Special Issue "Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Soil-Sediment-Water Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Oimahmad Rahmonov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: soil-vegetation; elemental flow and geochemical transformation in soil; disturbed ecosystems: functioning, transformation, land degradation, ecosystem services, vegetation differentiation, and soil development
Dr. Jacek Róźkowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: geology; hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, mining hydrogeology, karst, hydrology; environmental protection, participation in projects: DEEPWATER-CE; boDEREC-CE
Dr. Grzegorz Kłys
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biology, University of Opole, Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole, Poland
Interests: microclimatic conditions; artificial (adit) and natural underground systems; caves; underground living organisms; bio- and zoogeographic issues; Pamiro-Alaj (Tajikistan) ecosystems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exploitation of mineral resources related to human mining activities often leads to the entire or partial disintegration of ecological systems in all climatic zones. This applies to both surface and underground mining. As a result of mining exploitation, the destruction of soil cover and vegetation prevents the use of land for agriculture as well as for communal functions (chemical contamination, lack of soil cover). Although post-industrial and post-mining areas are considered unsuitable from an agricultural point of view, they are valuable areas for selected economic and social functions, especially in highly urbanized regions.

The most visible natural consequences of opencast mining in the environment are large-scale excavations remaining after the exploitation of sand, gravel, limestone, lignite, and hard coal, whereas coal-mine spoil heaps are elements mainly related to underground mining. The development and restoration of ecological systems in degraded areas in various regions in post-mining areas depend on the ecological policies of local governments and their financial capabilities.

There are little information and research on the natural formation of ecosystems in areas degraded by exploitation. Often, initial ecological systems are formed in "formally" degraded areas, creating ecological niches, for example, for certain species characteristic of the retreating glacier zone. For this reason, the possibility of spontaneous succession should be taken into account when restoring the biological activity of such areas. Therefore, this Special Issue is devoted to research on spatial development and methods of reclamation and restoration of lands degraded by mining and the natural and environmental effects of degradation in various regions of the world. This Special Issue is interdisciplinary and focuses on topics and problems related to post-mining areas.

Topics and problems

  • biodiversity in the transformed land
  • reclamation and restoration, post-mining landscape
  • touristic and recreation use of degraded land
  • spontaneous succession of ecosystems on degraded land
  • soil features and processes
  • vegetation and succession on spoil-heap
  • fire and thermal processes in coal spoil heap
  • prevention and remediation of degraded soil
  • water reclamation of post-mining areas of opencast mines
  • reclamation of post-mining areas of opencast mines in the industrial direction
  • ecosystems service
  • nature protection on transformed land

Prof. Dr. Oimahmad Rahmonov
Dr. Jacek Róźkowski
Dr. Grzegorz Kłys
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • land use planning
  • derelict areas
  • brownfields
  • waste dump
  • post-industrial soils and areas
  • dumping site
  • coal-waste dumps
  • geohazards
  • soil pollutions
  • soil remediation
  • anthropogenic ecosystems
  • soil development
  • vegetation succession
  • forest reclamation
  • revalorisation
  • water reclamation
  • ecosystem formation
  • artificial underground systems
  • mining adit

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Evaluation of Soil Quality and Maize Growth in Different Profiles of Reclaimed Land with Coal Gangue Filling
Land 2021, 10(12), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10121307 - 27 Nov 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Reclaiming subsidence and waterlogged zones caused by coal mining to maintain food and feed supplies is an urgent issue in China. Utilizing coal gangue (CG) as a filling matrix to construct different profiles of reclaimed land in coal mining subsidence has downsides, e.g., [...] Read more.
Reclaiming subsidence and waterlogged zones caused by coal mining to maintain food and feed supplies is an urgent issue in China. Utilizing coal gangue (CG) as a filling matrix to construct different profiles of reclaimed land in coal mining subsidence has downsides, e.g., due to its low conservative capability of water-fertilizer and crop yield, its lack of quantitative evaluation of soil quality, and its limiting factors of crop growth. Quantifying the soil quality by principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining key soil indicators, and a scoring system can clarify the influence of the profile structure on soil quality and limiting productive factors of soil and ascertain the optimal profile. Soil quality was evaluated by the minimum data set (MDS) of soil quality index (SQI) obtained by PCA in seven different profiles of reclaimed plots constructed in a field with maize planting experiments. The agronomic traits of maize were analyzed and compared. The result shows that the pH value contributed highest in surface SQI value. Maximal and minimal SQI value is 0.57 and 0.18, respectively, the variation of SQI between different profiles reveals it increases with the increase in thickness of overburdens and decreases with the increase in soil interlayer depth of reclaimed land. SQI based on MDS has a correlation coefficient of 0.4280 with maize yield and the same sequence with comprehensive growth of maize in reclaimed plots. Agronomic traits of maize are positively correlated with the nutrient index and SM of the surface soil, and negatively correlated with pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total salt content (TS). Choosing a thicker surface overburden and control pH of CG preceding filling can effectively augment soil quality and maize growth. This study provides the exploratory means and a scientific basis for the management and improvement of filling reclamation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Morphodynamics of Gully Development on the Platform–Slope System of Spoil Dumps under Platform Concentrated Flow
Land 2021, 10(11), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111270 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Severe gully erosion on spoil dumps, caused by dense concentrated flow derived from platforms, poses a significant threat to the land management of mining areas. However, little is known about the development processes and mechanisms of gullies on spoil dumps. A flow scouring [...] Read more.
Severe gully erosion on spoil dumps, caused by dense concentrated flow derived from platforms, poses a significant threat to the land management of mining areas. However, little is known about the development processes and mechanisms of gullies on spoil dumps. A flow scouring experiment was conducted on an established platform–slope system under 3.6–5.04 m3 h−1. The soils of the system consisted of a surface sandy loam A layer and anunderlying clay loam B layer. The results showed that the platform exhibited a gully development process of headcut-incision–headcut-expansion–stabilization and the steep slope experienced gully development of A-layer incision–A-layer expansion–B-layer incision–stabilization. The results showed 88.97–100% of Froude Number (Fr) decrement and 47.90–88.97% of Darcy–Weisbach roughness coefficient increment finished in the two incision stages on the steep slope. Gully depth has the most sensitive response to flow hydraulics. A significant linear correlation exists between gully depth and shear stress, runoff power, Fr, and Reynolds Number (R2 > 0.337). Overall, the optimal hydraulic indicator varies within different stages for describing the gully morphology development, illustrating the different action mechanism between flow hydraulics and gully morphology. Our findings provide a theoretical support for future mechanistic studies of gully erosion and the land management on spoil dump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Plant Community Diversity at Two Reclaimed Mine Tailing Storage Facilities in Québec, Canada
Land 2021, 10(11), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111191 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Mining activities generate residues during the ore concentration process. These wastes are placed into large tailing storage facilities, and upon mine closure, these tailings must be reclaimed. This study aimed to determine how different reclamation methods, involving combinations of planted boreal woody species [...] Read more.
Mining activities generate residues during the ore concentration process. These wastes are placed into large tailing storage facilities, and upon mine closure, these tailings must be reclaimed. This study aimed to determine how different reclamation methods, involving combinations of planted boreal woody species and organic amendments application (paper mill sludge biosolids, chicken manure, and topsoil) affected plant community diversity at two tailing storage facilities in Québec, Canada. We recorded the composition of the plant communities using the percent cover of plant species within 1 m × 1 m quadrats. At the Niobec mine site, paper mill sludge mixed with topsoil enhanced total plant cover was compared with the use of topsoil only; the former amendment, however, reduced evenness (J′) and diversity (1−D) due to the increased growth of grasses and invasive forbs. At the Mont-Wright site, plots having received paper mill sludge mixed with a “Norco” treatment (a mixture of chicken manure, hay, and grass seeds) produced the highest total plant cover. The Norco treatment mixed with topsoil and the single application of topsoil and biosolids produced the highest evenness (J′) and diversity (1−D). Overall, organic amendment applications promoted vegetation cover on tailings and contributed to the colonization of diverse plant communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Contaminated Areas as Recreational Places—Exploring the Validity of the Decisions Taken in the Development of Antonia Hill in Ruda Śląska, Poland
Land 2021, 10(11), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111165 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
This paper describes the experimental developing of a post-zinc industry spoil heap in Ruda Śląska, Silesia (an industrial region of Poland), that was turned into a recreational area. The aim of the present article is to analyse the design process and evaluate its [...] Read more.
This paper describes the experimental developing of a post-zinc industry spoil heap in Ruda Śląska, Silesia (an industrial region of Poland), that was turned into a recreational area. The aim of the present article is to analyse the design process and evaluate its effects. The project in question was meant to be a pilot action of the international one entitled Implementation of Sustainable Land Use in Integrated Environmental Management of Functional Urban Areas—LUMAT, whose Polish part was the Action Plan for the Functional Urban Area of Chorzów, Ruda Śląska and Świętochłowice. The Antonia Hill project involved many aspects and fields of study in order to achieve its aims: limiting the health risk of the Hill’s users, maximising the safety of its use as a recreational area, educating its users in the local history and their cultural identity, raising their awareness of the natural environment and its protection. The predominant remediation method was the process described by Loures and Vaz with a modified order of the elements so as to obtain the effect of remediation and development at the same time. The first step was carried out in the form of the site analysis and the potential adaptation possibilities. The next stage was the participatory workshops in the form of Enquiry by Design. The implementation was carried out in accordance with the evidence-based design. The multi-layered structure of the area was built by selecting ideas, activities and goals following the Modelling Nature Method. After the implementation, the facility evaluation process was made by means of the POE method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Is the Naturalization of the Townscape a Condition of De-Industrialization? An Example of Bytom in Southern Poland
Land 2021, 10(8), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080838 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
A characteristic element of the transformations of cities in Central and Eastern Europe after 1990 was the emergence of shrinking cities. The main problem related to shrinking cities is around how this process developed as a result of rapidly intensifying de-industrialization. While many [...] Read more.
A characteristic element of the transformations of cities in Central and Eastern Europe after 1990 was the emergence of shrinking cities. The main problem related to shrinking cities is around how this process developed as a result of rapidly intensifying de-industrialization. While many studies in this area are devoted to demographic, social, and economic issues, relatively few studies address the spatial dimension. In this article, the example of spatial development in the (post-) mining city of Bytom in southern Poland is discussed, pointing to the need for a multifaceted approach to this issue. This article begins with an attempt to contextualize this issue within a broader time perspective. Such an analysis makes it possible to better situate contemporary changes in the context of the processes that were visible in previous periods. Next, these changes are described using two methods. The basis of the first method is comparisons between the different types of land use. The second method, which is emphasized, is the method of A. Macias, which indicates the degree of naturalization/anthropogenization of space. Macias’ method is crucial in the context of discussions about the future of post-mining towns, where attention is paid, among other things, to the issue of sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Develop a Soil Quality Index to Study the Results of Black Locust on Soil Quality below Different Allocation Patterns
Land 2021, 10(8), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080785 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
Mining areas are currently a typical ecosystem that is severely destroyed within the world. Over the years, mining activities have caused serious soil damage. Therefore, the soil restoration of abandoned mines has become a vital sustainable development strategy. The ecological environment within the [...] Read more.
Mining areas are currently a typical ecosystem that is severely destroyed within the world. Over the years, mining activities have caused serious soil damage. Therefore, the soil restoration of abandoned mines has become a vital sustainable development strategy. The ecological environment within the hilly area of the Loess Plateau is extremely fragile, with serious soil erosion; Robinia pseudoacacia is the most popular tree species for land reclamation in mining areas within the Loess Plateau. To review the different various effects of Robinia pseudoacacia on soil quality below different configuration modes, this paper has chosen two sample plots within the southern dump of the Pingshuo mining area for comparison. The first plot is a Robinia pseudoacacia-Ulmus pumila-Ailanthus altissima broadleaf mixed forest, and the second plot is a locust tree broadleaf pure forest. The vegetation indicators and soil physical and chemical properties of the four stages in 1993, 2010, 2015, and 2020 were investigated. Principal component analysis is employed to develop the Soil Quality Index to perceive the changes within the Soil Quality Index over time. It is calculated that the Soil Quality Index of Plot I rose from 0.501 in 1993 to 0.538 in 2020, and Plot II rose from 0.501 to 0.529. The higher the SQI, the higher the reclamation of the mining area. It is found that Robinia pseudoacacia within the Robinia pseudoacacia-Ulmus pumila-Ailanthus altissima broadleaf mixed forest has higher soil quality improvement than the pure genus Robinia pseudoacacia broadleaf forest. This article can demonstrate the changes in the quality of reclaimed soil in the mining area, and can also provide a reference for the selection of reclaimed vegetation in other mining areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Semi-Natural Areas on Post-Mining Brownfields as an Opportunity to Strengthen the Attractiveness of a Small Town. An Example of Radzionków in Southern Poland
Land 2021, 10(7), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070761 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
The socio-economic and political changes of the end of the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe had significant impacts on the transformation of urban spaces, especially in industrial and mining towns. The article attempts to explain the essence of these changes concerning [...] Read more.
The socio-economic and political changes of the end of the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe had significant impacts on the transformation of urban spaces, especially in industrial and mining towns. The article attempts to explain the essence of these changes concerning the spatial development of—a small post-mining town in southern Poland. This article evaluates urban development policy in response to the significant land-use changes in the small post-mining city of Radzionków, with particular attention to the transformation of brownfield sites to semi-natural areas of regional importance. This issue is interesting for two reasons. First, this small city, located in a large European agglomeration, has to face competition focused on interesting regional projects. Second, there is a desire for reindustrialization as a remedy for job losses in mining and heavy industry. The successful establishment of a large botanical garden in this city provides a case study for discussing the future of small post-industrial cities and the development of land use policy regarding valuable natural areas located in post-industrial and post-mining areas. This study also indicates the vital role of the creative management factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multi-Year Mapping of Disturbance and Reclamation Patterns over Tronox’s Hillendale Mine, South Africa with DBEST and Google Earth Engine
Land 2021, 10(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070760 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
This study was devised to examine the pattern of disturbance and reclamation by Tronox, which instigated a closure process for its Hillendale mine site in South Africa, where they recovered zirconium- and titanium-bearing minerals from 2001 to 2013. Restoring mined-out areas is of [...] Read more.
This study was devised to examine the pattern of disturbance and reclamation by Tronox, which instigated a closure process for its Hillendale mine site in South Africa, where they recovered zirconium- and titanium-bearing minerals from 2001 to 2013. Restoring mined-out areas is of great importance in South Africa, with its ominous record of almost 6000 abandoned mines since the 1860s. In 2002, the government enacted the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (No. 28 of 2002) to enforce extracting companies to restore mined-out areas before pursuing closure permits. Thus, the trajectory of the Hillendale mine remains unstudied despite advances in the satellite remote sensing technology that is widely used in this field. Here, we retrieved a collection of Landsat-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within the Google Earth Engine and applied the Detecting Breakpoints and Estimating Segments in Trend (DBEST) algorithm to examine the progress of vegetation transformation over the Hillendale mine between 2001 and 2019. Our results showed key breakpoints in NDVI, a drop from 2001, reaching the lowest point in 2009–2011, with a marked recovery pattern after 2013 when the restoration program started. We also validated our results using a random forests strategy that separated vegetated and non-vegetated areas with an accuracy exceeding 78%. Overall, our findings are expected to encourage users to replicate this affordable application, particularly in emerging countries with similar cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Causal Analysis of Ecological Impairment in Land Ecosystem on a Regional Scale: Applied to a Mining City Daye, China
Land 2021, 10(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10050530 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
We adopted a weight of evidence approach to establish a causal analysis of an impaired land ecosystem on a regional scale; namely, Daye, a traditional mining city in China. Working processes, including problem statements, a list of candidate causes, and a conceptual model [...] Read more.
We adopted a weight of evidence approach to establish a causal analysis of an impaired land ecosystem on a regional scale; namely, Daye, a traditional mining city in China. Working processes, including problem statements, a list of candidate causes, and a conceptual model were developed to represent a causal hypothesis for describing land degradation. Causal criteria were applied to integrate multiple lines of evidence. Then, various pieces of evidence were scored to either strengthen or weaken our causal assumptions. Results showed that habitat alteration, heavy metal accumulation, organic pollutants, water eutrophication, and nutrient runoff were the probable causes of land ecosystem impairment in Daye. Meanwhile, noxious gas, toxicants, altered underground runoff, atmospheric deposition, and acid rain were identified as possible causes. The most unlikely causes were altered hydrology, altered earth surface runoff, and soil erosion. Soil salinization, soluble inorganic salts, biological species invasion, and pathogens were deferred as delayed causes due to lack of adequate information. The causal analysis approach was applied to identify the primary causes of land degradation and implement accurate protective measures in an impaired land ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Changes in Soil Features and Phytomass during Vegetation Succession in Sandy Areas
Land 2021, 10(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030265 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
This research was conducted on an area of inland sands characterised by various degrees of overgrowth by vegetation and soil stabilisation. This landscape’s origin is not natural but is connected to human industrial activities dating from early medieval times, which created a powerful [...] Read more.
This research was conducted on an area of inland sands characterised by various degrees of overgrowth by vegetation and soil stabilisation. This landscape’s origin is not natural but is connected to human industrial activities dating from early medieval times, which created a powerful centre for mining and metallurgy. This study aims to identify the changes in the above- and belowground phytomass in the initial stages of succession and their influence on the chemical properties and morphology of the soil. It was found that Salix arenaria dominated in primary phytomass production in all plots tested. The amounts of this species found in each community were as follows: 8.55 kg/400 m2 (algae–mosses), 188.97 kg/400 m2 (sand grassland–willow), 123.44 kg/400 m2 (pine–willow–mosses), 14.63 kg/400 m2 (sand grassland–mosses–willow), and 196.55 kg/400 m2 (willow–pine–sand grassland). A notable share of Koeleria glauca was found in the phytomass production of Plots IV (45.73 kg) and V (86.16 kg). Basic soil properties (pH, Corg, Nt), available plant elements (P), and plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe) beneath the dominant plant species were examined. Soil acidity (pH) varied greatly, ranging from acidic (pH = 3.2) to weakly acidic (pH = 6.3). The content of organic carbon (Corg) in individual plots beneath the dominant species in the humus horizon ranged from 0.28% to 1.42%. The maximum contents of organic carbon and total nitrogen were found in organic (O) and organic-humus (OA) horizons. The highest Pavail content was found in organic and organic-humus horizons, ranging from 10.41 to 65.23 mg/kg, and in mineral horizons under K. glauca (24.10 mg/kg) and Salix acutifola (25.11 mg/kg). The soil features and phytomass were varied differently across individual sites, representing different stages of succession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Managing and Reforesting Degraded Post-Mining Landscape in Indonesia: A Review
Land 2021, 10(6), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060658 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Tropical forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world, completed by huge biodiversity. An expansion in natural resource extraction through open-pit mining activities leads to increasing land and tropical forest degradation. Proper science-based practices are needed as an effort to reclaim [...] Read more.
Tropical forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the world, completed by huge biodiversity. An expansion in natural resource extraction through open-pit mining activities leads to increasing land and tropical forest degradation. Proper science-based practices are needed as an effort to reclaim their function. This paper summarizes the existing practice of coal mining, covering the regulatory aspects and their reclamation obligations, the practices of coal mining from various sites with different land characteristics, and the reclamation efforts of the post-mining landscapes in Indonesia. The regulations issued accommodate the difference between mining land inside the forest area and outside the forest area, especially in the aspect of the permit authority and in evaluating the success rate of reclamation. In coal-mining practices, this paper describes starting from land clearing activities and followed by storing soil layers and overburden materials. In this step, proper handling of potentially acid-forming materials is crucial to prevent acid mine drainage. At the reclamation stage, this paper sequentially presents research results and the field applications in rearranging the overburden and soil materials, controlling acid mine drainage and erosion, and managing the drainage system, settling ponds, and pit lakes. Many efforts to reclaim post-coal-mining lands and their success rate have been reported and highlighted. Several success stories describe that post-coal-mining lands can be returned to forests that provide ecosystem services and goods. A set of science-based best management practices for post-coal-mine reforestation is needed to develop to promote the success of forest reclamation and restoration in post-coal-mining lands through the planting of high-value hardwood trees, increasing trees’ survival rates and growth, and accelerating the establishment of forest habitat through the application of proper tree planting technique. The monitoring and evaluation aspect is also crucial, as corrective action may be taken considering the different success rates for different site characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop