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Land, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As the Arctic warms faster than any other region in the world, there have been startling changes to ice, land, and sea. Permafrost covers vast areas of high latitudes and altitudes, throughout the Arctic and Antarctic, but also along the Tibetan Plateau. Threats from thawing permafrost involve not only greenhouse gases and pathogens, but also impacts to ecosystems and human communities. Data sharing is essential to making sense of rapid and ongoing change. However, observational data on permafrost characteristics are largely restricted and fragmented across commercial, as well as national, authorities, including civilian and military. To that end, improving the ongoing sustainment and enhancement of permafrost monitoring systems, as well as promoting open data exchange, remains the best solution for the global understanding of permafrost. View this paper
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Article
An Analysis of the Effects of Development-Restricted Areas on Land Price Using Spatial Analysis
Land 2021, 10(6), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060660 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of development-restricted areas (DRAs) on land price. The study area used was Goyang city in South Korea, where DRAs occupy a large proportion of the city’s administrative area. To examine the economic impact [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of development-restricted areas (DRAs) on land price. The study area used was Goyang city in South Korea, where DRAs occupy a large proportion of the city’s administrative area. To examine the economic impact of the DRA, this study estimated log-linear regression models and calculated the difference between the land price determined within the DRA and the land price of the developed areas within buffers created by using a geographic information system (GIS). The results showed that a designation of DRA decreased land price, and that there was a large difference in the land price between the inner and the outer DRA, with a difference of USD 871/m2 in the average land price of the study area. These results serve as a reference for policymakers regarding land use in metropolitan areas in the future. Full article
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Article
Exploring the Distribution of Gardens in Suzhou City in the Qianlong Period through a Space Syntax Approach
Land 2021, 10(6), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060659 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
This study explored the spatial distribution of Suzhou gardens in the Qianlong period (AD 1736–1796) through an innovative method combining spatial syntax and historical textual analysis. Through a spatial syntax approach, a street axis model analysis suggested that the greater the degree of [...] Read more.
This study explored the spatial distribution of Suzhou gardens in the Qianlong period (AD 1736–1796) through an innovative method combining spatial syntax and historical textual analysis. Through a spatial syntax approach, a street axis model analysis suggested that the greater the degree of integration and prosperity of a street, the denser the distribution of gardens surrounding it. A canal axis model analysis indicated that more gardens were built around canals that were less integrated and had less traffic. The accuracy and reliability of the axis model analysis results were validated using historical documents and images. The following was observed: (1) Gardens were densely distributed in the prosperous commercial areas at the northern and southern ends of Suzhou City. The more prosperous the location of a garden, the greater the influence on its popularity. (2) Gardens were concentrated in residential areas with booming businesses. (3) Large numbers of gardens were built along canals with poor traffic functions. Building gardens by diverting water into them reflected the complementary relationship between urban geographical characteristics and garden-building techniques. (4) Gardens promoted commercial development, and commerce drove the preservation and continuation of gardens. The findings revealed the complementary relationship between garden preservation and commercial development. Full article
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Review
Managing and Reforesting Degraded Post-Mining Landscape in Indonesia: A Review
Land 2021, 10(6), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060658 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Tropical forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world, completed by huge biodiversity. An expansion in natural resource extraction through open-pit mining activities leads to increasing land and tropical forest degradation. Proper science-based practices are needed as an effort to reclaim [...] Read more.
Tropical forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world, completed by huge biodiversity. An expansion in natural resource extraction through open-pit mining activities leads to increasing land and tropical forest degradation. Proper science-based practices are needed as an effort to reclaim their function. This paper summarizes the existing practice of coal mining, covering the regulatory aspects and their reclamation obligations, the practices of coal mining from various sites with different land characteristics, and the reclamation efforts of the post-mining landscapes in Indonesia. The regulations issued accommodate the difference between mining land inside the forest area and outside the forest area, especially in the aspect of the permit authority and in evaluating the success rate of reclamation. In coal-mining practices, this paper describes starting from land clearing activities and followed by storing soil layers and overburden materials. In this step, proper handling of potentially acid-forming materials is crucial to prevent acid mine drainage. At the reclamation stage, this paper sequentially presents research results and the field applications in rearranging the overburden and soil materials, controlling acid mine drainage and erosion, and managing the drainage system, settling ponds, and pit lakes. Many efforts to reclaim post-coal-mining lands and their success rate have been reported and highlighted. Several success stories describe that post-coal-mining lands can be returned to forests that provide ecosystem services and goods. A set of science-based best management practices for post-coal-mine reforestation is needed to develop to promote the success of forest reclamation and restoration in post-coal-mining lands through the planting of high-value hardwood trees, increasing trees’ survival rates and growth, and accelerating the establishment of forest habitat through the application of proper tree planting technique. The monitoring and evaluation aspect is also crucial, as corrective action may be taken considering the different success rates for different site characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
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Article
Does Smart City Construction Improve the Green Utilization Efficiency of Urban Land?
Land 2021, 10(6), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060657 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Frontier research primarily focuses on the effect of urban development models on land use efficiency, while ignoring the effect of new-type urban development on the green land use efficiency. Accordingly, this paper employs a super efficiency slacks-based measure (super-SBM) model with undesirable outputs [...] Read more.
Frontier research primarily focuses on the effect of urban development models on land use efficiency, while ignoring the effect of new-type urban development on the green land use efficiency. Accordingly, this paper employs a super efficiency slacks-based measure (super-SBM) model with undesirable outputs to measure the green land use efficiency based on panel data from 152 prefecture-level cities for the period 2004–2017. We construct a difference-in-differences (DID) model in this paper to test the impact of smart city construction on the green utilization efficiency of urban land and its transmission mechanism. The results showed that: (1) The smart city construction significantly improved the green utilization efficiency of urban land, increasing the general efficiency by 15%. (2) There is significant city-size heterogeneity in the effect of smart city construction on improving green utilization efficiency of urban land. The policy effect is more obvious in mega cities and above than in very-large-sized cities. (3) The city-feature heterogeneity results reveal that, in cities with a higher level of human capital, financial development, and information infrastructure, the effectiveness of smart city construction in improving the green utilization efficiency of urban land are more obvious, and in cities with a higher level of financial development, the effects of the urban policy were more optimal. (4) The smart city construction promotes the green utilization efficiency of urban land through by the information industry development and the regional innovation capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Land Use and Sustainable Urban Development)
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Article
Exploring the Drivers of Sentinel-2-Derived Crop Phenology: The Joint Role of Climate, Soil, and Land Use
Land 2021, 10(6), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060656 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The exploration of crop seasonality across a region offers a way to help understand the phenological spatial patterns of complex landscapes, like agricultural ones. Knowing the role of environmental factors in influencing crop phenology patterns and processes is a key aspect for understanding [...] Read more.
The exploration of crop seasonality across a region offers a way to help understand the phenological spatial patterns of complex landscapes, like agricultural ones. Knowing the role of environmental factors in influencing crop phenology patterns and processes is a key aspect for understanding the impact of climate and land use changes on agricultural landscape dynamics. We identified pixels with similar phenological behavior (i.e., pheno-clusters) and compared them to the land cover map of the study area to assess the role of the land management component in controlling the phenological patterns identified. Results demonstrated that soil texture is the most important factor for permanent crops, while large amount of rainfall and high values of available water content are the main drivers in spring cultivations (i.e., irrigated crops). Scarce water availability (in terms of soil texture, low annual precipitation and high minimum temperature) represented the main driving factor for non-irrigated crops, whose phenology is characterized by summer drought and fall-winter productivity. Compared to vegetation maps that use only land cover from a single season or period, using seasonality of the NDVI time series to classify the agricultural landscape provides different and more ecologically relevant information about croplands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Systems and Global Change)
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Article
Exploring Effective Built Environment Factors for Evaluating Pedestrian Volume in High-Density Areas: A New Finding for the Central Business District in Melbourne, Australia
Land 2021, 10(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060655 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Previous studies have mostly examined how sustainable cities try to promote non-motorized travel by creating a walking-friendly environment. Such existing studies provide little data that identifies how the built environment affects pedestrian volume in high-density areas. This paper presents a methodology that combines [...] Read more.
Previous studies have mostly examined how sustainable cities try to promote non-motorized travel by creating a walking-friendly environment. Such existing studies provide little data that identifies how the built environment affects pedestrian volume in high-density areas. This paper presents a methodology that combines person correlation analysis, stepwise regression, and principal component analysis for exploring the internal correlation and potential impact of built environment variables. To study this relationship, cross-sectional data in the Melbourne central business district were selected. Pearson’s correlation coefficient confirmed that visible green ratio and intersection density were not correlated to pedestrian volume. The results from stepwise regression showed that land-use mix degree, public transit stop density, and employment density could be associated with pedestrian volume. Moreover, two principal components were extracted by factor analysis. The result of the first component yielded an internal correlation where land-use and amenities components were positively associated with the pedestrian volume. Component 2 presents parking facilities density, which negatively relates to the pedestrian volume. Based on the results, existing street problems and policy recommendations were put forward to suggest diversifying community service within walking distance, improving the service level of the public transit system, and restricting on-street parking in Melbourne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
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Article
Tracking Deformation Processes at the Legnica Glogow Copper District (Poland) by Satellite InSAR—II: Żelazny Most Tailings Dam
Land 2021, 10(6), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060654 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The failures of tailings dams have a major negative impact on the economy, surrounding properties, and people’s lives, and therefore the monitoring of these facilities is crucial to mitigate the risk of failure, but this can be challenging due to their size and [...] Read more.
The failures of tailings dams have a major negative impact on the economy, surrounding properties, and people’s lives, and therefore the monitoring of these facilities is crucial to mitigate the risk of failure, but this can be challenging due to their size and inaccessibility. In this work, the deformation processes at Żelazny Most tailings dam (Poland) were analyzed using satellite Ad-vanced Differential SAR Interferometry (A-DInSAR) from October 2014 to April 2019, showing that the dam is affected by both settlements (with a maximum rate of 30 mm/yr), and horizontal sliding in radial direction with respect to the ponds. The load of the tailings is pushing the dam forward along the glacio-tectonic shear planes located at depth, in the Pliocene clays, causing horizontal displacements at a rate up to 30 mm/yr, which could lead to a passive failure of the dam. The measured displacements have been compared with the ones observed by in situ data from the 90s to 2013, available in the literature. The outcomes indicate that intense localized deformations occur in the eastern and northern sectors of the dam, while the western sector is deforming evenly. Moreover, although the horizontal deformation had a slowdown from 2010 until 2013, it continued in 2014 to 2019 with recovered intensity. The upper and the recent embankments are affected by major settlements, possibly due to a lower consolidation degree of the most recent tailings and a larger thickness of compressible materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomatics for Resource Monitoring and Management)
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Article
Tracking Deformation Processes at the Legnica Glogow Copper District (Poland) by Satellite InSAR—I: Room and Pillar Mine District
Land 2021, 10(6), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060653 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Mining exploitation leads to slow or rapid ground subsidence resulting from deformation until the collapse of underground post-mining voids following excavation activities. Satellite SAR interferometry capabilities for the evaluation of ground movements allows the monitoring of intensive surface mine subsidence and can provide [...] Read more.
Mining exploitation leads to slow or rapid ground subsidence resulting from deformation until the collapse of underground post-mining voids following excavation activities. Satellite SAR interferometry capabilities for the evaluation of ground movements allows the monitoring of intensive surface mine subsidence and can provide new knowledge about the risks in the mining industry. This work integrates both conventional and advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) to study the ground subsidence in the Legnica Glogow Copper District (LGCD, Poland) by processing about 400 Sentinel-1 images from October 2014 to April 2019. Even without field data and information on past and ongoing excavation activities, the DInSAR approach allowed us to identify 30 troughs of subsidence, ranging from 500 m to 2.5 km in diameter, which in some cases, took place several times during the analyzed time span. The cumulative subsidence in 4 years and 7 months exceeds 70 cm in several zones of the LGCD. The sub-centimetric precision achieved by advanced analysis (A-DInSAR), allowed us to monitor the real extent of the mining influence area on the surface, with deformation velocities of up to 50 mm/year. The ground deformation detected at LGCD can be due to both mining-induced tremors and roof subsidence above the underground excavation rooms. As deformations do not occur concurrently with tremors, this can be related to excavation activities or to degradation of abandoned mines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomatics for Resource Monitoring and Management)
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Article
Are Local Authorities Building Their Capacity to Plan for Reduced Climate Impact? A Longitudinal Analysis of Swedish Comprehensive Plans
Land 2021, 10(6), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060652 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Spatial planning conducted by the local authorities has been identified as a key part of shaping carbon-neutral societies. Nevertheless, the question of whether local authorities are building their institutional capacity for integrating climate change mitigation aspects into spatial planning remains under-researched. This paper [...] Read more.
Spatial planning conducted by the local authorities has been identified as a key part of shaping carbon-neutral societies. Nevertheless, the question of whether local authorities are building their institutional capacity for integrating climate change mitigation aspects into spatial planning remains under-researched. This paper aims to fill this gap while also analysing the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in facilitating organisational learning. The methods employed were a longitudinal document analysis of Comprehensive Plans belonging to eight municipalities in Stockholm County, complemented by a focus group interview. A significant difference was identified, as the recently adopted Comprehensive Plans included more strategies for climate change mitigation and, to a greater extent, linked these strategies to reduced climate impact or energy efficiency than previously adopted Comprehensive Plans. However, numerous additional strategies could have been given further consideration in each studied Comprehensive Plan. Thus, this calls for more continuous and cyclical comprehensive planning processes to facilitate capacity building, primarily by being a vehicle for mobilising political support. Lastly, the findings indicate that SEA can lead to organisational learning of both single-loop and double-loop nature, where the latter can enable SEA to shape the planning process in a more profound and sustainability-oriented manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Planning Processes to XXI Century Cities)
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Article
Nature-Based Urbanization: Scan Opportunities, Determine Directions and Create Inspiring Ecologies
Land 2021, 10(6), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060651 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
To base urbanization on nature, inspiring ecologies are necessary. The concept of nature-based solutions (NBS) could be helpful in achieving this goal. State of the art urban planning starts from the aim to realize a (part of) a city, not to improve natural [...] Read more.
To base urbanization on nature, inspiring ecologies are necessary. The concept of nature-based solutions (NBS) could be helpful in achieving this goal. State of the art urban planning starts from the aim to realize a (part of) a city, not to improve natural quality or increase biodiversity. The aim of this article is to introduce a planning approach that puts the ecological landscape first, before embedding urban development. This ambition is explored using three NBS frameworks as the input for a series of design workshops, which conceived a regional plan for the Western Sydney Parklands in Australia. From these frameworks, elements were derived at three abstraction levels as the input for the design process: envisioning a long-term future (scanning the opportunities), evaluating the benefits and disadvantages, and identifying a common direction for the design (determining directions), and implementing concrete spatial cross-cutting solutions (creating inspiring ecologies), ultimately resulting in a regional landscape-based plan. The findings of this research demonstrate that, at every abstraction, a specific outcome is found: a mapped ecological landscape showing the options for urbanization, formulating a food-forest strategy as the commonly found direction for the design, and a regional plan that builds from the landscape ecologies adding layers of productive ecologies and urban synergies. By using NBS-frameworks, the potentials of putting the ecological landscape first in the planning process is illuminated, and urbanization can become resilient and nature-inclusive. Future research should emphasize the balance that should be established between the NBS-frameworks and the design approach, as an overly technocratic and all-encompassing framework prevents the freedom of thought that is needed to come to fruitful design propositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflecting on the Future of the Built Environment)
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Article
Prioritization of Sub-Watersheds to Sediment Yield and Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Highland Ethiopia, Finchaa Catchment
Land 2021, 10(6), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060650 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Excessive soil loss and sediment yield in the highlands of Ethiopia are the primary factors that accelerate the decline of land productivity, water resources, operation and function of existing water infrastructure, as well as soil and water management practices. This study was conducted [...] Read more.
Excessive soil loss and sediment yield in the highlands of Ethiopia are the primary factors that accelerate the decline of land productivity, water resources, operation and function of existing water infrastructure, as well as soil and water management practices. This study was conducted at Finchaa catchment in the Upper Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia to estimate the rate of soil erosion and sediment loss and prioritize the most sensitive sub-watersheds using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated using the observed streamflow and sediment data. The average annual sediment yield (SY) in Finchaa catchment for the period 1990–2015 was 36.47 ton ha−1 yr−1 with the annual yield varying from negligible to about 107.2 ton ha−1 yr−1. Five sub-basins which account for about 24.83% of the area were predicted to suffer severely from soil erosion risks, with SY in excess of 50 ton ha−1 yr−1. Only 15.05% of the area within the tolerable rate of loss (below 11 ton ha−1yr−1) was considered as the least prioritized areas for maintenance of crop production. Despite the reasonable reduction of sediment yields by the management scenarios, the reduction by contour farming, slope terracing, zero free grazing and reforestation were still above the tolerable soil loss. Vegetative contour strips and soil bund were significant in reducing SY below the tolerable soil loss, which is equivalent to 63.9% and 64.8% reduction, respectively. In general, effective and sustainable soil erosion management requires not only prioritizations of the erosion hotspots but also prioritizations of the most effective management practices. We believe that the results provided new and updated insights that enable a proactive approach to preserve the soil and reduce land degradation risks that could allow resource regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil-Sediment-Water Systems)
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Article
Struggles of Women to Access and Hold Landuse and Other Land Property Rights under the Customary Tenure System in Peri-Urban Communal Areas of Zimbabwe
Land 2021, 10(6), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060649 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
The struggles of women to access and hold landuse and other land property rights under the customary tenure system in peri-urban communal areas is increasingly becoming a cause for concern. These debates are revealed using a case study of a peri-urban communal area [...] Read more.
The struggles of women to access and hold landuse and other land property rights under the customary tenure system in peri-urban communal areas is increasingly becoming a cause for concern. These debates are revealed using a case study of a peri-urban communal area called Domboshava in Zimbabwe. Women living in this peri-urban communal area struggle to access and hold landuse and other land property rights registered under their names. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of the struggles faced by women to access and hold landuse and other land property rights in Domboshava. This paper is a product of a literature review on land property rights, land tenure systems, and peri-urbanity more generally. Field data was intermittently collected in the peri-urban communal area of Domboshava over a period of four years from 2011 to 2014, as well as through post-research social visits stretching to 2019. Thirty-two women were conveniently selected and interviewed. I applied Anthony Giddens’ structure-agency theory as a framework of analysis. The struggles to access and hold landuse and other land property rights by women are rooted in land transactions, social systems including the customary land tenure, patriarchy, as well as the peri-urban context of Domboshava. Responsible authorities on land administration in communal areas need to acknowledge the existence of new and invented ways of accessing and holding landuse and land property rights under the customary land tenure system, as well as to find ways to mobilize more opportunities for women on the peri-urban land market. Full article
Article
Identifying Urban Poverty Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning Approaches: Implications for Housing Inequality
Land 2021, 10(6), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060648 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Enriching Asian perspectives on the rapid identification of urban poverty and its implications for housing inequality, this paper contributes empirical evidence about the utility of image features derived from high-resolution satellite imagery and machine learning approaches for identifying urban poverty in China at [...] Read more.
Enriching Asian perspectives on the rapid identification of urban poverty and its implications for housing inequality, this paper contributes empirical evidence about the utility of image features derived from high-resolution satellite imagery and machine learning approaches for identifying urban poverty in China at the community level. For the case of the Jiangxia District and Huangpi District of Wuhan, image features, including perimeter, line segment detector (LSD), Hough transform, gray-level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM), histogram of oriented gradients (HoG), and local binary patterns (LBP), are calculated, and four machine learning approaches and 25 variables are applied to identify urban poverty and relatively important variables. The results show that image features and machine learning approaches can be used to identify urban poverty with the best model performance with a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.5341 and 0.5324 for Jiangxia and Huangpi, respectively, although some differences exist among the approaches and study areas. The importance of each variable differs for each approach and study area; however, the relatively important variables are similar. In particular, four variables achieved relatively satisfactory prediction results for all models and presented obvious differences in varying communities with different poverty levels. Housing inequality within low-income neighborhoods, which is a response to gaps in wealth, income, and housing affordability among social groups, is an important manifestation of urban poverty. Policy makers can implement these findings to rapidly identify urban poverty, and the findings have potential applications for addressing housing inequality and proving the rationality of urban planning for building a sustainable society. Full article
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Article
Scale Transition and Structure–Function Synergy Differentiation of Rural Residential Land: A Dimensionality Reduction Transmission Process from Macro to Micro Scale
Land 2021, 10(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060647 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
In order to enhance the scientific understanding of the transition law of rural residential areas and enrich the theory and method system of land use transition research, this article takes Shandong Province as an example and constructs a comprehensive research framework of rural [...] Read more.
In order to enhance the scientific understanding of the transition law of rural residential areas and enrich the theory and method system of land use transition research, this article takes Shandong Province as an example and constructs a comprehensive research framework of rural residential land scale, structure, and function from the perspective of the combination of the macro and micro scales based on differences between the rural residential areas in the region and the village scale forms. Using model quantitative analysis and horizontal comparative analysis methods, this paper explores the process characteristics of rural residential land use scale transition and the corresponding stage differentiation law of spatial structure and system function. Research has shown that the stage characteristics of the scale transition of rural residential land use in Shandong Province in the past 10 years are significant. The five transition stages—from the primary stage, low stage, intermediate stage, advanced stage, to the stable stage—show obvious spatial agglomeration and spatial autocorrelation, which are mainly driven by the positive and negative interactions of economic development, the policy environment, natural conditions, and population. With the gradual upgrading of the land use scale transition in rural residential areas, the spatial pattern of rural residential areas has been continuously optimized, the land use structure has tended to be balanced and complicated, and the living-production-ecological function as a whole has been strengthened. The essence of this type of differentiation is the differential performance of rural residential areas adapting their own conditions to the external environment. The transition of the rural residential area from the macro to the micro scale is also the process of realizing rural reconstruction and rural revitalization. In the future, under the framework of the “element–structure–function” system of rural residential areas, the rural transition and development should be continuously promoted through the support, organization, guidance, and promotion mechanisms of internal and external factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use Transitions under Rapid Urbanization)
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Article
Does Land Expropriation Experience Increase Farmers’ Farmland Value Expectations? Empirical Evidence from the People’s Republic of China
Land 2021, 10(6), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060646 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Understanding the formation mechanism of farmers’ farmland value expectations not only helps to evaluate farmers’ land resource allocation behaviors, but also enables the government to create better policies that can effectively guide and manage farmers’ land value expectations. Based on cross-sectional data from [...] Read more.
Understanding the formation mechanism of farmers’ farmland value expectations not only helps to evaluate farmers’ land resource allocation behaviors, but also enables the government to create better policies that can effectively guide and manage farmers’ land value expectations. Based on cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) of rural residents, we used quantitative analysis models to identify the effect of farmers’ land expropriation experiences on their farmland value expectations, and the mechanisms of this effect. We found that after experiencing land expropriation, farmers’ farmland value expectations significantly increased; the effect was most pronounced in groups of farmers with low prior expectations. Land expropriation experience raises farmers’ farmland value expectations due to land scarcity. The use of monetized compensation in the process of land expropriation will significantly increase farmers’ farmland value expectations. The results suggest that land expropriation activities can directly change the land resource endowment of farmers, thereby stimulating farmers’ awareness of the need to protect their land rights and economic rights. Full article
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Article
Livelihood Improvement through Agroforestry Compared to Conventional Farming System: Evidence from Northern Irrigated Plain, Pakistan
Land 2021, 10(6), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060645 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The concept of sustainable livelihood garnered a prominent status in humanitarian and international development organizations that aim to calculate and build a livelihood for agroforestry farmers. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze as well as visualize the data of livelihood improvement [...] Read more.
The concept of sustainable livelihood garnered a prominent status in humanitarian and international development organizations that aim to calculate and build a livelihood for agroforestry farmers. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze as well as visualize the data of livelihood improvement from agroforestry (AF). This paper comparatively assessed 400 smallholder farmers’ livelihood through AF and conventional farming (CF) systems in the Northern Irrigated Plain of Pakistan. The findings showed that AF has a mixed impact on farmers’ livelihood capital, including human, physical, natural, financial and social capital. Specifically, AF significantly improved financial capital in terms of timber, non-timber and fuel wood income. Furthermore, the physical capital (buffalo plough, generators and sprinklers), natural capital (the extent of cultivated land and land ownership; the number of households (HHs) growing vegetables, fruit crops and medicinal crops) and social capital (the number of social groups that HHs involved and number of HHs sharing crop seeds) of AF farmer HHs were significantly improved compared to those of CF farmers. However, the results show that financial capital gain through crop income, HHs owning high-value vehicles (tractors) and farmers trust and collective activities were significantly higher in CF farmers than AF ones. Therefore, to enhance the contribution of AF to rural livelihood, advanced extension services and government involvement on research planning and implementing are needed. Full article
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Article
Urban Land Use Transitions and the Economic Spatial Spillovers of Central Cities in China’s Urban Agglomerations
Land 2021, 10(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060644 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Urbanization and land use transformation are typical characteristics of China in recent decades. Studying the effects of urban land use transitions (ULUT) on the economic spatial spillovers of central cities (ESSCC) can provide a reference for China to optimize cities’ land space layout [...] Read more.
Urbanization and land use transformation are typical characteristics of China in recent decades. Studying the effects of urban land use transitions (ULUT) on the economic spatial spillovers of central cities (ESSCC) can provide a reference for China to optimize cities’ land space layout and promote their coordinated development. Based on the direct and indirect effects of ULUT in central cities on the production factors and economic growth in other cities, this paper reveals the mechanisms underlying the influence of ULUT on ESSCC. Then, we usethe expanded geographical distance-weighted spatial Durbin model with the panel data of 152 Chinese urban agglomeration cities from 2003 to 2016 to empirically test it. The results show that, since 2003, the rate of urban land expansions, the level of urban land intensive use (ULIU), the degree of land marketization, and the urban land prices in China have increased substantially; and the proportionate supplies of industrial land, commercial land, and residential land have decreased. Moreover, ULUT between cities have significant spatial autocorrelations. The current ULUT have positive but small effects on ESSCC. Among them, ULIU has the greatest promotion effects on ESSCC. The impacts of ULUT on ESSCC vary greatly among urban agglomerations. The ULUT in central cities indirectly enhance the ESSCC, which mainly depend on the positive effects of ULUT on enterprise investment, infrastructure investment, labor and technological efficiency and the spatial spread effects of these production factors. This is the main intermediate mechanism by which the ULUT in central cities enhance the ESSCC. Continuing to strengthen ULIU, promote the improvement of land marketization, and establish and improve the coordination mechanism for the economic development of urban agglomerations will help to strengthen the ESSCC in urban agglomerations. The results provide evidence for how the Chinese government can enhance the ESSCC and promote the coordinated development of cities through ULUT under new urbanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use Transitions under Rapid Urbanization)
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Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of Land Use Benefit in the Yellow River Basin from 1995 to 2018
Land 2021, 10(6), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060643 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Land resources are the basis of human survival and development. Land use benefit is the embodiment of land input-output ability. As an important economic zone and ecological barrier in China, it is important to calculate the land productivity in the Yellow River Basin. [...] Read more.
Land resources are the basis of human survival and development. Land use benefit is the embodiment of land input-output ability. As an important economic zone and ecological barrier in China, it is important to calculate the land productivity in the Yellow River Basin. Using the center of gravity model and other methods, this study evaluated the land use benefit of the Yellow River Basin from 1995 to 2018 based on the selected indicators of geographic grid-scale and analyzed the regional disparity. The results revealed that the comprehensive benefits, economic benefits, and social benefits of land use were on the rise, but the ecological benefits changed in volatility. Land circulation had a great impact on the change of land use benefits. So reasonable land transfer policy should be particularly significant for land use in the Yellow River Basin. In addition, there were obvious spatial differences and agglomeration effects in land use benefit. The high values of benefits were concentrated in urban groups, which showed that areas with better economic and social development had better land use benefits. To narrow land use benefits’ spatial differences between regions, the less developed areas deserve more preferential policies to improve their economic and social levels. Besides, ecological benefits are generally not high. Thus, the land policy in the Yellow River Basin should take ecological priority as the basic principle while considering economic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Use Planning/Land Planning)
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Article
A Proposal for Streamlining 3D Digital Cadastral Data Lifecycle
Land 2021, 10(6), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060642 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
In urban areas, managing the lifecycle of land and property data related to interlocked and intertwined structures and infrastructure services is a grand challenge for cadastral systems. Addressing the physical and legal complexities of vertically stratified ownership arrangements is a major step towards [...] Read more.
In urban areas, managing the lifecycle of land and property data related to interlocked and intertwined structures and infrastructure services is a grand challenge for cadastral systems. Addressing the physical and legal complexities of vertically stratified ownership arrangements is a major step towards the modernization of cadastral systems. The research problem that this study addresses is the lack of a simplified and effective approach for modelling, storing, visualizing, and querying 3D cadastral data for multi-story buildings. This research primarily leads to the development of an approach based on Building Information Modelling (BIM), as well as state-of-the-art ETL (extract, transform, load), database and visualization technologies for 3D cadastral data lifecycle management in current practices. The proposed steps for recording, preserving, and disseminating 3D cadastral data are crucial in shifting current 2D cadastral systems towards 3D digital information systems. The results showed improvements in data creation, storage, conversion, and communication when upgrading from a 2D to 3D digital cadastre. Therefore, this study confirmed that streamlining the lifecycle of cadastral data using 3D environments would mitigate issues associated with the current fragmented 2D cadastral datasets used in the multi-story developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Land Administration and Modern Cadastre: New Frontiers)
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Article
Assessing Controversial Desertification Prevention Policies in Ecologically Fragile and Deeply Impoverished Areas: A Case Study of Marginal Parts of the Taklimakan Desert, China
Land 2021, 10(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060641 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Overgrazing plays an important role in the grassland desertification in global drylands. The effectiveness of policies related to grazing directly affects efforts to combat desertification and sustainable rangeland management. However, there remain questions around how the interplay of grassland desertification and poverty affects [...] Read more.
Overgrazing plays an important role in the grassland desertification in global drylands. The effectiveness of policies related to grazing directly affects efforts to combat desertification and sustainable rangeland management. However, there remain questions around how the interplay of grassland desertification and poverty affects the implementation of policies. To reveal the effectiveness of the desertification prevention policy that delineates national key ecological function areas (NKEFAs), the main objective was to perform a sustainability assessment and on-site investigation in Northwest China. A parallel index system, which integrates the indices for economic input–output and material supply–demand to represent sustainability, and the indices for interview records from managers and questionnaires from residents to represent the effectiveness of NKEFA policy, was proposed to comprehensively judge the performance of NKEFA policy, and the underlying causes behind undesirable effects were further analyzed. The results indicate that (1) the performance of desertification control policy is related to socioeconomic conditions—a few counties with increased socioeconomic and land resource sustainability (SLS) are peri-urban or resource-rich; (2) the fact that the socioeconomic benefits of the NKEFA policy are not obvious to impoverished farmers greatly reduces their enthusiasm for preventing desertification; and (3) the livelihood needs and defective ecological compensation force residents with underdeveloped comprehensive quality to overdevelop or use grassland resources even though they have received subsidies for conserving grassland. It is concluded that poverty and grassland desertification interact to influence potential policy performance. Our analysis can help decision makers to formulate desertification control policies with multiple goals to achieve sustainable performance in an economy–ecology system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Rangeland Management to Protect Habitat and Livelihoods)
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Article
Multi-Function Tradeoffs of Land System in Urbanized Areas—A Case Study of Xi’an, China
Land 2021, 10(6), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060640 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Multi-functional trade-offs and synergy research on land systems are hotspots in geography and land science research, and are of great significance for achieving sustainable development of land use and the effective allocation of land resources. Recently, the development of the western region and [...] Read more.
Multi-functional trade-offs and synergy research on land systems are hotspots in geography and land science research, and are of great significance for achieving sustainable development of land use and the effective allocation of land resources. Recently, the development of the western region and The Belt and Road Initiative have become key topics, bringing opportunities and challenges to Xi’an. The rapid development of cities is accompanied by drastic changes in land use, and the ecological problems in the Qinling Mountains are becoming increasingly severe. This study took Xi’an as a case study and quantitatively evaluated the spatial-temporal patterns and trade-offs of land system functions such as economic development (ED), grain production (GP), ecological service (ES), etc. on the scale of 1 km × 1 km by fusing the data on land use, topography, soil, climate, and social economy. The results showed that the ED function of the land system continued to rise between 1980 and 2015, the GP function first declined and then increased; however, the ES function continued to decline. The ED, GP and ES functions respectively present a spatial pattern of high-value agglomeration, high in the north and low in the south, and high in the south and low in the north. In general, the three land system functions were trade-offs between each other. In terms of spatial pattern, ED and ES functions showed trade-offs in the south and a synergy distribution in the north; ESs and GP function trade-off zone significantly larger than the synergy zone, the trade-off between the two was significant; while the trade-off and the synergy zone for GP and ED was relatively small, the trade-off zone was the main one. The significant trade-off between GP and ES functions of the land system is a serious problem in land use in Xi’an. Under the premise of limited arable land, it is the current feasible strategy to promote the high-quality development of agriculture to increase the cultivation rate and efficiency, and to strengthen the ecological protection of arable land. In addition, the continued decline of ES functions is also worthy of attention. It is necessary to focus on increasing the greening rate of the city and strengthening the ecological management of the northern foot of the Qinling Mountains. Full article
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Article
The Imprint of Built-Up Land Expansion on Cropland Distribution and Productivity in Shandong Province
Land 2021, 10(6), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060639 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Grain self-sufficiency is a national food security target of China. The way that built-up land expansion impacts upon cropland loss and food provision needs to be explored in the major grain producing areas. Shandong Province is an important agricultural food production region, which [...] Read more.
Grain self-sufficiency is a national food security target of China. The way that built-up land expansion impacts upon cropland loss and food provision needs to be explored in the major grain producing areas. Shandong Province is an important agricultural food production region, which is also experiencing rapidly urbanizing. Here we assessed the spatiotemporal distribution of cropland loss due to built-up land expansion and landscape dynamics of cropland during 2000–2020, by using 30 m resolution land cover data. We also analyzed the potential yield change influenced by cropland loss. The results showed that the area of built-up land expanded by 5199 km2 from 2000–2010, and 11,949 km2 from 2010–2020. Approximately 95% of the new built-up land was from cropland during the two stages, and the primary mode of built-up land expansion was the edge expansion. The patch density and the patch size of cropland kept increasing and decreasing, respectively, and the aggregation index kept decreasing from 2000 to 2020, indicating increased cropland fragmentation. The proportion of occupied cropland with potential yield greater than 7500 kg/ha was 25% and 37% during the former and the latter period. Thus, higher quality cropland was encroached in the recent period. The findings could provide meaningful implications for making sustainable land use development strategies in the study area and other similar regions. Full article
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Review
Drivers, Impacts and Mitigation of Increased Sedimentation in the Hydropower Reservoirs of East Africa
Land 2021, 10(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060638 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Hydropower reservoirs are essential for the climate-neutral development of East Africa. Hydropower production, however, is threatened by human activities that lead to a decrease in water storage capacity of reservoirs. Land use/land cover and climatic changes are driving accelerated soil erosion in semi-arid [...] Read more.
Hydropower reservoirs are essential for the climate-neutral development of East Africa. Hydropower production, however, is threatened by human activities that lead to a decrease in water storage capacity of reservoirs. Land use/land cover and climatic changes are driving accelerated soil erosion in semi-arid East Africa, which ultimately increases reservoir sedimentation and decreases energy production. Sediment delivery dynamics at the catchment scale are complex, involving the interaction of multiple factors and processes on different spatial and temporal scales. A lack of understanding of these processes and their interactions may impede the efficiency of sediment mitigation and control strategies. A deep understanding of the processes of erosion and connectivity of the land to river channel, as well as storage of eroded material within hillslopes and floodplains, and sediment accumulation in the reservoirs supports selection of future dam locations and sustainable management of reservoirs. The sediment budget approach can provide such a holistic perspective by accounting for the various sediment sources, transport, sinks, and redistribution when the sediment is routed through that catchment. Constructing sediment budgets is challenging, but the potential for integrating a number of different techniques offers new opportunities to collect the required information. In East Africa, the spatial planning of dams is mainly dominated by political and financial motives, and impacts of land use and climate on the sediment transport dynamics are not adequately considered. Production of sediment budgets under different scenarios of land use and climate change should be an essential step when deciding the location and management strategies for dams. Selection of new hydroelectric reservoir sites must consider long-term scientific data on climate change, and the sediment budget components for sustainable land management planning, hydropower sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil-Sediment-Water Systems)
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Article
A Lens for Analysis of Payment for Ecosystem Services Systems: Transitioning the Working Lands Economic Sector from Extractive Industry to Regenerative System
Land 2021, 10(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060637 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) systems are gaining attention worldwide. These systems are an increasingly used incentive structure for conservation, presenting a significant opportunity for science to impact and shape commerce. However, PES systems lack a unifying framework to analyze and evaluate them [...] Read more.
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) systems are gaining attention worldwide. These systems are an increasingly used incentive structure for conservation, presenting a significant opportunity for science to impact and shape commerce. However, PES systems lack a unifying framework to analyze and evaluate them from multiple perspectives, including ecological revitalization alongside economic and social revitalization. In this study, I formulate a new analytical framework that accommodates both public and private PES systems, and test the framework with hypotheticals from both systems. Utilizing the framework developed, this article shows that publicly-operated PES systems function optimally, as a public system provides optimized benefits regarding societal and ecological outcomes, now and for future generations. Full article
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Article
A Geo-Spatial Analysis for Characterising Urban Sprawl Patterns in the Batticaloa Municipal Council, Sri Lanka
Land 2021, 10(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060636 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Urban sprawl related to rapid urbanisation in developed and developing nations affects sustainable land use. In Sri Lanka, urban areas have mostly expanded in a rather spontaneous, unplanned manner (based on the current settlers’ subjective movement) rather than conforming to the local government’s [...] Read more.
Urban sprawl related to rapid urbanisation in developed and developing nations affects sustainable land use. In Sri Lanka, urban areas have mostly expanded in a rather spontaneous, unplanned manner (based on the current settlers’ subjective movement) rather than conforming to the local government’s development plan. This growth inevitably leads to uncontrolled urban sprawl in many Sri Lankan cities, including Batticaloa. So far, Sri Lanka’s planners or researchers have not yet tackled the sprawling developments in this city. Understanding the different forms and patterns of urban sprawl is the key to address sprawling growth. This study aims to identify the characteristics of urban sprawl in the Batticaloa municipal council using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technology. Landsat satellite images for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 as well as 2002, 2011, and 2019 population data were used and analysed using ArcGIS’ maximum likelihood classification tool and the density function, respectively, to delineate the characteristics of urban sprawl. The results revealed that low-density development, leapfrog development, commercial ribbon development, and scattered growth are the influencing characteristics of urban sprawl in the Batticaloa municipality. These characteristics were found mainly in the urban edge of the city and have led to urban sprawl. The finding provides knowledge into recognising the characteristics of urban sprawl with empirical evidence. It affords a clear direction for future studies of urban sprawl in rapidly growing cities that are numerous in Sri Lanka, and the identified characteristics of urban sprawl can be useful in minimising future sprawl. This result can be a tool for future urban planning and management in the Batticaloa municipality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Urbanisation Dynamics Research)
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Article
Does Financial Excess Support Land Urbanization—An Empirical Study of Cities in China
Land 2021, 10(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060635 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Most countries have experienced land urbanization, which is indispensable for financial support, especially for their financing function achievement through land appreciation and other channels in the urbanization process. By using 34 provincial capital (sub-provinces) cities in China as the sample, this paper studies [...] Read more.
Most countries have experienced land urbanization, which is indispensable for financial support, especially for their financing function achievement through land appreciation and other channels in the urbanization process. By using 34 provincial capital (sub-provinces) cities in China as the sample, this paper studies the impact of finance on land urbanization construction based on the panel data from 2003 to 2018 under a differential GMM method; besides, the causes of excessive financial support and results generated on different regions are reported. Moreover, a moderate range of financial support for land urbanization is found under the influence of land finance. We obtain the following results: first, there is excessive financial support for land urbanization with regional differences exhibited; for instance, the eastern and central regions have an excessive financial support but the western region does not. Second, land urbanization with an excessive financial support correlates with financial efficiency, while the relatively large financial efficiency leads to the waste of a large number of financial resources. Third, financial support has a single and significant threshold effect on land urbanization construction, and finance has a promoting effect when land finance is less than the threshold value; otherwise, it has an inhibiting effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
Article
The Mediating Role of Social Capital in Digital Information Technology Poverty Reduction an Empirical Study in Urban and Rural China
Land 2021, 10(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060634 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Widespread use of digital information technology is having a significant impact on economic growth and people’s well-being. This paper assesses the mediating role of social capital in the impact of digital information technology on multidimensional poverty. Due to differences in regional, industrial structure [...] Read more.
Widespread use of digital information technology is having a significant impact on economic growth and people’s well-being. This paper assesses the mediating role of social capital in the impact of digital information technology on multidimensional poverty. Due to differences in regional, industrial structure and other factors, digital information technology has different impacts on urban and rural residents. In this paper, the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) database is used for data, and a mediating effect model is used to study the problem. The digital information technology use was found to enhance social capital from social network, social participation and social trust, and subsequently alleviates multidimensional poverty. The results indicate that social trust plays a more significant mediating role than social capital and social participation on the impact of digital information technology on multidimensional poverty. Furthermore, the results reveal that the use of digital information technology has varying effects on poverty reduction among different income groups, with a much higher effect on low-income groups. However, the mediating effect of social capital in high-income groups is higher than that in low-income groups. In particular, social capital in the top 25% of income groups has the highest mediating effect. In the heterogeneity analysis between urban and rural areas, it is found that the multidimensional poverty situation in urban areas is significantly better than that in rural areas, because urban residents have a higher use of digital information, and at the same time, the quality of social capital in urban and rural groups is different, leading to the difference in the effect of digital information technology on poverty reduction of multidimensional poverty. Based on the results of the study, we believe that the use of digital information technology has actually improved the multi-dimensional poverty status of all groups, and social capital plays a key mediating role in it. Relying on the progress of digital information technology, we can build more convenient social network. Establish more adequate channels of information communication, enhance social trust and social participation, and alleviate multidimensional poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
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Article
Integrating Spatial Markov Chains and Geographically Weighted Regression-Based Cellular Automata to Simulate Urban Agglomeration Growth: A Case Study of the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area
Land 2021, 10(6), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060633 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Urban agglomeration is an important spatial organization mode in China’s attempts to attain an advanced (mature) stage of urbanization, and to understand its consequences, accurate simulation scenarios are needed. Compared to traditional urban growth simulations, which operate on the scale of a single [...] Read more.
Urban agglomeration is an important spatial organization mode in China’s attempts to attain an advanced (mature) stage of urbanization, and to understand its consequences, accurate simulation scenarios are needed. Compared to traditional urban growth simulations, which operate on the scale of a single city, urban agglomeration considers interactions among multiple cities. In this study, we combined a spatial Markov chain (SMC) (a quantitative composition module) with geographically weighted regression-based cellular automata (GWRCA) (a spatial allocation module) to predict urban growth in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), an internationally important urban agglomeration in southern China. The SMC method improves on the traditional Markov chain technique by taking into account the interaction and influence between each city to predict growth quantitatively, whereas the geographically weighted regression (GWR) gives an empirical estimate of urban growth suitability based on geospatial differentiation on the scale of an urban agglomeration. Using the SMC model to forecast growth in the GBA in the year 2050, our results indicated that the rate of smaller cities will increase, while that of larger cities will slow down. The coastal belt in the core areas of the GBA as well as the region’s peripheral cities are most likely to be areas of development by 2050, while established cities such as Shenzhen and Dongguan will no longer experience rapid expansion. Compared with traditional simulation models, the SMC-GWRCA was able to consider spatiotemporal interactions among cities when forecasting changes to a large region like the GBA. This study put forward a development scenario for the GBA for 2050 on the scale of an urban agglomeration to provide a more credible scenario for spatial planning. It also provided evidence in support of using integrated SMC-GWRCA models, which, we maintain, offer a more efficient approach for simulating urban agglomeration development than do traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling)
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Article
Mapping Landscape Perception: An Assessment with Public Participation Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Techniques
Land 2021, 10(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060632 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Mapping cognitive landscape perception is hindered by the difficulty of representing opinions that are spatially distributed in a heterogeneous way or not restricted by the locations of physical elements in the landscape. In recent years, the use of tools based on geographic information [...] Read more.
Mapping cognitive landscape perception is hindered by the difficulty of representing opinions that are spatially distributed in a heterogeneous way or not restricted by the locations of physical elements in the landscape. In recent years, the use of tools based on geographic information techniques has gained momentum in landscape assessment. We propose a methodology for generalizing cognitive landscape opinions on a spatial basis. To this end, we used a public participatory geographic information system to collect data, which is a method based on bipolar adjectives to approach users’ opinions, and the inverse distance weighted spatial interpolator and multi-criteria evaluation to undertake the spatial analysis. The study was conducted in the Ebro Delta, which is a protected wetland in northeastern Spain. The assessment was based on 1593 georeferenced opinions and resulted in a continuous geographic map of 330 km2 depicting positive and negative perceptions about the landscape. The area under study was perceived as productive, interesting, attractive, and, for the most part, quiet and peaceful, although it was seen as dirty in some parts. The method successfully mapped cognitive landscape opinions and establishes a novel procedure in landscape approaches. Full article
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Article
Spatially Illustrating Leisure Agriculture: Empirical Evidence from Picking Orchards in China
Land 2021, 10(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060631 - 13 Jun 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
In the context of rural revitalization strategies and humans’ increasing leisure pursuit, leisure agriculture starts to act as a new engine of rural economic growth and industrial upgradation. Unraveling the agri-leisure developmental regularity from a spatial perspective facilitates urban-rural integration and poverty alleviation [...] Read more.
In the context of rural revitalization strategies and humans’ increasing leisure pursuit, leisure agriculture starts to act as a new engine of rural economic growth and industrial upgradation. Unraveling the agri-leisure developmental regularity from a spatial perspective facilitates urban-rural integration and poverty alleviation in rural regions. Given the lack of spatially analyzing agri-leisure (e.g., sightseeing picking orchards) especially at the macro-spatial scale (e.g., the national scale), this study aims to explore the spatiality of leisure agriculture and its fundamental driving mechanisms based on geo-visual (spatially visualizing) analytical tools looking at 20,778 picking orchards in China. Results show that: (1) Picking orchards are distributed in the form of clusters with striking disparity at multiple spatial scales; (2) Five spatial agglomerations are found involving the regions around Beijing and Tianjin, Shandong hinterland, Henan hinterland, the core district of the Yangtze Delta, and the core district of the Pearl River Delta; (3) The driving mechanisms are revealed, and the spatial pattern of picking orchards is found to be largely influenced by morphology, distance to central cities, traffic conditions, economic level, and tourism resources. This study is conducive to optimizing the spatial planning of rural eco-tourism towards sustainable agro-development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Issues and Their Impact on Tourism Development)
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