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Land, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 210 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Agent-based models (ABMs) are particularly suited for simulating the behaviour of agricultural agents in response to land use (LU) policy. However, there is no evidence of their widespread use by policymakers. Our review finds that LU ABMs mainly rely on predefined behavioural rules to model individual farmers’ decision making, prioritising explanatory over predictive purposes and thus limiting their use for policy assessment. We propose a framework to develop data-driven ABMs for agricultural LU, aimed at improving their ability to predict policy outcome. This framework avoids predefined theoretical or heuristic rules and instead resorts to ML algorithms to learn agents’ behavioural rules from data, exploiting the increased availability of remote sensing products and agricultural micro-data. View this paper
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22 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
Bioeconomy Innovation Networks in Urban Regions: The Case of Stuttgart
by Lea F. Stöber, Marius Boesino, Andreas Pyka and Franziska Schuenemann
Land 2023, 12(4), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040935 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2039
Abstract
For a successful transformation towards a sustainable bioeconomy, cooperative knowledge creation leading to innovations through research at the company and academic level are important. Urban regions are the centre of economic and research activities. The example of the region of Stuttgart, which aims [...] Read more.
For a successful transformation towards a sustainable bioeconomy, cooperative knowledge creation leading to innovations through research at the company and academic level are important. Urban regions are the centre of economic and research activities. The example of the region of Stuttgart, which aims to complement its mature industrial structure with new opportunities related to the knowledge-based bioeconomy, is an interesting case for the application of social network analysis to shed light on the dynamics of innovation networks to support the transformation of urban regions. As with smaller spatial levels of observation connectivity in network decreases, we find a scale-free network structure for the supra-regional network and a star-like network structure for the regional network, with two universities and one transfer-oriented research institutes at the core. While research collaborations beyond regional borders and across different industries foster knowledge co-creation, the central actors can be recognized as gatekeepers who dominantly influence knowledge flows. To potentially strengthen the resilience of the network, policy and industry associations serving as network facilitators can foster collaboration between periphery actors. The case of the Stuttgart region impressively illustrates the opportunities of the knowledge-based bioeconomy for urban regions and the complementary role traditional manufacturing sectors can take in the transformation towards higher degrees of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land-Based Bioeconomy Development)
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13 pages, 3874 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Grasslands Using the Landsat Archive
by Astrid Vannoppen, Jeroen Degerickx, Niels Souverijns and Anne Gobin
Land 2023, 12(4), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040934 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Grasslands are an important biotope in Europe, not only because they are widespread, but also because they provide valuable ecosystem services. The ecological value of a grassland parcel is directly proportional to the number of uninterrupted years of grassland cover. However, the area [...] Read more.
Grasslands are an important biotope in Europe, not only because they are widespread, but also because they provide valuable ecosystem services. The ecological value of a grassland parcel is directly proportional to the number of uninterrupted years of grassland cover. However, the area of long-term grassland (i.e., grassland of 5 years or older) is decreasing, limiting its ability to provide ecosystem services. To prevent the further disappearance of long-term grasslands, Europe developed an agricultural policy instrument in 2003 to protect grasslands of 5 years or older. Nature policy instruments aim to protect grasslands that have existed for more than 10 years to support their high environmental value. However, there is currently no multi-annual information on the location and age of grasslands at a high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of the current grassland protection regulations. Multi-annual satellite-based land cover classification can provide a solution for grassland area and age monitoring, which we tested by producing a series of Landsat-based land cover classification maps from 2005 to 2019 for the region of Flanders, Belgium. Historical land cover classification maps proved useful for evaluating past and present planning and policy to ensure grassland conservation, linking spatial and temporal changes in the area of long-term grasslands with policy changes and landscape dynamics. We were able to locate grasslands that were grassland between 2005 and 2014 but were converted to arable land between 2015 and 2019, identify the year in which these grasslands were converted to arable land, and demonstrate regional differences in the conservation of long-term grassland aged 5–9 years and 10 years or more. Long-term grassland aged 10 years or more disappeared faster in urban than in rural areas in Flanders between 2014 and 2019. Our study shows that multi-annual high-resolution satellite imagery provides objective and quantitative information on long-term grassland to support climate, agricultural, environmental, and nature policies. Full article
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21 pages, 6589 KiB  
Article
Ecological Risk Evaluation and Ecological Restoration Model of Mining in the Source Area of the Yellow River Basin
by Wenjia Xu, Weiling Yao, Zhongke Bai, Jinzhong Yang and Li Li
Land 2023, 12(4), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040933 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Finding out about the ecosystem damaged by mining development and carrying out ecological risk diagnoses are important prerequisites for formulating mine ecological restoration strategies. This study established an integrated approach to quantitatively analyze mining ecological risks by combining water conservation and biodiversity conservation [...] Read more.
Finding out about the ecosystem damaged by mining development and carrying out ecological risk diagnoses are important prerequisites for formulating mine ecological restoration strategies. This study established an integrated approach to quantitatively analyze mining ecological risks by combining water conservation and biodiversity conservation ecosystem service functions with natural ecological conditions, and based on these, proposes appropriate mine ecological restoration strategies. Results show that: (1) A total of 14,874.80 hm2 of ecosystems were damaged in the Qinghai section of the Yellow River Basin, caused by mining excavation, crushing and hollow collapse, and of which 52.10% were located in national important ecological function areas and National Nature Reserves, which caused a decrease of the important ecosystem service functions of water conservation and biodiversity conservation in the area, and aggravated the ecological risks of the river source area; (2) The areas of high ecological risk and comparatively high ecological risk in the research area are 1,093,800 hm2 and 902,100 hm2, which accounted for 7.27% and 6.00% of the land area, respectively. Ecological risk hotspot areas are mainly distributed in the Qilian Mountains, Hehuang Valley, Sanjiangyuan and other key water systems and water sources; (3) According to the principle of “one mine, one policy”, we propose five mine ecological restoration models: ecological reconstruction, artificial assistance and protection and conservation, artificial assistance, protection and conservation and natural restoration. This study provides a reliable basis for exploring the status of mining ecological risk at the source of the Yellow River and scientifically carrying out ecological restoration and risk management. Full article
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25 pages, 4202 KiB  
Review
Land Consumption Classification Using Sentinel 1 Data: A Systematic Review
by Sara Mastrorosa, Mattia Crespi, Luca Congedo and Michele Munafò
Land 2023, 12(4), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040932 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The development of remote sensing technology has redefined the approaches to the Earth’s surface monitoring. The Copernicus Programme promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Union (EU), through the launch of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 and the multispectral [...] Read more.
The development of remote sensing technology has redefined the approaches to the Earth’s surface monitoring. The Copernicus Programme promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Union (EU), through the launch of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 and the multispectral Sentinel-2 satellites, has provided a valuable contribution to monitoring the Earth’s surface. There are several review articles on the land use/land cover (LULC) matter using Sentinel images, but it lacks a methodical and extensive review in the specific field of land consumption monitoring, concerning the application of SAR images, in particular Sentinel-1 images. In this paper, we explored the potential of Sentinel-1 images to estimate land consumption using mathematical modeling, focusing on innovative approaches. Therefore, this research was structured into three principal steps: (1) searching for appropriate studies, (2) collecting information required from each paper, and (3) discussing and comparing the accuracy of the existing methods to evaluate land consumption and their applied conditions using Sentinel-1 Images. Current research has demonstrated that Sentinel-1 data has the potential for land consumption monitoring around the world, as shown by most of the studies reviewed: the most promising approaches are presented and analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land – Observation and Monitoring)
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17 pages, 5808 KiB  
Article
Spatial Liminality as a Framework for Revitalising Dilapidated Abandoned Buildings in Historic Cities: A Case Study
by Hamed Tavakoli, Massoomeh Hedayati Marzbali and Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki
Land 2023, 12(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040931 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
This paper develops the theory of liminality as a guideline for revitalising disused urban fabrics in historic cities. Since Middle Eastern historic cities exist as a transitional phenomenon, spatial liminality is identified as an epistemological tool for their investigation. This paper sets up [...] Read more.
This paper develops the theory of liminality as a guideline for revitalising disused urban fabrics in historic cities. Since Middle Eastern historic cities exist as a transitional phenomenon, spatial liminality is identified as an epistemological tool for their investigation. This paper sets up a mixed-method approach based on questionnaire surveys and field studies in twelve urban blocks in historic Yazd and Kashan. Using an interpretive historical study, it is verified that, during the premodern eras, spatial liminality has been synonymous with the formation of sense of place/citizenship, mainly generated as a result of the existence of in-between spaces in historic cities, which, in turn, could have facilitated the rites of passage for residents. In a quantitative layer, the correlation between dilapidated abandoned buildings (DABs) (i.e., disused urban fabrics) and sense of place/citizenship is investigated in case studies, which unfolds associations that lack of sense of place amongst local communities could convey to the meaning of spatial liminality. The analysis demonstrates DABs are associated with lack of spatial liminality, contributing to the breakdown of sense of community identification/place. Therefore, DABs need to be reutilized while maintaining their heritage values. The discourse identifies in-between spaces that once facilitated spatial liminality and demonstrates a guideline for revitalising historic cities. This study put forward a theoretical contribution that enables the use of spatial liminality to guide the understanding and management of historic cities. Full article
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21 pages, 7588 KiB  
Article
Wetland Evolution and Driving Force Analysis in the Qingtongxia Reservoir Area
by Qianwen Li, Tiantian Jin, Jing Yang, Qingxu Zhao, Qidong Peng, Junqiang Lin and Di Zhang
Land 2023, 12(4), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040930 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
In recent years, the combination of river disruption and irrational human activities has caused serious damage to wetlands. Based on long-time-series remote-sensing images, this study applied the land use transfer matrix and landscape index method to investigate the dynamic evolution and driving forces [...] Read more.
In recent years, the combination of river disruption and irrational human activities has caused serious damage to wetlands. Based on long-time-series remote-sensing images, this study applied the land use transfer matrix and landscape index method to investigate the dynamic evolution and driving forces of the Qingtongxia wetland in the upper reaches of the Yellow River from 1999 to 2020. The results show that the land use types of Qingtongxia wetland changed insignificantly from 1999 to 2020, with the area of water and grassland decreasing and the area of reed wetland, beach, farmland and forest increasing. The spatial changes in the watershed changed the distribution of other land uses within the wetland, with the watershed concentrating in a southwest–northeast direction and shrinking in the southwestern part of the wetland area between years. From 1999 to 2011, the wetlands were restored, the landscape became less fragmented and simpler in shape and the dominant species developed significantly. From 2010 to 2020, the wetlands were disturbed and, as a new tourist destination, the planning and renovation work increased fragmentation and the complexity of the patches. The complexity of the patch shape increased, and, at the same time, with the implementation of various conservation measures, the development of the dominant species within recovered. The drivers of change in the different land use areas within the wetlands of the Qingtongxia reservoir are dominated by flow, and the drivers of the evolution of landscape patterns within the wetlands are closely related to the population and gross regional product, in addition to being influenced by flow. In recent years, increased fragmentation has been the main reason for the decline in bird habitat quality. Maintaining bird diversity in the wetlands of the Qingtongxia reservoir can be based on rational planning of the proportion of different land uses within the wetlands, reducing landscape fragmentation by limiting human activities in the corresponding areas, as well as appropriate flow control measures. This study provides some reference for biodiversity conservation within wetlands. Full article
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20 pages, 22399 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration from 1980 to 2020 and Future Trends in Ecosystem Services
by Yongzheng Wang, Xinchen Gu and Haoran Yu
Land 2023, 12(4), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040929 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, human activities in the Yangtze River Delta region have caused major changes in land use patterns and ecosystem functions. Clarifying the spatiotemporal change characteristics and future development trends of ecosystem service functions is [...] Read more.
Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, human activities in the Yangtze River Delta region have caused major changes in land use patterns and ecosystem functions. Clarifying the spatiotemporal change characteristics and future development trends of ecosystem service functions is the basis for rational land development and utilization. In this study, the InVEST model and the CASA model were used to calculate habitat quality, water conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, and soil conservation ecosystem services in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 1980 to 2020. The spatial pattern, change law, and future trend of these services were analyzed using the Theil–Sen median trend analysis, Mann–Kendall test, and Hurst index analysis. The results show that the four types of ecosystems in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (habitat quality, water conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, and soil conservation) exhibited an overall spatial pattern of being high in the southwest mountainous area and low in the northeast plain, and the conversion from constructed to agriculture was the most frequent type of land conversion over the past 40 years. From 1980 to 2020, the average level of habitat quality showed a downward trend and is expected to continue to deteriorate in the future. Water conservation, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, and soil conservation showed a fluctuating upward trend, with the latter two primarily predicted to have a future trend of improvement. The changes in ecosystem services exhibit gradient effects and horizontal spatial differentiation. The decline in ecosystem service functions is more pronounced in the vicinity of large cities. It is thus necessary to accelerate the transformation of the economic development model, and abandon the extensive urbanization development model, and promote high-quality urbanization development on the basis of improving resource and environmental carrying capacities. Full article
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20 pages, 11758 KiB  
Article
Predicting Urban Expansion to Assess the Change of Landscape Character Types and Its Driving Factors in the Mountain City
by Jinsen Mou, Zhaofang Chen and Junda Huang
Land 2023, 12(4), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040928 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The urban landscape is being affected by rapid urbanization, leading to a complexity of land features and a fragmentation of patches. However, many studies have focused on the prediction of land-use change with a lack of research on the landscape character types which [...] Read more.
The urban landscape is being affected by rapid urbanization, leading to a complexity of land features and a fragmentation of patches. However, many studies have focused on the prediction of land-use change with a lack of research on the landscape character types which have more integrated descriptions of land features. Hence, this study predicts and identifies landscape character types (LCTs) in different periods based on the PLUS model and the K-Medoids algorithm, taking the central city of Chongqing as an example, to reveal the differences in the influence of driving factors on LCTs. The results show that (1) the urban landscape characteristic types present a gradient change from the built-up area to the outward expansion. (2) The SHDI and LPI of landscape character types decreased significantly with the expansion of construction land. (3) Nighttime light, distance from water bodies, and distance from the motorways are the main factors affecting the change of landscape character types. This study predicts and identifies urban landscape character types and quantifies the impact of urban expansion on landscape character. It can be used to guide urban planning and help governments to make more informed decisions on sustainable urban development and ecological conservation. Full article
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14 pages, 4802 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Trajectory of Urban Impervious Surface in Two Cities: The Case of Accra and Kumasi, Ghana
by Thomas Mumuni Bilintoh, Andrews Korah, Antwi Opuni and Adeline Akansobe
Land 2023, 12(4), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040927 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
In this study, we present methods to assess newly developed urban impervious surface (UIS) datasets derived from satellite imagery of the cities of Kumasi and Accra, Ghana, at three different time points. Each city has three binary maps from 2000, 2011, and 2021, [...] Read more.
In this study, we present methods to assess newly developed urban impervious surface (UIS) datasets derived from satellite imagery of the cities of Kumasi and Accra, Ghana, at three different time points. Each city has three binary maps from 2000, 2011, and 2021, in which one shows the presence of UIS and zero shows its absence. We employed the binaryTimeSeries method to compare the gross gains and losses in the two cities. In addition, we show how three components of change—quantity, allocation, and alternation—compare across the two sites. The results show that both cities experienced a large proportion of gains during the change in impervious surfaces between 2000 and 2011, and 2011 and 2021, with relatively smaller loss proportions and alternations. Comparatively, the results from the components of change show that change is fastest in Kumasi, which had a larger proportion of quantity gain. Our methods show an acceleration in UIS in the two cities during the temporal extent, and this trend is likely to continue with increasing urban populations. As a result, we recommend that the Land Use and Spatial Planning Authority, Town and Country Planning and other stakeholders make contingency plans to regulate the unplanned increase in UIS, since other studies have shown their negative effects on people and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Form and the Urban Heat Island Effect)
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18 pages, 6382 KiB  
Article
Weed Seed Banks in Intensive Farmland and the Influence of Tillage, Field Position, and Sown Flower Strips
by Liesa Schnee, Laura M. E. Sutcliffe, Christoph Leuschner and Tobias W. Donath
Land 2023, 12(4), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040926 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Agricultural intensification has caused once diverse arable fields to become species-poor. Their seed banks, which are fundamental for re-establishment and maintenance of plant communities in such repeatedly disturbed environments, are now largely depleted. In order to advise farmers on the successful implementation of [...] Read more.
Agricultural intensification has caused once diverse arable fields to become species-poor. Their seed banks, which are fundamental for re-establishment and maintenance of plant communities in such repeatedly disturbed environments, are now largely depleted. In order to advise farmers on the successful implementation of agri-environmental measures, as well as reduce potential subsequent costs of continued weed control, understanding seed bank dynamics in relation to aboveground vegetation is essential. We (1) investigated the change in seed bank composition in the field edge and the interior, and (2) analyzed the seed bank in flower strips and adjacent fields in relation to the aboveground vegetation on intensively managed arable farms across Germany. Low-tillage systems contained more plant species and higher seed densities in the seed bank than regularly ploughed fields. Species diversity at the field edge was higher than in the field interior, with a continuous decrease in the number of species and seed density within the first 2 m from the edge. Flower strips can lead to an enrichment of the seed bank, but it is driven by the strong rise in a few common species such as Chenopodium album. To cultivate successful flower strips, we recommend close onsite monitoring, as well as rapid intervention in the case of weed infestation. Full article
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19 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
How Pacifika Arts Reveal Interconnected Losses for People and Place in a Changing Climate
by Rachel Clissold, Ellie Furlong, Karen E. McNamara, Ross Westoby and Anita Latai-Niusulu
Land 2023, 12(4), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040925 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The loss and damage transpiring because of anthropogenic climate change is a confronting reality, especially for frontline communities of the Pacific Islands. Understandings and assessments of loss and damage often fall short on coverage of intangible and noneconomic dimensions, such as losses to [...] Read more.
The loss and damage transpiring because of anthropogenic climate change is a confronting reality, especially for frontline communities of the Pacific Islands. Understandings and assessments of loss and damage often fall short on coverage of intangible and noneconomic dimensions, such as losses to culture, place, Indigenous knowledge, and biodiversity, among others. In responding to this knowledge deficit, this paper turns its attention to the burgeoning Pacifika arts community because creative and cultural expressions have been critical avenues for sharing experiences, navigating loss, and exploring grief throughout history, including in the context of climate-driven loss. We analyse a series of Pacifika spoken, written, and visual items (n = 44), including visual art, poetry, song, film, documentary, and theatre, to identify the key categories and themes of noneconomic loss and damage (NELD) that emerge, better understand their nature, indicate their levels of prominence, reflect on them in relation to existing NELD frameworks and categories, and identify strategies for processing and coping. Our findings add to existing understandings of losses to territory, cultural heritage, human mobility, and health while also putting forward identity and agency as additional prominent NELD types. We emphasise that loss occurs within an interconnected and complex system that is centred on the critical relationships between people and their land, and greater attention must be paid to this interconnectivity as the foundation of identity and wellbeing. These perspectives enable stakeholders to better integrate experiences of NELD into future planning efforts so that they are not skewed (i.e., considering only economic loss and damage) or discounting people’s experiences. This will be critical for holistically building greater resilience and for communication in international fora and climate negotiations. Full article
15 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Social-Ecological System Vulnerability in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area
by Jiangyun Li and Mingbao Chen
Land 2023, 12(4), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040924 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Catalyzed by global change and human activities, social and ecosystems are constantly under increasingly dynamic transformations. The Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area (GBA), bordering the South China Sea and located in the Pearl River Delta Plain, is a typical region of complex SESs [...] Read more.
Catalyzed by global change and human activities, social and ecosystems are constantly under increasingly dynamic transformations. The Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area (GBA), bordering the South China Sea and located in the Pearl River Delta Plain, is a typical region of complex SESs with rapid socioeconomic development but severe ecosystem degradation. Therefore, based on the relevant data of 11 GBA cities from 2010–2020, this paper constructs an indicator system for assessing land–sea SESs by extracting from three aspects: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Through the construction of a vulnerability assessment indicator system, via the explicit spatial vulnerability indicator calculation model, and vulnerability factor diagnostic model, this study comprehensively analyzes vulnerability levels, spatiotemporal evolution, and SES vulnerability factors. The study found that, since 2010, the SES vulnerability of the GBA has shown an overall trend of alleviation, and the overall geographical distribution of classified vulnerability levels is rather concentrated, with cities around the Pearl River Estuary relatively less vulnerable. The augmentation of per-capita fiscal expenditure, per-capita gross regional product, and decent air quality rate are the critical ingredients to remedy the vulnerability in the GBA. Full article
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14 pages, 8089 KiB  
Article
Land Use Simulation and Landscape Ecological Risk Assessment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
by Nansha Sun, Qiong Chen, Fenggui Liu, Qiang Zhou, Wenxin He and Yuanyuan Guo
Land 2023, 12(4), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040923 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The land use and land cover pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an important basis for the structure and function of the QTP ecological barrier. It is of great significance to simulate the land use pattern and landscape ecological risk of the [...] Read more.
The land use and land cover pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an important basis for the structure and function of the QTP ecological barrier. It is of great significance to simulate the land use pattern and landscape ecological risk of the QTP under future scenarios for the construction of the QTP barrier area and to promote the sustainable use of land resources. The QTP was selected as the study area. Based on the spatial pattern of land use in 2010 and 2020, the PLUS model was used to predict the land use patterns of the QTP in 2030 under the two scenarios of natural development and ecological conservation. The landscape ecological risk index was constructed to evaluate the past, present, and future landscape ecological risk of the QTP. The natural break point method was used to divide the landscape ecological risk index into five levels: lower ecological risk, low ecological risk, medium ecological risk, high ecological risk, and higher ecological risk. The results showed that: (1) Under the natural development scenario, the area of cropland, forestland, grassland, and unused land decreased continuously, while the areas of water and built-up land increased gradually. Under the ecological conservation scenario, the areas of forestland and grassland increased by 130 km2 and 2293 km2, respectively, compared with the natural development scenario. (2) Under the natural development scenario, the overall ecological risk of the QTP increased from 2010 to 2030, which showed that the proportions of lower ecological risk area decreased, while the proportion of medium and high ecological risk area increased. Under the ecological conservation scenario, compared with the natural development scenario, the area of lower, low, and high ecological risk increased by 4044 km2, 2484 km2, and 6401 km2, respectively, while the areas of medium and higher ecological risk decreased by 6333 km2 and 6597 km2, respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Civil Society Mobilizations Shaping Landscape in Genoa and Girona Areas: Results and Lessons Learnt from the Savingscapes Project
by Ilaria Delponte, Valentina Costa, Sergi Nuss Girona and Joan Vicente Rufi
Land 2023, 12(4), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040922 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This paper deals with the results of the “SavingScapes” research project, where Girona (SP) and Genoa (IT) areas were chosen as case studies to assess the role and relevance of civil society in landscape alteration and conservation. These contexts share many features which [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the results of the “SavingScapes” research project, where Girona (SP) and Genoa (IT) areas were chosen as case studies to assess the role and relevance of civil society in landscape alteration and conservation. These contexts share many features which led to similar transformative pressures and consequent deeply rooted place attachment clashing in the form of social mobilizations. Nevertheless, the civil society approach and actions proved profoundly different. Hence, there is a need to define a shared methodology to make them comparable. The authors define seven categories, ranging from defeat to prefigurative politics, to assess local mobilization in terms of territorial impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Architecture and Design in Urban and Peri-Urban Environment)
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15 pages, 1995 KiB  
Article
Native and Dryland Pasture Seed Mixes Impact Revegetation 12 Years after Pipeline Construction in Southern Alberta
by D. Kelly Ostermann, Amalesh Dhar and M. Anne Naeth
Land 2023, 12(4), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040921 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Activities associated with agriculture, grazing, and the energy industry have altered large tracts of native rangeland in North America. Pipelining causes intense local disturbance by removal of vegetation and alterations to soil horizons. Following a disturbance, reclamation is required to return the land [...] Read more.
Activities associated with agriculture, grazing, and the energy industry have altered large tracts of native rangeland in North America. Pipelining causes intense local disturbance by removal of vegetation and alterations to soil horizons. Following a disturbance, reclamation is required to return the land to equivalent land capability. Revegetation is usually by seeding native and/or agronomic (non-native, dominant) species. This study investigated the long-term effects of native and dryland pasture (91% non-native species) seed mixes, grazing, and right-of-way (RoW) treatments on revegetation of native rangeland in southeastern Alberta. Native seed mixes were more successful at enhancing seeded vegetation cover than dryland pasture seed mixes. Grazing had a significant impact only on the survival of non-native grasses. The seed mix did not significantly affect total, native, non-native, annual, or perennial forb cover. Total forb cover was significantly higher on the trench with the dryland pasture seed mix than all other RoW treatments (storage, work). This long-term study suggests that native seed mixes can result in successful revegetation of reclamation following pipeline construction. Full article
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16 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Mountain Urbanisation: Evidence from the Trans-Himalayan Town of Kargil, Ladakh, India
by Altaf Hussain, Susanne Schmidt and Marcus Nüsser
Land 2023, 12(4), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040920 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 4541
Abstract
Small and medium-sized towns in the high mountain regions of South Asia are characterised by rapid and mostly unplanned urbanisation processes, regularly resulting in an increased risk of urban agglomerations being exposed to natural hazards. After the administrative capital of Leh, Kargil town [...] Read more.
Small and medium-sized towns in the high mountain regions of South Asia are characterised by rapid and mostly unplanned urbanisation processes, regularly resulting in an increased risk of urban agglomerations being exposed to natural hazards. After the administrative capital of Leh, Kargil town is the second-largest urban centre in the Union Territory (UT) of Ladakh. This article discusses the development and dynamics of the Trans-Himalayan town in terms of its historical development, expansion and population; land use and land cover (LULC) change; and the specific role of tourism. Based on a multi-temporal approach using high-resolution satellite images, statistical data and field surveys, the urban landscape dynamics of Kargil town are analysed. The total population of this town increased almost tenfold from 1681 in 1961 to 16,338 in 2011, which resulted in an increase in the urban population from 3.7% to 11.6%, while the population of the entire Kargil district only tripled from 45,064 to 140,802 over the same period. Migration from rural villages to Kargil town has been a major cause for the construction and growth of new residential colonies and settlements. The built-up area increased more than ninefold from 0.25 km2 (1.3%) to 2.30 km2 (11.7%) between 1965 and 2020. During the same period, irrigated land and hygrophilous vegetation increased considerably from 4.51 km2 (23.0%) to 8.56 km2 (43.6%) due to the construction of new water channels. Similarly, the barren area decreased significantly from 14.88 km2 (75.8%) to 8.78 km2 (44.7%) between 1965 and 2020. Moreover, the massive increase in tourist arrivals has led to the construction of more hotels, guesthouses and travel agencies. These key factors play a significant role in the emergence, growth and development of this high-mountain town. Full article
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29 pages, 20576 KiB  
Article
Merging Green and Active Transportation Infrastructure towards an Equitable Accessibility to Green Areas: Barcelona Green Axes
by Francesc Magrinyà, Josep Mercadé-Aloy and Borja Ruiz-Apilánez
Land 2023, 12(4), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040919 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5011
Abstract
The UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for the provision of universal access to: (a) safe, inclusive, and accessible green and public spaces, and (b) safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable transport systems for all. The Barcelona green axes plan aims to transform [...] Read more.
The UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for the provision of universal access to: (a) safe, inclusive, and accessible green and public spaces, and (b) safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable transport systems for all. The Barcelona green axes plan aims to transform one third of the streets within its 19th century extension grid, increasing the tree cover and the vegetation, adopting sustainable urban drainage systems, limiting motor traffic, and providing a safer and more comfortable environment for pedestrians, cyclists, and other social activities in healthier environments. These transformations become even greater at the intersection of the axes, where former traffic junctions are becoming squares and urban gardens. This study gives an in-depth analysis of the origins of the superblocks plan, the rationale behind the transformation, and the implementation process. The GIS-based analysis shows how the green axes and the new square gardens (a) transform the city’s disconnected urban green areas into a more interconnected green infrastructure system, and (b) significantly increase accessibility to green areas. The study reveals this strategy’s potential to create a city of proximity, improve the well-being of the population, and build a more equitable city, which could be a useful tool for planning and decision making at both city and regional levels. Full article
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23 pages, 1810 KiB  
Article
Classification of Rural Relative Poverty Groups and Measurement of the Influence of Land Elements: A Questionnaire-Based Analysis of 23 Poor Counties in China
by Keming Huang and Fangzhou Xia
Land 2023, 12(4), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040918 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
In 2021, China achieved an all-round victory in the fight against poverty and completed the task of eliminating absolute poverty. However, relative poverty will still exist for a long time. According to the degree of relative poverty, this paper divided rural population into [...] Read more.
In 2021, China achieved an all-round victory in the fight against poverty and completed the task of eliminating absolute poverty. However, relative poverty will still exist for a long time. According to the degree of relative poverty, this paper divided rural population into four groups, incapability group, vulnerable group, marginal group and non-relative poverty group, to further explore the differences in specific land elements requirements among different groups. Firstly, ten factors were selected as evaluation indexes, including per capita household income, education level, poverty registration situation, employment situation, critical disease situation, natural disaster frequency situation, etc. By extracting 100 relative poverty group evaluation units as samples, the authors established a decision tree for rural relative poverty group evaluation based on an improved ID3 algorithm. Secondly, we quantified the effect of different land elements. Considering the resource, asset and capital function of land, this paper constructed an ordered logistic model with four groups as classification variables. The result showed that: (1) a better condition of land resource endowment leads to a lower degree of rural relative poverty; however, over-reliance on land increases the risk of relative poverty; (2) except for cultivation income and land transfer income, asset value and capital value of rural land are not evident. Suggestions are put forward: use land elements to build a long-term mechanism for rural relative poverty alleviation; improve the quantity, quality and spatial endowment of rural land resources; optimize the rural land property rights and land acquisition system; realize the market-based mechanism for rural land transfer; and implement the policy of Increase and Decrease Connection of Urban and Rural Construction Land. Full article
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26 pages, 11528 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scenario Land Use Simulation and Land Use Conflict Assessment Based on the CLUMondo Model: A Case Study of Liyang, China
by Xiangnan Fan, Yuning Cheng and Yicheng Li
Land 2023, 12(4), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040917 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
By predicting and analyzing regional land use conflicts (LUCs), the contradictory relationship between urban development and land resources can be revealed, which can assist in achieving the rational use of land resources. Taking Liyang as a case study, this paper simulated land use [...] Read more.
By predicting and analyzing regional land use conflicts (LUCs), the contradictory relationship between urban development and land resources can be revealed, which can assist in achieving the rational use of land resources. Taking Liyang as a case study, this paper simulated land use in 2030 under three scenarios, namely, the natural growth scenario (NGS), economic development scenario (EDS), and ecological protection scenario (EPS), using the CLUMondo model. The ecological risk assessment model was used to measure the LUCs under each scenario. Through the comprehensive analysis of land use conversion, spatial distribution, and the change characteristics of LUCs, optimization strategies for future land use are proposed. The results indicate that (1) the intensity of land conversion under the three scenarios is ranked as EDS > NGS > EPS; (2) there is little change in the LUCs under the EPS, while significant deterioration is observed under the NGS and EDS; (3) the intensity of LUCs is positively correlated with the degree of land use conversion; and (4) in the future, particular attention should be paid to areas around the city center, the Caoshan Development Zone in the northwest, and Nanshan Bamboo Sea in the south, where high-intensity land use conflicts may occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Planning and Land-Use Management)
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24 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
Leading or Constraining? Development of New-Type Urbanization under Economic Growth Targets
by Boxi Deng and Fanglei Zhong
Land 2023, 12(4), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040916 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
As an overarching goal, economic growth targets have a strong leading and constraining effect on the behavior of local governments. China’s new-type urbanization strategy emphasizes balanced development across population, economic, social, space, ecological and income-gap dimensions and relies on multifaceted government policies. Therefore, [...] Read more.
As an overarching goal, economic growth targets have a strong leading and constraining effect on the behavior of local governments. China’s new-type urbanization strategy emphasizes balanced development across population, economic, social, space, ecological and income-gap dimensions and relies on multifaceted government policies. Therefore, setting reasonable economic growth targets has an important impact on the process of new-type urbanization. This paper uses panel data from 30 provinces between 2005 and 2020 to empirically examine the impact of economic growth targets on the new-type urbanization process. The results reveal an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth targets and new-type urbanization, with public expenditure and land finance acting as a mediator and a moderator through fiscal expenditure. The mechanisms of influence are as follows: economic growth target—infrastructure construction, regional innovation, energy structure, and financial development—population development, economic quality, ecological civilization, and income gap—new-type urbanization. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the inverted U-shaped relationship is significantly present in the western and central regions of China and before 2014. This paper not only clearly illustrates the institutional mechanism of urbanization in China but also highlights its government-led and “land-for-security” approach, which has important implications for urbanization in other regions of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Regeneration and Local Development)
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17 pages, 33463 KiB  
Article
Vulnerability of Wheat Crops to Flooding Outweighs Benefits from Precision Farming and Agroecology Practices: A Case Study in Central Italy
by Enrico Santangelo, Claudio Beni, Loredana Oreti, Adriano Palma and Marco Bascietto
Land 2023, 12(4), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040915 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
This study aimed at testing whether the integration of precision farming (PF) and agroecological practices could influence wheat yield in the short term on soils exposed to varying degrees of risk from flooding. The study embraced two years (2018–2019 and 2020–2021) of wheat [...] Read more.
This study aimed at testing whether the integration of precision farming (PF) and agroecological practices could influence wheat yield in the short term on soils exposed to varying degrees of risk from flooding. The study embraced two years (2018–2019 and 2020–2021) of wheat cultivation in Central Italy. A two-way factorial grid with agronomic practice (two levels: agroecology vs. conventional on-farm management) and soil vulnerability to flooding (three levels: extreme, mild, non-vulnerable) as factors was set up. The agroecology level included a number of agroecology practices (rotation, use of nitrogen-fixing crops, mulching, and reduction in chemical fertilization). Crop phenology and photosynthetic activity of wheat was monitored by remotely-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Grain yield was estimated at twenty sampling points at the end of year 2. A flooding event occurred during year 2, which led to significantly lower photosynthetic activity compared to year 1 in extremely vulnerable plots regardless of agronomic practices. Grain yield measurements confirmed that vulnerability was the sole factor significantly affecting yield. The study concludes that food security on vulnerable land can be guaranteed only when precision farming and agroecological practices are coupled with water management techniques that strengthen the resilience of vulnerable soils to floods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land–Climate Interactions)
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18 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Consequences of Making Land Change Decisions Based on Current Climatology in the Brazilian Cerrados
by Daniel S. Silva and Eugenio Y. Arima
Land 2023, 12(4), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040914 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Brazil is one of the largest suppliers of commodities in the world, partly due to the agricultural expansion in the Brazilian savannas (also known as Cerrado) that began in the 1970s. However, as areas with better soil and climate for agriculture become scarce, [...] Read more.
Brazil is one of the largest suppliers of commodities in the world, partly due to the agricultural expansion in the Brazilian savannas (also known as Cerrado) that began in the 1970s. However, as areas with better soil and climate for agriculture become scarce, farmers have been advancing to the ecotone between the savanna and xeric shrubland, where precipitation is less reliable for rainfed agriculture. The expected increase in temperature will lead to extended drought periods, with negative consequences for surface and groundwater resources. This study explores the hazards associated with making land-use decisions based on current climatology in regions where projected increases in temperature and reductions in water availability are anticipated to pose significant challenges to rainfed agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. We modeled future farmland expansion and how that matches with future climate change predictions (2016–2046). According to our estimates, at least 129 thousand km2 of cropland and 418 thousand km2 of pastures will be added in places with projected higher annual temperatures ranging from 26–30 °C. This is equivalent to ~60% of the current agricultural areas, and a novel agro-climatology will emerge for the Cerrado biome. Therefore, we discuss the agro-environmental policies that are pushing and pulling farmland expansion in the Cerrado. For instance, payments for environmental services could support the conservation of native vegetation on private land in regions with the highest temperature increases and deforestation risks. Moreover, in areas with expected reduced water yields, such as in the western Cerrado, the protection of riparian vegetation and strict regulation of water use could mitigate future risks to agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Savanna Variation in Form and Function: Theory & Practice)
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18 pages, 4399 KiB  
Article
Chemical Weathering Rates of Soils Developed on Eocene Marls and Sandstones in a Mediterranean Catchment (Istria, Croatia)
by Ozren Hasan, Slobodan Miko, Saša Mesić and Zoran Peh
Land 2023, 12(4), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040913 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Physical and chemical weathering, together with biological and biochemical processes, form soil from bedrock and strongly influence the chemical composition of natural waters. Erosive processes, primarily through the agents of running water and wind, remove the products of weathering from catchments. The aim [...] Read more.
Physical and chemical weathering, together with biological and biochemical processes, form soil from bedrock and strongly influence the chemical composition of natural waters. Erosive processes, primarily through the agents of running water and wind, remove the products of weathering from catchments. The aim was to determine the chemical weathering of minerals because of changes in land-use and natural forestation in two small neighboring catchments of the rivers Argilla and Bazuja. Agricultural land-use practice is very intense in the Argilla catchment, while the Bazuja catchment’s arable land is mostly abandoned, with progressive forestation. Chemical weathering in soils and sediments was evaluated with the aid of bulk chemistry analysis focused on major elements, trace elements, and zirconium. Weathering indices, mass balance, and strain were calculated. The abandonment of arable land and intense forestation in the Bazuja catchment caused increased chemical weathering with the loss of base cations (Ca and Mg) and enrichment of conservative elements (Zr and Ti) in surface horizons. EIC and MTF values are positive (enrichment) in areas with agricultural activities, while forested areas show negative values (loss). A comparison of the oldest and youngest parts of the overbank sediment profiles in the swallow hole zone and stream sediments shows that chemical and mechanical weathering in the Bazuja catchment was similar to present weathering in the Argilla catchment, while agriculture was active in the Bazuja catchment. The integrated knowledge gained in small catchment studies can be broadly applicable to larger systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil-Sediment-Water Systems)
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21 pages, 4631 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Job Accessibility and Residential Location on Housing Occupancy Rate: A Case Study of Xiamen, China
by Feng Ren, Jinbo Zhang and Xiuyun Yang
Land 2023, 12(4), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040912 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The serious mismatch between industrialization and urbanization has led to the emergence of ghost cities. Industry-and-city integration aims to agglomerate industries and the population simultaneously by coordinating the planning and construction, and by mixing different functional areas including industry, office, living, and commercial [...] Read more.
The serious mismatch between industrialization and urbanization has led to the emergence of ghost cities. Industry-and-city integration aims to agglomerate industries and the population simultaneously by coordinating the planning and construction, and by mixing different functional areas including industry, office, living, and commercial functions. Based on the population spatial vector database of Jimei District in Xiamen in 2020, this paper empirically analyzes the effects of spatial patterns between industry and city, in terms of residential location and job accessibility, on the housing occupancy rate in new towns and cities. The findings demonstrate that: (1) The attraction of residential location to population varies among three different urban expansion models. The housing occupancy rate of residential areas that meet the concentric circle model is the highest, followed by the sector model, and the multiple nuclei model is the lowest; (2) The jobs–housing relationship has a stable and positive impact on the occupancy rate of commercial housing in the new town, which verifies that job accessibility is the basic demand for families’ residential location choice; (3) There is a significant pattern difference in the influence of job accessibility on the occupancy rate. The occupancy rate of the sector model residential area is highly dependent on job accessibility: the higher the job accessibility, the lower the occupancy rate of the concentric residential area, while job accessibility has a weak impact on the occupancy rate of the multiple nuclei residential area. The conclusions suggest that the spatial planning of new towns should include a clear population absorbing strategy, and the residential location should follow the expansion law of the urban residential functional area, balance the relationship between industrial agglomeration and the job–housing relationship, and allocate life factors in a targeted manner according to the actual impact of job accessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land Development in the Process of Urbanization)
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12 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Land Diversification and Its Contribution to Farms’ Income
by Anna Tafidou, Evgenia Lialia, Angelos Prentzas, Asimina Kouriati, Eleni Dimitriadou, Christina Moulogianni and Thomas Bournaris
Land 2023, 12(4), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040911 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
Management and utilization of factors of production, in addition to diversification of land use, affect the performance of farms. In this article, it is identified whether the diversification of land use through its disposal to tourism infrastructure has a positive impact on the [...] Read more.
Management and utilization of factors of production, in addition to diversification of land use, affect the performance of farms. In this article, it is identified whether the diversification of land use through its disposal to tourism infrastructure has a positive impact on the farms’ income. This identification was conducted by processing technical and economic data and applying bootstrap regression analysis. The research was conducted using a sample of 56 farms active in hospitality alongside agriculture, utilizing possibly uncultivated areas of land. Data collection was carried out by personal visits to the examined farms. The results showed that the performance of the farms is enhanced by tourism activity. At the same time, the results showed that land used for tourism activities has a positive impact on farms’ income. Paid labor also appears to have a positive influence. Although this investigation was executed in the Region of Central Macedonia (Greece), it contributes to strengthening the existing literature on rural tourism and land use. At the same time, it gives alternatives to policy-makers and owner-managers of farms regarding the utilization of the available factors of production with an emphasis on the land one. Full article
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14 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Land Use for Rural Tourism in Areas That Eliminated Poverty
by Yuanli Liu, Heping Liao, Jiqing Qiu and Yan Liu
Land 2023, 12(4), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040910 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
This study explores the spatiotemporal characteristics and driving factors of land use for rural tourism in areas that eliminated poverty from 2009 to 2021. It puts forward targeted governance measures to promote the high-quality development of rural tourism, poverty alleviation, and rural revitalization. [...] Read more.
This study explores the spatiotemporal characteristics and driving factors of land use for rural tourism in areas that eliminated poverty from 2009 to 2021. It puts forward targeted governance measures to promote the high-quality development of rural tourism, poverty alleviation, and rural revitalization. The analysis is based on exploratory spatial analysis methods and geographical detectors. The results show that (1) the overall level of land use for rural tourism was low but grew very quickly with large regional differences. (2) There was a significant spatial agglomeration in land use for rural tourism land. The spatial distribution of land use for rural tourism landscapes was characterized by two cores and four clusters, while spatial distribution of rural tourism facilities was characterized by one cluster with multiple branches. (3) The driving factors of spatial variations in land use for rural tourism were diverse and dynamic. Dominant factors shifted from natural conditions and geographical location to socioeconomic and tourism resources and regional policy dimensions. Policy should emphasize the development of the rural tourism industry, innovate the diversified “tourism + development” model, enhance the level of land use for rural tourism, broaden avenues for farmers to increase their income, and strengthen residents’ motivation for development. Full article
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17 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
Structural Amelioration of Soils for Sustainable Land Management
by Yurii Tsapko, Anatolii Kucher, Bahaa Meshref, Vitaliy Krupin, Albina Rozmarina, Olesya Holovina and Iryna Skorokhod
Land 2023, 12(4), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040909 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of structural soil restoration on the buffering capacities of these soils, their productivity, and the efficiency of their use as a basis for sustainable management. Based on a review of literature sources and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of structural soil restoration on the buffering capacities of these soils, their productivity, and the efficiency of their use as a basis for sustainable management. Based on a review of literature sources and our own experimental research, the proposed article shows the possibility of improving the buffering capacities of sod-podzolic cohesive sandy soils through the use of structural amelioration as an effective measure to protect them from degradation and ensure their resilience to climate change. The use of structural ameliorants (clay and peat) in the studied soils improves the granulometric composition, has a positive effect on the pH-buffering capacities, and contributes to optimizing the moisture capacity of soil. It was found that the efficiency of the application of structural amelioration on sod-podzolic cohesive sandy soils increases significantly with the local application method (e.g., clay in a dose of 10 t/ha or a combined application of clay in a dose of 2 t/ha with lowland peat in a dose of 3 t/ha). The largest yield increase in winter wheat (27.2%) was achieved by the local application of 2 t/ha of clay combined with peat in a dose of 3 t/ha. Full article
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20 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Empowerment Practice on the Rural Collective Economy: Empirical Evidence from Rural Communities in China
by Xiaowenxu Yue, Yanyan Li and Li Zhou
Land 2023, 12(4), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040908 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
As a vivid practice of urban-rural interaction, empowerment is playing an increasingly salient role in rural revitalization around the world. Yet, existing studies on empowerment practices are still insufficient. This paper examines how empowerment practices affect the economic development of rural communities in [...] Read more.
As a vivid practice of urban-rural interaction, empowerment is playing an increasingly salient role in rural revitalization around the world. Yet, existing studies on empowerment practices are still insufficient. This paper examines how empowerment practices affect the economic development of rural communities in China. This study constructs an integrated variable to measure the practice of rural empowerment in China. Data for this study were obtained from the community data of the China Rural Household Panel Survey (CRHPS) in 2017 to empirically verify the impact of empowerment practices on the rural collective economy. The results indicate that empowerment practice has a significant role in promoting the economic development of rural communities. Regarding the heterogeneity of the number of leaders, the fewer rural community leaders there are, the less empowered a village will be. For the heterogeneity of the income of the rural collective economy, the higher the income is, the more significant the promoting effect of empowerment on rural communities will be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
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16 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
How Do Heterogeneous Land Development Opportunities Affect Rural Household Nonfarm Employment: A Perspective of Spatial Regulation
by Xia Tian, Yinying Cai, Qing Yang and Jin Xie
Land 2023, 12(4), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040907 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Heterogeneous land development opportunities induced by spatial regulation produce different advantages in areas, which undoubtedly differentiates farmers’ employment. The aim of this study was to quantitatively examine its impact. We selected Moshui Lake City Park (urban development planning area), Sino-French Eco-City (industrial development [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous land development opportunities induced by spatial regulation produce different advantages in areas, which undoubtedly differentiates farmers’ employment. The aim of this study was to quantitatively examine its impact. We selected Moshui Lake City Park (urban development planning area), Sino-French Eco-City (industrial development planning area), and Chenhu International Wetland (ecological protection planning area) as its principal research areas. These regions are all located in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. After obtaining 907 valid responses from rural households, the Tobit model was adopted to identify the impact of land development opportunities on farmers’ nonfarm employment. The results show that, first, industrial development opportunity (IDO) and urban development opportunity (UDO) provide more job security than the reference group, which is ecological development opportunity (EDO), with the estimated coefficients of IDO and UDO being 0.325 and 0.944, respectively. However, a negative correlation was found between UDO and farmers’ employment selection and income. Second, heterogeneity analysis reveals that the promotion effect of land development opportunities on farmers’ employment is more significant for low- and middle-income, low-quantity, and high-quality households. Finally, further analysis shows that IDO can promote employment for all age groups, but UDO inhibits the elderly labor force from getting employed. These findings provide evidence-based insights which can enable the government to formulate land value-added distribution systems that promote balanced development between regions and stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for 'Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues' Section)
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10 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Economic Implications for Farmers in Adopting Climate Adaptation Measures in Italian Agriculture
by Simonetta De Leo, Antonella Di Fonzo, Sabrina Giuca, Marco Gaito and Guido Bonati
Land 2023, 12(4), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040906 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the economic convenience of adopting adaptation measures to climate change at farm level. Concerns raised about climate risks on agriculture indicate that adaptation of the agricultural sector to climate change is necessary [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the economic convenience of adopting adaptation measures to climate change at farm level. Concerns raised about climate risks on agriculture indicate that adaptation of the agricultural sector to climate change is necessary to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change. Despite many opportunities to implement climate adaptation measures at farm level, there are several obstacles to their adoption. Farmers’ decision to implement adaptation measures lies in the difficulty of accessing knowledge about adaptation practices and in the lack of resources for upfront investments required by adaptation. The need to investigate economic convenience in terms of costs and benefits of adopting adaptation measures to prevent or reduce damage from adverse climatic events by farmers arises from this consideration. More importantly, climate protection and management of climate change are European environmental policy objectives. However, adaptation to climate change remains complex, and literature on the costs and benefit of agricultural adaptation is limited. Based on these considerations, this paper provides an analysis of the economic convenience of adopting adaptation measures in Italian farms. The economic convenience to implement adaptation measures is calculated on the reduction of the impact of climate damage. Our results show the economic convenience of adaptation measures. These findings help to improve the still too limited access to information on adaptation policies at farm level as well as the benefits that adaptation produces in economic and environmental terms, on human and ecosystem health. This study supports farmers’ decisions in adopting climate adaptation measures and provides information for policy makers to identify specific financial instruments for adaptation measures. Full article
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