinese industrialization, as evidenced in the great changes witnessed across industrial lands, but few studies have approached this issue from a cultural perspective. After an extensive industrial recession in the early 21st century, canal cities [...] Read more.
The Grand Canal has been fundamental in supporting Chinese industrialization, as evidenced in the great changes witnessed across industrial lands, but few studies have approached this issue from a cultural perspective. After an extensive industrial recession in the early 21st century, canal cities like Hangzhou have seen changes in the cultural functions of industrial lands, relocating, transforming, and demolishing factories and other constructions to develop new cultural spaces and products. A deep analysis of these cultural changes is, therefore, quite helpful to appreciate the features of and reasons for Chinese national policy setting in the cultural sections of the Grand Canal, such as the UNESCO World Heritage-recognized purpose of the Grand Canal, etc. Therefore, by focusing on the Hangzhou section of the Canal, and via the integration of high-resolution Google Earth images with a 1.5 spatial resolution, we dynamically monitored the land use of the 10 specifically selected industrial lands and interpretated the various uses of the areas from 2000 to 2020. Then, with archival data from 1950 to 2024 and fieldwork conducted over 1 year, and in consultation with major experts, we designed a mark sheet with factors and scores to comprehensively assess cultural changes in those lands. Consequently, the history of industrialization along the Hangzhou section was thoroughly analyzed with these investigations and data, and the reasons for and influence of cultural changes were presented in detail; subsequently, the outstanding problems were addressed, and suggestions were offered. This study contributes to a better understanding of Chinese cultural policy regarding cities along the Canal after the industrial decline, especially the critical implication of cultural loss within these cities. In addition, it also provides novel perspectives for cultural research, heritage conservation, and urban planning of canals or waterfront spaces for world heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering Land-System Dynamics in China)
28 pages, 7154 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Land Consolidation as a Development Strategy for Rural Revitalization: The Political Ecology Mechanisms and Benefits of the Pastoral Complex
by Borui Chen, Zirou Huang, Wei He and Min Wang
Land 2024, 13(6), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060897 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Rapid urbanization in China has shifted the logic and needs of rural resource allocation, prompting a transformative approach toward rural revitalization and sustainable development through comprehensive land consolidation. This paper offers a theoretical framework for understanding the driven adjustments in rural power, capital, [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization in China has shifted the logic and needs of rural resource allocation, prompting a transformative approach toward rural revitalization and sustainable development through comprehensive land consolidation. This paper offers a theoretical framework for understanding the driven adjustments in rural power, capital, and social structures facilitated by comprehensive land consolidation. It discusses how the construction of pastoral complexes influences the diversification of rural land use and ecological restoration through dynamic adjustments in power structures. This study illustrates that in Guangzhou, comprehensive land consolidation is indispensable for ensuring food security and fostering diverse rural industries. Furthermore, it facilitates the resource and commercialization of land, balances governmental social responsibilities with rational capital pursuits, and enriches the livelihood structures of social entities to ensure rural social equity. The pastoral complex model achieves a harmonious integration of rural socio-economic and natural systems. Innovations in paths of social participation help eliminate the effects of social inequality within the environment, while the theory of political ecology clearly analyzes the internal reasons for the interaction and strategic plays among diverse actors under this model. The case studies of the pastoral complex present the practice of national–capital–land–social relationships and changes in land benefits, showcasing a Chinese approach to rural development and social justice. This provides a new perspective for political ecology research and enriches its empirical content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues)
15 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Administrative Power on Farmers’ Attitude in Land Acquisition Negotiation: Mediating Role of Perceived Fairness
by Feiyu Cheng, Yisheng Liu and Boyang Liu
Land 2024, 13(6), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060896 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Farmers’ attitude plays a crucial role in the success of land acquisition. To add new insights and theoretical support for the effective governance of land acquisition, this paper examines the effectiveness of administrative power on farmers’ attitude and the mediating role of perceived [...] Read more.
Farmers’ attitude plays a crucial role in the success of land acquisition. To add new insights and theoretical support for the effective governance of land acquisition, this paper examines the effectiveness of administrative power on farmers’ attitude and the mediating role of perceived fairness based on asymmetric dependency theory. The hypotheses were verified using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis conducted with data gathered from 250 questionnaire samples in rural areas of China. The results reveal that the coercion and transparency of administrative power have a significant positive impact on farmers’ attitude while normality’s influence is not significant. The coercion and transparency of administrative power have a significant positive impact on fairness while normality’s impact is not significant. The mediating effect of perceived fairness was insignificant. Therefore, local governments could encourage farmers to embrace a cooperative attitude in land acquisition negotiations by fostering a constructive interaction between the government and the public and pursuing a high-level institutional balance driven by a service-oriented government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Environmental and Policy Impact Assessment)
32 pages, 3023 KiB  
Article
A Scientific Investigation of the Shangfang Mountain Yunshui Cave in Beijing Based on LiDAR Technology
by Xinyue Liu, Yanhui Shan, Gang Ai, Zhengfeng Du, Anran Shen and Ningfei Lei
Land 2024, 13(6), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060895 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 217
Abstract
The Yunshui Cave in Shangfang Mountain, Beijing, is a famous high-altitude karst cave in northern China. As the third scientific survey of Yunshui Cave in history, this is the first time to use the latest LiDAR technology to carry out a related detection [...] Read more.
The Yunshui Cave in Shangfang Mountain, Beijing, is a famous high-altitude karst cave in northern China. As the third scientific survey of Yunshui Cave in history, this is the first time to use the latest LiDAR technology to carry out a related detection survey. Traditional cave measurement methods are limited by natural conditions and make it difficult to reach the destination. Traditional methods mainly rely on experience and obtain data with strong subjectivity, making it difficult to conduct quantitative research and obtain reproducible results in the current information era. Applying LiDAR technology to cave measurement can obtain comprehensive and accurate digital measurement results within the same survey time and reveal many richer and more accurate features of Yunshui Cave. The obtained digital measurement results can be used for 3D modeling as well as provide a large amount of accurate basic data and preliminary materials for subsequent geological, environmental, and archaeological investigation and analysis, as well as cultural and tourism resource development. The rapid geological survey of Shangfang Mountain Yunshui Cave using LiDAR technology shows that LiDAR cave geological survey technology can achieve real-time collection of centimeter-level accuracy and generate billions of points of cloud data, greatly improving survey efficiency and accuracy. At the same time, digital survey results can be obtained. Through modeling and GIS technology, all on-site survey details can be easily moved back to the laboratory for real-scene reproduction, network sharing, and dissemination. This study provides a foundation for future explorations of the Yunshui cave and highlights the potential for LiDAR techniques to enhance our understanding of complex geological structures such as caves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GeoAI for Land Use Observations, Analysis and Forecasting)
26 pages, 18241 KiB  
Article
The Improving of Sky Gardens’ Environmental Quality from a Health Promotion Perspective
by Yan Li and Hongwu Du
Land 2024, 13(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060894 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 217
Abstract
The quality of landscape space directly influences public health behaviors, making public assessments of the qualities of the sky garden landscape crucial for optimizing it. This article focuses on three types of typical high-rise building sky garden (plaza-park, rest-stay, and move-pass type) and [...] Read more.
The quality of landscape space directly influences public health behaviors, making public assessments of the qualities of the sky garden landscape crucial for optimizing it. This article focuses on three types of typical high-rise building sky garden (plaza-park, rest-stay, and move-pass type) and establishes an evaluation framework for their health promotion characteristics (24 indicators in 7 dimensions) based on existing restorative environment research. Then, questionnaires (354 valid responses) and quantitative calculations were employed to assess the public’s perception of demand in health behaviors and the spatial supply of different sky garden types. Ultimately, the data were processed to propose targeted interventions and recommendations to enhance health benefits using the comprehensive importance-performance analysis method. The results show the following: (1) The public seems to have widely accepted sky gardens in the context of high-density urban environments (near 6.92, below the mean of 7.09). They place greater emphasis on spatial indicators that cater to relaxation activities and show heightened sensitivity toward public facilities (7.32–8.00) that contribute to physical and mental health-related activities. (2) The health promotion performance of different types of sky garden shows significant variation, with the rest-stay sky gardens at the embodied scale demonstrating the greatest competitive advantage. (3) The development of sky gardens has significant potential, and different types of sky garden need to specifically lever-age their characteristics as complementary public spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning for Sustainable Urban and Land Development)
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18 pages, 3822 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Projected Land Use Changes on the Availability of Ecosystem Services in the Upper Flint River Watershed, USA
by Behnoosh Abbasnezhad, Jesse B. Abrams and Seth J. Wenger
Land 2024, 13(6), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060893 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The conversion of forestlands to alternative land uses is a growing worldwide concern, given the wide range of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ES) provided by forests. We applied a scenario-based land-use/land-cover (LULC) projection technique integrating societal preferences, conservation policies, and socio-economic factors [...] Read more.
The conversion of forestlands to alternative land uses is a growing worldwide concern, given the wide range of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ES) provided by forests. We applied a scenario-based land-use/land-cover (LULC) projection technique integrating societal preferences, conservation policies, and socio-economic factors to the Upper Flint River Watershed in the Atlanta, Georgia (USA) metropolitan area. We employed the InVEST modeling toolset to assess the impact of anticipated LULC changes on ES under each development scenario. Our simulations projected a consistent conversion from Deciduous/Mixed Forests to either Urban or Evergreen forests across all scenarios, leading to a significant decline in ES. We quantified the economic impacts of this ES loss, conservatively estimated as representing millions of dollars per year under a Business as Usual scenario in just carbon and water services alone. Integrating social and policy drivers into our projection approach yielded policy-relevant results and identified the need for conservation policy instruments to protect forested ecosystems with higher conservation values. Existing conservation policies are unlikely to stem the loss of important ES, and there may be a need to consider more aggressive policies to prevent further degradation of watersheds, such as the one analyzed here. Full article
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18 pages, 5620 KiB  
Article
Spatial Optimization of Land Use Allocation Based on the Trade-off of Carbon Mitigation and Economic Benefits: A Study in Tianshan North Slope Urban Agglomeration
by Jinmeng Lee, Xiaojun Yin and Honghui Zhu
Land 2024, 13(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060892 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The rational allocation of land use space is crucial to carbon emissions reductions and economic development. However, previous studies have either examined inter-objective trade-offs or intra-objective trade-offs within a single objective and lacked multilevel and comprehensive studies. Therefore, this paper integrates inter- and [...] Read more.
The rational allocation of land use space is crucial to carbon emissions reductions and economic development. However, previous studies have either examined inter-objective trade-offs or intra-objective trade-offs within a single objective and lacked multilevel and comprehensive studies. Therefore, this paper integrates inter- and intra-objective carbon mitigation and economic efficiency trade-offs to comprehensively study the interaction between land pattern demand and space due to policies. The research methods were mainly multi-objective planning, a gray model, and patch-generating land use simulation model, and the study area was the less-developed urban agglomeration—the Tianshan north slope urban agglomeration. The results of the study show that the total change area of the study area from 2000 to 2020 was 5767.94 km2, the grassland area was transferred out the most, 3582.59 km2, accounting for 62.11%, and the cultivated land area was transferred in the most, 3741.01 km2. Compared with 2020, the simulated land use pattern obtained for 2030 has significantly changed. In addition, the total economic benefits and total carbon emissions under the economic and low-carbon objectives changed in the opposite direction. The four landscape patterns under the three scenarios of economic and low-carbon objectives changed in the same direction, and the degree of landscape fragmentation, agglomeration, and regularity under the low-carbon objective was better than that under the economic objective. The study results are essential references for future land resource management, carbon mitigation, and sustainable development of urban agglomerations. Full article
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17 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
Ecosystem Services-Based City Ranking in Italy: A Tool to Enhance Sustainable Thinking in Regeneration Strategies
by Angela Pilogallo, Francesco Scorza and Beniamino Murgante
Land 2024, 13(6), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060891 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Multidimensional integrated indicators have become extremely popular for ranking territorial units and comparing them in terms of performance, development and quality of life. The concept of sustainability is not exempt from this global phenomenon. Recognizing the ecosystem services (ES) framework as a tool [...] Read more.
Multidimensional integrated indicators have become extremely popular for ranking territorial units and comparing them in terms of performance, development and quality of life. The concept of sustainability is not exempt from this global phenomenon. Recognizing the ecosystem services (ES) framework as a tool to drive urban and landscape regeneration toward sustainability, we propose a ranking based on ES multifunctionality. Adopting this approach allows for pursuing different goals on several time frames: to enhance the policy–science interface in the short term; to mainstream ES values in the governance of green transition in the medium term; and to improve sustainability performance in the long term. Based on a spatially explicit assessment of a relevant set of ES variables, we mapped the multiple ecosystem services landscape index (MESLI) and compared the results with the main Italian cities rankings, demonstrating how the ranking tool brings heterogeneous results with relevant differences in assessing territorial features. The conclusions highlight the potential of such a ranking in order to address sustainability thinking in regeneration processes. Full article
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26 pages, 1582 KiB  
Article
Research on the Risk Spillover among the Real Economy, Real Estate Market, and Financial System: Evidence from China
by Yubin Huangfu, Haibo Yu, Zuoji Dong and Yingman Wang
Land 2024, 13(6), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060890 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Amidst escalating global policy uncertainties and the painful transformation phase of the Chinese economy, studying the time-varying characteristics of risk spillover among the real economy, real estate market, and financial system holds substantial practical relevance for preventing and resolving significant systemic risks. This [...] Read more.
Amidst escalating global policy uncertainties and the painful transformation phase of the Chinese economy, studying the time-varying characteristics of risk spillover among the real economy, real estate market, and financial system holds substantial practical relevance for preventing and resolving significant systemic risks. This paper employs the TVP-VAR-DY model, selects indices from the real sectors to construct a risk spillover index for the real economy, and incorporates indices from the real estate and financial sectors to develop a trivariate SV-TVP-VAR model for empirically analyzing the time-varying nature of risk spillover relationships among these variables. This study reveals that risk spillover among different sectors of the real economy exhibits asymmetry and volatility, with the industrial sector experiencing the highest degree of risk spillover. The prosperity of the real estate market consistently aligns with that of the financial system; however, shocks during periods of risk accumulation in the real estate market significantly amplify risks in the real economy. The financial system serves the real economy, which suffers lesser impacts. Nonetheless, post-2008, the financial system’s support for the real estate market has gradually diminished. Crises exacerbate the extent of risk spillover, but the causative factors and socio-economic context create heterogeneity in fluctuations. Based on these findings, in response to the current real estate shock, the Chinese government should discuss the real economy, the real estate industry, and the financial system within the same research framework. Policies should primarily focus on fiscal measures to promote the recovery of the real economy more rapidly. Additionally, by allowing local governments to implement tailored policies based on local conditions, potential homebuying demand has been effectively stimulated. Full article
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29 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Advancing Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in the Medea Region Using a Hybrid Metaheuristic ANFIS Approach
by Fatiha Debiche, Mohammed Amin Benbouras, Alexandru-Ionut Petrisor, Lyes Mohamed Baba Ali and Abdelghani Leghouchi
Land 2024, 13(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060889 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Landslides pose significant risks to human lives and infrastructure. The Medea region in Algeria is particularly susceptible to these destructive events, which result in substantial economic losses. Despite this vulnerability, a comprehensive landslide map for this region is lacking. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Landslides pose significant risks to human lives and infrastructure. The Medea region in Algeria is particularly susceptible to these destructive events, which result in substantial economic losses. Despite this vulnerability, a comprehensive landslide map for this region is lacking. This study aims to develop a novel hybrid metaheuristic model for the spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility in Medea, combining the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with four novel optimization algorithms (Genetic Algorithm—GA, Particle Swarm Optimization—PSO, Harris Hawks Optimization—HHO, and Salp Swarm Algorithm—SSA). The modeling phase was initiated by using a database comprising 160 landslide occurrences derived from Google Earth imagery; field surveys; and eight conditioning factors (lithology, slope, elevation, distance to stream, land cover, precipitation, slope aspect, and distance to road). Afterward, the Gamma Test (GT) method was used to optimize the selection of input variables. Subsequently, the optimal inputs were modeled using hybrid metaheuristic ANFIS techniques and their performance evaluated using four relevant statistical indicators. The comparative assessment demonstrated the superior predictive capabilities of the ANFIS-HHO model compared to the other models. These results facilitated the creation of an accurate susceptibility map, aiding land use managers and decision-makers in effectively mitigating landslide hazards in the study region and other similar ones across the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Application in Landslide Detection and Assessment)
45 pages, 6851 KiB  
Article
Urban Big Data Analytics: A Novel Approach for Tracking Urbanization Trends in Sri Lanka
by Nimesh Akalanka, Nayomi Kankanamge, Jagath Munasinghe and Tan Yigitcanlar
Land 2024, 13(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060888 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The dynamic nature of urbanization calls for more frequently updated and more reliable datasets than conventional methods, in order to comprehend it for planning purposes. The current widely used methods to study urbanization heavily depend on shifts in residential populations and building densities, [...] Read more.
The dynamic nature of urbanization calls for more frequently updated and more reliable datasets than conventional methods, in order to comprehend it for planning purposes. The current widely used methods to study urbanization heavily depend on shifts in residential populations and building densities, the data of which are static and do not necessarily capture the dynamic nature of urbanization. This is a particularly the case with low- and middle-income nations, where, according to the United Nations, urbanization is mostly being experienced in this century. This study aims to develop a more effective approach to comprehending urbanization patterns through big data fusion, using multiple data sources that provide more reliable information on urban activities. The study uses five open data sources: national polar-orbiting partnership/visible infrared imaging radiometer suite night-time light images; point of interest data; mobile network coverage data; road network coverage data; normalized difference vegetation index data; and the Python programming language. The findings challenge the currently dominant census data and statistics-based understanding of Sri Lanka’s urbanization patterns that are either underestimated or overestimated. The proposed approach offers a more reliable and accurate alternative for authorities and planners in determining urbanization patterns and urban footprints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data in Urban Land Use Planning)
21 pages, 977 KiB  
Review
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to Support the Remediation of Polluted Soils: A Review of Case Studies
by Floris Abrams, Lucas Hendrickx, Catrinel Turcanu, Lieve Sweeck and Jos Van Orshoven
Land 2024, 13(6), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060887 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
For the successful remediation of polluted sites, priority setting among the possible remediation technologies is of major importance. The related decisions are typically conditioned by a limited set of alternative remediation techniques and multiple, often contradicting criteria. These characteristics make the decision problem [...] Read more.
For the successful remediation of polluted sites, priority setting among the possible remediation technologies is of major importance. The related decisions are typically conditioned by a limited set of alternative remediation techniques and multiple, often contradicting criteria. These characteristics make the decision problem suitable for applying a formalised discrete multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). This paper reports on the outcome of a systematic review of articles published between 1995 and 2020 encompassing 43 MCDA applications to support the selection of the remediation technique for polluted soils. It focuses on the comparison between implementations of the MCDA methodology. The review identifies four gaps where progress can be made to mobilise the full strength of the MCDA methodology to support the remediation of polluted soils: (i) early stakeholder engagement, (ii) inclusion of social criteria, (iii) an informed choice of the weighting and aggregation method, (iv) and sensitivity analysis. Full article
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22 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Land Use Policy Frameworks in Canada and Aotearoa New Zealand: Examining the Opportunities and Barriers of Indigenous-Led Conservation and Protected Areas
by Emalee A. Vandermale, Jordyn Bogetti and Courtney W. Mason
Land 2024, 13(6), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060886 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Indigenous Peoples throughout the world have been displaced from their ancestral territories through colonial land use management. Indigenous Peoples have pushed settler-colonial governments to shift their policy frameworks to better support Indigenous rights and leadership across land management, but particularly in conservation. In [...] Read more.
Indigenous Peoples throughout the world have been displaced from their ancestral territories through colonial land use management. Indigenous Peoples have pushed settler-colonial governments to shift their policy frameworks to better support Indigenous rights and leadership across land management, but particularly in conservation. In Canada, this has recently involved the development of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas. Combined with pressure from international organizations, Canada’s Federal Government has dedicated substantial funds to support the establishment of these areas and to achieve conservation and reconciliatory goals. In Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori groups have shaped new legislation that recognizes legal personality status for natural features, which contrasts with Western understandings of land ownership. Indigenous-led conservation in Canada faces many interrelated barriers grounded in colonial histories that complicate land jurisdictions, reconciliation, and protected area networks. This research reveals some of this complexity by examining how Indigenous-led conservation can contribute to more equitable and consensus-based decision-making frameworks in land use management. Policy and legal analyses of Canadian, Aotearoa New Zealand, and international conservation and human rights documents inform our results. We affirm that Indigenous-led conservation can foster relationships between Indigenous Nations and Crown governments. They can also provide steps towards reconciling colonial injustices, supporting Indigenous self-determination, and advancing more sustainable land use systems. Full article
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25 pages, 13151 KiB  
Article
Spatial Quality Measurement and Characterization of Daily High-Frequency Pedestrian Streets in Xi’an City
by Linggui Liu, Yuheng Tu, Maoran Sun, Han Lyu, Peijie Wang and Jing He
Land 2024, 13(6), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060885 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Street space plays a crucial role in human activity and social life, forming an essential component of a livable and sustainable built environment. Consequently, its quality has garnered significant attention from researchers, designers, and policymakers who aim to achieve precise assessments of street [...] Read more.
Street space plays a crucial role in human activity and social life, forming an essential component of a livable and sustainable built environment. Consequently, its quality has garnered significant attention from researchers, designers, and policymakers who aim to achieve precise assessments of street infrastructure and conditions. This study presents a multi-dimensional framework for evaluating street space, considering factors such as access frequency, environmental quality, and amenity richness. By utilizing city-level path planning data, street view imagery, point of interest data, and social media check-in data, this framework assesses each street and assigns scores across these dimensions. These scores facilitate a human-centered analysis of the disparities in street usage and quality. The aggregation of results by administrative regions supports effective policy formulation and implementation. Application of this framework in Xi’an, China, reveals that only 6.95% of frequently visited streets exhibit high environmental quality and functional richness. This study underscores the potential of leveraging public data for detailed street space assessments to inform urban renewal policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Livable City: Rational Land Use and Sustainable Urban Space)
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14 pages, 39525 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Long-Term Changes in Visual Attributes of Urban Green Spaces Using Point Clouds
by Xiaohan Zhang, Yuhao Fang, Guanting Zhang and Shi Cheng
Land 2024, 13(6), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060884 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
The visual attributes of urban green spaces influence people’s perceptions, preferences, and behavioural activities. While many studies have established correlations between landscape perception and visual attributes, they often focus on specific timeframes and overlook dynamic changes in the spatial form of urban green [...] Read more.
The visual attributes of urban green spaces influence people’s perceptions, preferences, and behavioural activities. While many studies have established correlations between landscape perception and visual attributes, they often focus on specific timeframes and overlook dynamic changes in the spatial form of urban green spaces. This study aims to explore the long-term changes in the visual attributes of urban green spaces. We propose a method to quantitatively analyse changes in visual attributes using point clouds to simulate visual interfaces. Using an unmanned aerial vehicle, we conducted a five-axis tilt photography survey of Qinglvyuan Park in Nanjing, China, in August 2018 and September 2023. Point cloud models were generated for the two periods, and five visual attribute indicators, openness (OP), depth variance (DV), green view ratio (GVR), sky view ratio (SVR), and skyline complexity (SC), were analysed for long-term changes. The results indicate that OP, DV, and SVR decreased after five years, while GVR increased. The maximum increase in GVR was 26.6%, and the maximum decrease in OP was 12.8%. There is a positive correlation between GVR and its change (d_GVR). Conversely, there are negative correlations between SC and its change (d_SC), as well as between SVR and d_GVR. Tree growth emerged as a primary factor influencing changes in the visual attributes of urban green spaces. This study highlights the importance of adopting a long-term and dynamic perspective in visual landscape studies, as well as in landscape design and maintenance practices. Future research on predicting long-term changes in the visual attributes of urban green spaces should focus on understanding the relationships between tree properties and environmental conditions. Full article
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33 pages, 9677 KiB  
Article
Applying the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for Integrated, Standardized, and Sustainable Development of Cadastre Country Profile for Pakistan
by Muhammad Sheraz Ahsan, Ejaz Hussain, Christiaan Lemmen, Malumbo Chaka Chipofya, Jaap Zevenbergen, Salman Atif, Javier Morales, Mila Koeva and Zahir Ali
Land 2024, 13(6), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060883 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Rapid urban growth necessitates focused attention regarding its policy and governance to ensure affordable housing, transparent and efficient real-world systems, reduce social inequalities, and promote sustainable development. This study delves into the semantics and ontology for developing a Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) [...] Read more.
Rapid urban growth necessitates focused attention regarding its policy and governance to ensure affordable housing, transparent and efficient real-world systems, reduce social inequalities, and promote sustainable development. This study delves into the semantics and ontology for developing a Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) profile in the context of Pakistan’s Land Administration Systems (LASs), which currently face issues due to manual record-keeping, lack of transparency, frauds, and disintegration. Establishing a baseline through Record of Rights (RoR) and Property Information Report (PIR), alongside surveying and mapping procedures defined by laws and rules, forms the foundation for LADM profile development. This study explores the transition from manual LAS to 2D/3D representation, using LADM as a conceptual guideline. The LADM profile’s three key packages—PK_Party, PK_Administrative, and PK_SpatialUnit—a sub-package, and external classes are examined, with proposals for digitalisation and modernisation. Additionally, the study includes expert consultation, and highlights the significant support that the LADM implementation offers to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Pakistan. In conclusion, the study underscores the need for a comprehensive and inclusive approach to address organisational overlaps and ambiguities within LAS, positioning PK LADM as a transformative force for sustainable urban LAS in Pakistan, aligning with broader SDGs. Recommendations include exploring realistic land valuation, integrated ownership and location verification systems, addressing historical survey data challenges, and promoting wider stakeholder adoption for sustainable 2D/3D urban LAS using LADM and its edition II as a way forward towards the creation of a smart city and digital twin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and Sustainable Development)
21 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
The Spatiotemporal Variability of Soil Available Phosphorus and Potassium in Karst Region: The Crucial Role of Socio-Geographical Factors
by Weichun Zhang, Yunyi Zhang, Xin Zhang, Wei Wu and Hongbin Liu
Land 2024, 13(6), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060882 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The contents of soil available phosphorus (AVP) and potassium (AVK) in karstic mountainous agricultural areas have changed rapidly in recent decades. This temporal variation displays strong spatial heterogeneity due to these areas’ complex topography and anthropogenic activities. Socio-geographical factors can reflect the changes [...] Read more.
The contents of soil available phosphorus (AVP) and potassium (AVK) in karstic mountainous agricultural areas have changed rapidly in recent decades. This temporal variation displays strong spatial heterogeneity due to these areas’ complex topography and anthropogenic activities. Socio-geographical factors can reflect the changes in the natural environment caused by human beings, and our objective is to enhance understanding of their role in explaining the changes of AVP and AVK. In a typical karst region (611.5 km2) with uniform soil parent material and low climatic variability, 255 topsoil samples (138 in 2012 and 117 in 2021) were collected to quantify the temporal AVP and AVK changes. Random forest (RF) and partial dependence plot analyses were conducted to investigate the responses of these changes to socio-geographical factors (distance from the nearest town center [DFT] and village density [VD]), topography, biology, and landscape pattern indexes. The mean values of AVP (48.25 mg kg−1) and AVK (357.67 mg kg−1) in 2021 were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in 2012 (28.84 mg kg−1 and 131.67 mg kg−1, respectively). Semi-variance analysis showed strong spatial autocorrelation for AVP and AVK, ranging from 7.29% to 10.95% and 13.31% to 10.33% from 2012 to 2021, respectively. Adding socio-geographical factors can greatly improve the explanatory power of RF modeling for AVP and AVK changes by 19% and 27%, respectively. DFT and VD emerged as the two most important variables affecting these changes, followed by elevation. These three variables all demonstrated clear nonlinear threshold effects on AVP and AVK changes. A strong accumulation of AVP and AVK was observed at DFT < 5 km and VD > 20. The AVP changes increased dramatically when the elevation ranged between 1298 m and 1390 m, while the AVK changes decreased rapidly when the elevation ranged between 1350 m and 1466 m. The interaction effects of DFT and VD with elevation on these changes were also demonstrated. Overall, this study examined the important role of socio-geographical factors and their nonlinear threshold and interaction effects on AVP and AVK changes. The findings help unravel the complex causes of these changes and thus contribute to the design of optimal soil phosphorus and potassium management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Soil Quality and Management in Karst Ecosystem II)
23 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Biochar from Beach-Cast Seaweed and Its Use for Amelioration of Acid Soils
by Eliana Cárdenas-Aguiar, Gabriel Gascó, Marcos Lado, Ana Méndez, Jorge Paz-Ferreiro and Antonio Paz-González
Land 2024, 13(6), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060881 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Limited knowledge is available regarding biochar (BC) obtained from beach-cast seaweed, which needs to be characterized to better prospect its potential applications. Beach-cast seaweed BCs were produced at two temperatures (300 and 600 °C) and two residence times (1 and 3 h). First, [...] Read more.
Limited knowledge is available regarding biochar (BC) obtained from beach-cast seaweed, which needs to be characterized to better prospect its potential applications. Beach-cast seaweed BCs were produced at two temperatures (300 and 600 °C) and two residence times (1 and 3 h). First, an extensive characterization of feedstock and their derived BCs was performed. Then, an incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of these BCs as ameliorants in two acidic soils, classified as Umbrisols. Proximate and elemental analyses suggested the presence of more stable C structures in BCs at 600 °C with a high C, fixed carbon (FC) and low H, O and volatile matter (VM); additionally, thermogravimetric graphics showed less weight loss. Some features from the raw material were present in biochars obtained at 300 °C but absent at 600 °C. Dissolved organic carbon was much lower in BCs pyrolyzed at 600 °C than at 300 °C, suggesting the higher aromaticity of the former, allowing more resistance to water extraction. The breakdown of proteinaceous soluble materials after pyrolysis was revealed by fluorescence. Residence time caused minor effects in biochar properties compared to temperature. The soil pH and macronutrient availability of the two studied soils increased after beach-cast seaweed biochar addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil-Sediment-Water Systems)
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20 pages, 39342 KiB  
Article
BIM, 3D Cadastral Data and AI for Weather Conditions Simulation and Energy Consumption Monitoring
by Dimitra Andritsou, Chrystos Alexiou and Chryssy Potsiou
Land 2024, 13(6), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060880 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 596
Abstract
This paper is part of an ongoing research study on developing a methodology for the low-cost creation of the Digital Twin of an urban neighborhood for sustainable, transparent, and participatory urban management to enable low-and middle-income economies to meet the UN Sustainable Development [...] Read more.
This paper is part of an ongoing research study on developing a methodology for the low-cost creation of the Digital Twin of an urban neighborhood for sustainable, transparent, and participatory urban management to enable low-and middle-income economies to meet the UN Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 successfully and timely, in particular SDGs 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The methodology includes: (1) the creation of a geospatial data infrastructure by merging Building Information Models (BIMs) and 3D cadastral data that may support a number of applications (i.e., visualization of 3D volumetric legal entities), and (2) the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) platforms, Machine Learning (ML), and sensors that are interconnected with devices located in the various property units to test and predict future scenarios and support energy efficiency applications. Two modular platforms are created: (1) to interact with the AI sensors for building tracking and management purposes (i.e., alarms, security cameras, control panels, etc.) and (2) to analyze the energy consumption data such as future predictions, anomaly detection, and scenario making. A case study is made for an urban neighborhood in Athens. It includes a dynamic weather simulation and visualization of different seasons and times of day in combination with internal energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and Sustainable Development)
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14 pages, 5048 KiB  
Article
Survival and Growth Performance of Calophyllum inophyllum L. Seedlings in Peat Soil and at Different Levels of Groundwater
by Azzah Maulidya, Rujito Agus Suwignyo, Dwi Putro Priadi, Himlal Baral, Eunho Choi, Fikri Adriansyah and Hyunyoung Yang
Land 2024, 13(6), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060879 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Selecting proper tree species for revegetation is important for restoring tropical peatland. Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) has been suggested one of the promising native species in Indonesia for the revegetation of tropical peatland; however, there is a lack of understanding of its [...] Read more.
Selecting proper tree species for revegetation is important for restoring tropical peatland. Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) has been suggested one of the promising native species in Indonesia for the revegetation of tropical peatland; however, there is a lack of understanding of its growth in peat soil with different groundwater levels. We investigated the survival rate, plant height, number of leaves, root collar diameter, and dry biomass of tamanu seedlings grown in peat soil with different groundwater levels using a randomized block design in a water tank. The study involved five groundwater level treatments and 12 tree-level replicates each: M0 (non-groundwater level, control); M1 (−15 cm below the soil surface); M2 (−10 cm); M3 (−5 cm); and M4 (0 cm, soil surface level). The results showed that all tamanu seedlings survived in every treatment. However, their plant height, number of leaves, and root collar diameter growth were significantly inhibited in the highest groundwater level condition (M4, 0 cm) at 81 days after sowing, while their growth in −15 cm of groundwater level (M1) was as good as the growth in the fully drained conditions in M0 (control). This result indicates that the groundwater level should not be higher than −15 cm for the growth of tamanu. Considering that peatlands in Indonesia are assessed to be degraded when the groundwater level is lower than −40 cm, this study suggests that maintaining groundwater levels between −40 cm and −15 cm in peatland is the best condition for rapid growth of early tamanu seedlings while protecting peatlands. Further studies are needed to extend the range of water levels and water treatment duration. Full article
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21 pages, 6709 KiB  
Article
Prioritization of Ecological Conservation and Restoration Areas through Ecological Networks: A Case Study of Nanchang City, China
by Binbin Ma, Chen Zeng, Tianyu Lv, Wenping Liu and Wenyi Yang
Land 2024, 13(6), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060878 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Rapid urbanization has led to ecosystem fragmentation, conversion, and degradation, posing great threats to natural habitat and biodiversity. The utilization of ecological networks has gained importance in ecological restoration planning to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanization on ecosystems. This study focused on [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization has led to ecosystem fragmentation, conversion, and degradation, posing great threats to natural habitat and biodiversity. The utilization of ecological networks has gained importance in ecological restoration planning to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanization on ecosystems. This study focused on Nanchang City, China, as a case study area to examine the application of integrated ecological networks in 2000, 2010 and 2020. This study analyzed the dynamic characteristics and spatial differences in landscape connectivity, providing evidence-based support for ecological conservation and restoration. The results indicate the following: (1) a decrease in the number of ecological sources and corridors, especially general sources and corridors, along with a decreasing trend in their importance; (2) an increase in ecological barrier points and breakpoints over time, especially in the southeastern region of the study area; and (3) the identification of ecological conservation priority areas, ecological improvement priority areas, and ecological restoration points based on connectivity and dynamic analysis. Multiple priority actions were proposed, which remarkably improved network connectivity and strengthened biodiversity conservation. Our research provides a valuable reference for identifying ecological priorities and developing ecological protection and ecological restoration actions in highly urbanized areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Celebrating the 130th Anniversary of Wuhan University on Land Science)
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21 pages, 6425 KiB  
Article
Feature Selection and Regression Models for Multisource Data-Based Soil Salinity Prediction: A Case Study of Minqin Oasis in Arid China
by Sheshu Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jianxia Yang, Jinfeng Xie and Ziyun Sun
Land 2024, 13(6), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060877 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
(1) Monitoring salinized soil in saline–alkali land is essential, requiring regional-scale soil salinity inversion. This study aims to identify sensitive variables for predicting electrical conductivity (EC) in soil, focusing on effective feature selection methods. (2) The study systematically selects a feature subset from [...] Read more.
(1) Monitoring salinized soil in saline–alkali land is essential, requiring regional-scale soil salinity inversion. This study aims to identify sensitive variables for predicting electrical conductivity (EC) in soil, focusing on effective feature selection methods. (2) The study systematically selects a feature subset from Sentinel-1 C SAR, Sentinel-2 MSI, and SRTM DEM data. Various feature selection methods (correlation analysis, LASSO, RFE, and GRA) are employed on 79 variables. Regression models using random forest regression (RF) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithms are constructed and compared. (3) The results highlight the effectiveness of the RFE algorithm in reducing model complexity. The model incorporates significant environmental factors like soil moisture, topography, and soil texture, which play an important role in modeling. Combining the method with RF improved soil salinity prediction (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 1.47, RPD = 1.84). Overall, salinization in Minqin oasis soils was evident, especially in the unutilized land at the edge of the oasis. (4) Integrating data from different sources to construct characterization variables overcomes the limitations of a single data source. Variable selection is an effective means to address the redundancy of variable information, providing insights into feature engineering and variable selection for soil salinity estimation in arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
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20 pages, 13988 KiB  
Article
Landscape Ecological Risk and Drivers of Land-Use Transition under the Perspective of Differences in Topographic Gradient
by Xuebin Zhang, Jiale Yu, Haoyuan Feng, Litang Yao, Xuehong Li, Hucheng Du and Yanni Liu
Land 2024, 13(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060876 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Human activities have caused different degrees of land-use change on different topographic gradients, with impacts on the landscape and ecosystem. Effectively preventing and addressing ecological risk (ER) and achieving harmonious coexistence between humans and nature are important aspects of sustainable development. In this [...] Read more.
Human activities have caused different degrees of land-use change on different topographic gradients, with impacts on the landscape and ecosystem. Effectively preventing and addressing ecological risk (ER) and achieving harmonious coexistence between humans and nature are important aspects of sustainable development. In this study, we used Gansu Province as an example, adopted five periods of land-use data in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020, and used the geoinformatic Tupu method and the terrain distribution index to study land-use changes under different topographic gradients, and then constructed the landscape ecological risk assessment (LERA) model based on the landscape pattern index to analyze landscape ecological risk (LER) spatiotemporal changes under different topographic gradients, and finally explored the LER driving factors using the geodetector model. The results showed that (1) the dominant land-use types were unused land and grassland, accounting for approximately 74% of the land. The situation of transferring and changing each type was more drastic. The distribution and changes in cropland and built-up land were easily found in low topographic gradient areas with low elevations and small slopes; the distribution and changes in woodland, grassland and water areas were easily found in high topographic gradient areas with high elevations and large slopes. (2) The landscape ecological risk index (LERI) was 0.018, 0.019, 0.019, 0.019 and 0.020, respectively, with spatial expressions of high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Low LER was concentrated in high topographic gradient ecological reserves; high LER was concentrated in low topographic gradient human interference areas and high topographic gradient natural environmental complex areas. (3) Natural factors mainly acted on the LER on moderate and high topographic position gradients; socioeconomic factors mainly acted on the LER on low topographic position gradients. Human interference interacted with natural factors more than human interference alone on LER. This study can provide a scientific basis for ensuring ecological security and sustainable development in areas with complex topography and geomorphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological and Disaster Risk Assessment of Land Use Changes)
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18 pages, 10669 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Determination of Corresponding Points from Available Providers of Spatial Data—A Case Study from Slovakia
by Slavomir Labant, Patrik Petovsky, Pavel Sustek and Lubomir Leicher
Land 2024, 13(6), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060875 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Mapping the terrain and the Earth’s surface can be performed through non-contact methoYes, that is correct.ds such as laser scanning. This is one of the most dynamic and effective data collection methods. This case study aims to analyze the usability of spatial data [...] Read more.
Mapping the terrain and the Earth’s surface can be performed through non-contact methoYes, that is correct.ds such as laser scanning. This is one of the most dynamic and effective data collection methods. This case study aims to analyze the usability of spatial data from available sources and to choose the appropriate solutions and procedures for processing the point cloud of the area of interest obtained from available web applications. The processing of the point cloud obtained by airborne laser scanning results in digital terrain models created in selected software. The study also included modeling of different types of residential development, and the results were evaluated. Different data sources may have compatibility issues, which means that the position of the same object from different spatial data databases may not be identical. To address this, deviations of the corresponding points were determined from various data sources such as Real Estate Cadaster, ZBGIS Buildings, LiDAR point cloud, orthophoto mosaic, and geodetic measurements. These deviations were analyzed according to their size and orientation, with the average deviations ranging from 0.22 to 0.34 m and standard deviations from 0.11 to 0.20 m. The Real Estate Cadaster was used as the correct basis for comparison. The area of the building was also compared, with the slightest difference being present between the Real Estate Cadaster and geodetic measurement. The difference was zero after rounding the area to whole numbers. The maximum area difference was +5 m2 for ZBGIS Buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Technology for Landscape Design)
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19 pages, 6816 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Differentiated Impact of Urban Spatial Form on Carbon Emissions: Evidence from Chinese Cities
by Xiaoyue Zeng, Deliang Fan, Yunfei Zheng and Shijie Li
Land 2024, 13(6), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060874 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 758
Abstract
The role of spatial factors in reducing carbon emissions has been receiving increasing attention from researchers; however, these impacts may involve spatial heterogeneity. In this study, 337 prefecture-level cities in China were taken as the research object. Based on national-level urban data, the [...] Read more.
The role of spatial factors in reducing carbon emissions has been receiving increasing attention from researchers; however, these impacts may involve spatial heterogeneity. In this study, 337 prefecture-level cities in China were taken as the research object. Based on national-level urban data, the global impact of urban spatial form on carbon emissions was then investigated using ordinary least squares regression, the spatial error model, and the spatial lag model. The local effects of urban spatial form on carbon emissions in different cities were then investigated using geographically weighted regression. The findings are as follows. Overall, the larger the urban built-up area and the more fragmented and decentralized the urban land use, the greater the carbon emissions. Conversely, the more centralized the urban center of a city, the lower its carbon emissions. Locally, for some Chinese cities, the total area, landscape shape index, and mean Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance were found to have significant positive effects on carbon emissions, while the largest-patch index had a significant negative impact. For all Chinese cities, the patch density was found to have no significant effect on carbon emissions. In 29% of the cities in which the landscape division index was found to significantly affect carbon emissions, this effect was positive, while it was negative in the remaining 71%. The policy implications emerging from this study lie in the need for decision-makers and urban planners to guide the shaping of low-carbon urban spatial forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Resilience and Urban Sustainability under Climate Change)
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25 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Land Use Gravity Center Change and Carbon Emission Impact in Chengdu Plain of China from 2006 to 2022
by Yingga Wu, Wanping Pu, Jihong Dong, Wenting Dai and Yuexia Wang
Land 2024, 13(6), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060873 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
As the economic center and major grain-producing area in Southwest China, the calculation of the carbon budget and the protection of cultivated land in the Chengdu Plain are of vital significance for China to achieve a carbon peak strategy and ensure food security. [...] Read more.
As the economic center and major grain-producing area in Southwest China, the calculation of the carbon budget and the protection of cultivated land in the Chengdu Plain are of vital significance for China to achieve a carbon peak strategy and ensure food security. For the purpose of clarifying the trend of land use focus and carbon emissions in the Chengdu Plain, the carbon peak level of land use in 33 counties in the Chengdu Plain was explored. Based on the gravity center model and IPCC carbon emission coefficient method, the changing trend of land use gravity center and carbon emission in Chengdu Plain from 2006 to 2022 was clarified. PLS regression model and LMDI model were used to explore the main influencing factors of the carbon emission of cropland and the carbon emission of building land. PLUS model was used to simulate future land use patterns and carbon emissions. (1) The center of gravity of cropland, building land, water, and other and unused land shifted to the northeast by 4.23 km, 5.46 km, 8.44 km, and 31.58 km, respectively, and that of forest and grass shifted to the southeast by 11.12 km and 3.41 km, respectively. For major food crops, the centers of gravity of rice and maize moved northeastward by 15.47 km and 7.52 km, respectively, while wheat moved southwestward by 17.77 km. (2) From 2006 to 2022, carbon emissions from land use in the 33 counties of the Chengdu Plain are all on the rise, with a total increase of 13.552 million tons, and carbon sinks in the 31 counties continue to decline, with a total decrease of 0.691 million tons. (3) Under the natural scenario, carbon sink scenario, and carbon reduction scenario, the carbon emissions from land use decrease by 0.5391 million tons, 3.4728 million tons, and 4.5265 million tons from 2022, respectively. Among the 33 counties in the Chengdu Plain, 11 counties did not achieve carbon peak under the natural scenario, 5 counties did not achieve carbon peak under the carbon sink scenario, and all the counties achieved carbon peak under the carbon sink scenario. During the study period, there was a serious loss of cropland in the Chengdu Plain, mainly to building land in the central part of the Chengdu Plain and to forests within the Longmen Mountain, Longquan Mountain, and Leshan City, and there is a need to strengthen cropland protection in this region in the future. Under the natural scenario, carbon sink scenario, and carbon reduction scenario, land use in the Chengdu Plain region can achieve carbon peak, and the carbon reduction model will be more helpful for the counties to achieve carbon peak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Land Use Change, Carbon, and Markets)
22 pages, 8973 KiB  
Article
Spatial Development and Coupling Coordination of Society–Physics–Informational Smart Cities: A Case Study on Thirty Capitals in China
by Chao Wang, Changhao Zhu and Mingrun Du
Land 2024, 13(6), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060872 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The smart city concept has taken center stage as a paradigm shift in urban governance, promising innovation, sustainability, and strategic upgrades, and drawing the attention of researchers globally. However, existing frameworks for assessing smart cities remain incomplete and simplistic. This paper aims to [...] Read more.
The smart city concept has taken center stage as a paradigm shift in urban governance, promising innovation, sustainability, and strategic upgrades, and drawing the attention of researchers globally. However, existing frameworks for assessing smart cities remain incomplete and simplistic. This paper aims to address the following question: what is the process and current situation of 30 capitals in China after the implementation of smart city construction, especially from the new perspective of social, physical, and informational space development? To this end, we focus on 30 national and provincial capitals in China, proposing a novel, tri-dimensional SPI model—Social, Physical, and Information space—for smart city spatial development assessment. Employing a robust methodological approach, including entropy weighting, coupled coordination degree models, and the Dagum Gini coefficient, we conduct a spatial development and coordination analysis of these cities from 2011 to 2021. In addition, we utilize BP neural networks to evaluate the contribution of each indicator to the spatial coupled coordination. Our findings indicate a steady increase in the spatial coupled coordination development level of smart capitals in China, alongside a narrowing disparity in development speeds across regions, resulting in a staggered spatial distribution pattern. Specifically, the Information space subsystem represents the most influential driver of coupled coordination. The significance of this research lies in its unique tri-dimensional spatial perspective, offering valuable insights into the spatial development and coordination discrepancies in the smart city concept. These insights offer evidence-based support for regional planning and optimization strategies in China. Full article
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24 pages, 7969 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Relationships between Mini Urban Green Space Layout and Human Activity
by Shi Cheng, Dunsong Zhang, Yijing Wang and Xiaohan Zhang
Land 2024, 13(6), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060871 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The quality of urban green space has an impact on the health and well-being of populations. Previous studies have shown that consideration of crowd activity characteristics is the key premise of landscape space design and planning. However, there is limited research on the [...] Read more.
The quality of urban green space has an impact on the health and well-being of populations. Previous studies have shown that consideration of crowd activity characteristics is the key premise of landscape space design and planning. However, there is limited research on the correlation between features of the spatial layout of Mini Urban Green Spaces (MUGS) and the behavior of people, and it is difficult to take into account the possible distribution of people and their activity characteristics during the design phase of MUGS. This study aims to construct a technical workflow utilizing the AnyLogic platform and agent-based simulation methods for analyzing the characteristics of landscape spatial layouts considering dynamic human behavior. One MUGS, named 511 Park in Nanjing, China, was selected as the case for the application of the method and exploration of the impacts of spatial elements and layout on crowd activity types and density. We investigated the impact of four types of spatial elements—paths, facilities, nodes, and entrances—on human activities in MUGS. The results showed that path layout emerged as the most significant influencing factor. Changes in nodes and the number of facilities have a relatively minor impact on people’s activities. There was an apparent impact of changes in path orientation around nodes on the dynamics of the flow of people. This study could provide valuable insights for landscape designers, aiding informed decision-making during the construction, renovation, and management of MUGS. Full article
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13 pages, 4200 KiB  
Article
Effects of Environmentally Friendly Materials on Saline Soil Improvement and Sunflower Yields in the Hetao Irrigation Region, China
by Xiangping Wang, Yunpeng Sun, Yuxing Liu, Xiaolin Li, Qiancheng Gao, Jingsong Yang, Wenping Xie and Rongjiang Yao
Land 2024, 13(6), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060870 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The Hetao irrigation region is located in Inner Mongolia, China, within a dry and semi-dry region. This region suffers from poor agricultural productivity and environmental damage due to the presence of saline soil. To explore the growth of salty lands using a more [...] Read more.
The Hetao irrigation region is located in Inner Mongolia, China, within a dry and semi-dry region. This region suffers from poor agricultural productivity and environmental damage due to the presence of saline soil. To explore the growth of salty lands using a more environmentally friendly method, this research employed three eco-conscious amendments to improve the soil. These include flue gas desulfurization gypsum (S), humic acid (H), and biochar (C). During a two-year study, the amendments were utilized to enhance the soil quality for planting sunflowers. Humic acid was used prior to every seedling season, whereas the remaining two substances were only used once. These additions increased the soil’s water-holding capacity, reduced soil salinity during sunflower growth, and improved the macroaggregate proportion. The most effective treatment for decreasing the soil’s salt content after the seedling stage was the application of humic acid (0.6 t ha−1). Biochar (15 t ha−1) decreased the soil’s bulk density (from 1.49 to 1.34 g cm−3) and mostly increased the sunflower seed yield up to 3133−3964 kg ha−1. Humic acid addition significantly increased the aggregate (>0.25 mm) content up to 27.88% after the experiment, but it led to a lower seed yield (2607−3686 kg ha−1). In 2019, the temperature was lower compared to 2018, which may have led to a reduction in the yield. However, these three amendments could potentially increase yields by more than conventional methods. These three environmentally friendly amendments are useful for improving saline soil and increasing yields. More studies are required to understand their impacts on larger areas and over extended periods. Full article
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20 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Has China’s Pilot Policy of Farmland Management Right Mortgage Loan Promoted County Agricultural Economic Growth?
by Jinqian Deng, Yue Gu and Na Zhang
Land 2024, 13(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13060869 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Farmland mortgages are expected to drive county agricultural economic growth (CAEG) as a crucial component of furthering the reform of the rural land system and the reform of the rural financial system against the new backdrop of the new era. This study gathers [...] Read more.
Farmland mortgages are expected to drive county agricultural economic growth (CAEG) as a crucial component of furthering the reform of the rural land system and the reform of the rural financial system against the new backdrop of the new era. This study gathers panel data from 2045 Chinese counties from 2011 to 2020 and uses the difference-in-differences method and the synthetic control method to systematically examine the effects of China’s farmland management right mortgage loan (FMRML) pilot program on CAEG. The FMRML pilot program was implemented in 2016, and this research is presented as a quasi-natural experiment. The findings indicate that there is a “policy trap” and that CAEG has not been successfully promoted by the FMRML pilot program. The reason for this is because the pilot program has made county resource mismatch worse, making it unable to fully realize the promotional effect on CAEG, rather than significantly activating the three key drivers of agricultural economic growth: people, land, and money. The impact of the FMRML pilot policy on CAEG is not uniform, according to the results of the heterogeneity study, with a substantial “blocking” effect only in the central region and no significant influence in the western, northeastern, or eastern regions. The findings propose that in order to optimize agricultural mortgage policy and advance CAEG, China and other emerging nations can benefit greatly from the insights this study offers. Full article
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