Next Issue
Volume 10, December
Previous Issue
Volume 10, October
 
 

Land, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 175 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The increased urbanization of recent decades has resulted in the loss of urban green spaces. One policy used to prevent the loss is ecological compensation, where compensating can be done at different spatial scales. However, spatial relocation of green space will, most likely, also result in distributional welfare effects. Some individuals will lose, while others will benefit. We present an easy-to-use tool that can be used to evaluate the welfare effects of ecological compensation. In a case study, we used recreational values as a measure of welfare. The results showed that the differences in the valuation of urban green space among different groups of individuals had a fairly small impact on aggregate welfare. Aggregate welfare was mainly affected by the number of individuals that had access to urban green space. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Meshing Sustainability with Satisfaction: An Investigation of Residents’ Perceptions in Three Different Neighbourhoods in Chengdu, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111280 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Can sustainability and liveability be simultaneously pursued at the neighbourhood level? Adopting neighbourhood satisfaction as a proxy to indicate liveability at the neighbourhood scale, this paper investigated how the residential subjective perception of sustainability factors interacted with neighbourhood satisfaction in the context of [...] Read more.
Can sustainability and liveability be simultaneously pursued at the neighbourhood level? Adopting neighbourhood satisfaction as a proxy to indicate liveability at the neighbourhood scale, this paper investigated how the residential subjective perception of sustainability factors interacted with neighbourhood satisfaction in the context of three different neighbourhoods in Chengdu, China. This began with a comprehensive literature review to construct the neighbourhood sustainability framework. Then, a total of 510 cross-sectional questionnaire surveys was conducted in Chengdu. Logistic regression was employed to investigate significant associations. The findings revealed that the ‘sense and habit of energy saving’ is the only sustainability factor that is negatively associated with neighbourhood satisfaction in commodity-housing neighbourhood. Compared with intangible factors, tangible or physical sustainability factors are more likely to contribute to improving neighbourhood satisfaction and suppressing moving intention. The study also evidenced the contextual differences of significant associations among danwei, resettlement, and commodity-housing neighbourhoods coexisting in transitional China. This calls for adaptive and contextual rather than standardized, top-down strategies for developing sustainable neighbourhood planning to simultaneously promote sustainability and liveability in Chengdu, China. Finally, a specific contextual framework was provided as policy implications for developing local and adaptive solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Architectures, Materials and Urban Design)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Deriving the Main Cultivation Direction from Open Remote Sensing Data to Determine the Support Practice Measure Contouring
Land 2021, 10(11), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111279 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The P-factor for support practice of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) accounts for soil conservation measures and leads to a significant reduction in the modelled soil loss. However, in the practical application, the P-factor is the most neglected factor overall due to [...] Read more.
The P-factor for support practice of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) accounts for soil conservation measures and leads to a significant reduction in the modelled soil loss. However, in the practical application, the P-factor is the most neglected factor overall due to high effort for determining or lack of input data. This study provides a new method for automatic derivation of the main cultivation direction from seed rows and tramlines on agricultural land parcels using the Fast Line Detector (FLD) of the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) package and open remote sensing data from Google Earth™. Comparison of the cultivation direction with the mean aspect for each land parcel allows the determination of a site-specific P-factor for the soil conservation measure contouring. After calibration of the FLD parameters, the success rate in a first application in the low mountain range Fischbach catchment, Germany, was 77.7% for 278 agricultural land parcels. The main reasons for unsuccessful detection were problems with headland detection, existing soil erosion, and widely varying albedo within the plots as well as individual outliers. The use of a corrected mask and enhanced parameterization offers promising improvements for a higher success rate of the FLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil-Sediment-Water Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Addressing Social Inequality and Improper Water Distribution in Cities: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan
Land 2021, 10(11), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111278 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Inhabited by almost 20 million people, Karachi, also known as the “city of lights”, houses almost 60 percent of the industries in Pakistan and is considered as the financial and industrial center of the country. The city contributes almost 12–15 percent to the [...] Read more.
Inhabited by almost 20 million people, Karachi, also known as the “city of lights”, houses almost 60 percent of the industries in Pakistan and is considered as the financial and industrial center of the country. The city contributes almost 12–15 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP), showing its significance in Pakistan’s economy. Unfortunately, with the increase in population, the city is facing a serious shortage of water supply. The current allocation of water among the city’s districts is not equitable, which has caused water scarcity and even riots in some areas. Surface water and ground water are the two primary sources of water supply in the city. The water supply provided by Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) is approximately 650 million gallons per day (MGD) against a demand of 480–866 million gallons per day (MGD), resulting in a serious shortfall. Keeping a holistic view in mind, this paper focuses specifically on proposing measures to address the gap in proposing concrete solutions to manage Karachi’s increasing water woes. It also proposes a water allocation mechanism and uses Nash bargaining theory to address the inefficient and unequal water distribution. Results indicate that our suggested policies and water allocation mechanism have the potential to simultaneously resolve the supply–demand mismatch and water shortage problems of the city. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Agrivoltaics: A Climate-Smart Agriculture Approach for Indian Farmers
Land 2021, 10(11), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111277 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
India is a leader when it comes to agriculture. A significant part of the country’s population depends on agriculture for livelihood. However, many of them face challenges due to using unreliable farming techniques. Sometimes the challenges increase to the extent that they commit [...] Read more.
India is a leader when it comes to agriculture. A significant part of the country’s population depends on agriculture for livelihood. However, many of them face challenges due to using unreliable farming techniques. Sometimes the challenges increase to the extent that they commit suicide. Besides, India is highly populated, and its population is steadily increasing, requiring its government to grow its GDP and increase its energy supply proportionately. This paper reviews integrating solar farming with agriculture, known as Agrivoltaics, as a Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) option for Indian farmers. This study is further supported by the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of agrivoltaics. Using the SWOT analysis, this article presents how agrivoltaics can make agriculture sustainable and reliable. This paper identifies rural electrification, water conservation, yield improvement, sustainable income generation, and reduction in the usage of pesticides as the strengths of agrivoltaics. Similarly, the paper presents weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to agrivoltaics in India. The research concludes with the findings that agrivoltaics have the potential of meeting multiple objectives such as meeting global commitments, offering employment, providing economic stability, increasing clean energy production capacity, conserving natural resources, and succeeding in several others. The paper also includes a discussion about the findings, suggestions, and implications of adopting agrivoltaics on a large scale in India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Smart Agriculture and Rural Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Continental-Scale Connectivity Analysis to Predict Current and Future Colonization Trends of Biofuel Plant’s Pests for Sub-Saharan African Countries
Land 2021, 10(11), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111276 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
Biofuel production in Sub-Saharan Africa is an important part of local low-income countries. Among many plant species, Jatropha curcas gained popularity in this area, as it can be grown even where crops of agricultural interest cannot. A natural African pest of J. curcas [...] Read more.
Biofuel production in Sub-Saharan Africa is an important part of local low-income countries. Among many plant species, Jatropha curcas gained popularity in this area, as it can be grown even where crops of agricultural interest cannot. A natural African pest of J. curcas is the Aphthona cookei species group, for which future climatic suitability is predicted to favor areas of co-occurrence. In this research, we identify the possible climatic corridors in which the colonization of J. curcas crops may occur through a circuit theory-based landscape connectivity software at a country scale. Additionally, we use the standardized connectivity change index to predict possible variations in future scenarios. Starting from ecological niche models calibrated on current and 2050 conditions (two different RCP scenarios), we found several countries currently showing high connectivity. Ghana, Zambia and Ivory Coast host both high connectivity and a high number of J. curcas cultivations, which is also predicted to increase in the future. On the other side, Burundi and Rwanda reported a future increase of connectivity, possibly acting as “connectivity bridges” among neighboring countries. Considering the economic relevance of the topic analyzed, our spatially explicit predictions can support stakeholders and policymakers at a country scale in informed territorial management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Factors of Urban Sprawl in China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111275 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Urban sprawl is a complex phenomenon related to abnormal urbanization, and it has become a key issue of global concern. This study aimed to measure urban sprawl in China and explore its spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors. Based on 343 Chinese cities at [...] Read more.
Urban sprawl is a complex phenomenon related to abnormal urbanization, and it has become a key issue of global concern. This study aimed to measure urban sprawl in China and explore its spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors. Based on 343 Chinese cities at the prefecture level and above, remote sensing-derived data from 2000 to 2017 were used to calculate the urban sprawl index (USI). The evolutionary trend and spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl in China were then analyzed using trend analysis and exploratory spatiotemporal data analysis, and Geodetector was applied to investigate the factors driving the changes. The results show the following. ① Moderate or high urban sprawl development occurred in China from 2000 to 2017. In terms of spatial distribution, the USI was high in northwest China and low in southeast China. ② The local spatial stability of the USI gradually decreased from southeast to northwest and northeast. USI had strong spatial dependence. No significant spatiotemporal transitions in urban sprawl were observed, and the spatial pattern was stable with strong spatial cohesion. ③ The gross regional product (GRP) of the tertiary industry, the total GRP, and investment in real estate development have been the most important factors affecting sprawl in cities at the prefecture level and above in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Contexts and Urban-Rural Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on the Evaluation Index System of the Soil Remediation Effect Based on Blockchain
Land 2021, 10(11), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111274 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Soil remediation technology has achieved good results at present, but evaluation research on the soil remediation effect is relatively lacking. In the field of soil remediation effect evaluation, there are problems such as unscientific and imperfect indices and the inability to guarantee the [...] Read more.
Soil remediation technology has achieved good results at present, but evaluation research on the soil remediation effect is relatively lacking. In the field of soil remediation effect evaluation, there are problems such as unscientific and imperfect indices and the inability to guarantee the authenticity of data. Based on the research results of domestic and foreign scholars and the soil remediation standards of some developed countries, a set of recommended indices for soil remediation evaluation has been formed through the analysis and screening of a large number of documents and the results of expert consultation. However, there are phenomena such as lack of data authenticity, information asymmetry, and low supervision efficiency. Based on the technical characteristics of the blockchain and the current soil remediation effect evaluation requirements, combined with the research results of domestic and foreign scholars and the soil remediation standards of some developed countries, the core technology and corresponding application scenarios were analysed for functional requirements in this paper. The introduction of blockchain technology will improve the authenticity of data and form a decentralized, trustworthy, and traceable supervision model. Finally, an evaluation index system of the soil remediation effect based on blockchain was constructed from the following five aspects: collection of soil remediation indices, the addition of a new blockchain-based soil remediation effect evaluation and supervision model, the determination of index weights, a list of soil remediation effect evaluation indices, and providing feedback and suggestions. Through the application of blockchain technology and the innovative addition of the “regional policy” evaluation index, changes and innovations were made in all aspects of the soil remediation effect evaluation process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Water Dams of the Krakow Fortress: Potential of a Vanishing Heritage
Land 2021, 10(11), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111273 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Cultural heritage conservation is a constant process of preserving the valuable historical legacy and transferring it to future generations. The ability to adapt the matter under conservation to changing needs and environmental conditions is an essential element of this process. In this context, [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage conservation is a constant process of preserving the valuable historical legacy and transferring it to future generations. The ability to adapt the matter under conservation to changing needs and environmental conditions is an essential element of this process. In this context, climate change and its consequences are a growing challenge, requiring innovative and often simultaneous efforts. This study was conducted in response to the discovery of previously unknown documents on nineteenth-century impoundment structures of the Krakow Fortress’s defensive system. At present, the facilities are almost entirely ruined, yet the need to restore and preserve the memory of their culturally valuable legacy merits investigation. The conditions and requirements of the management of Krakow’s changing hydrological environment became a vital component of this study. The uncovered archival documents were subjected to historical-interpretative analysis. Virtual modeling contributed to identifying the original scope of the dams’ impact. Analysis of the city’s spatial planning documents pointed to their contemporary potential. The entirety of the material collected aided in determining the framework in which protective measures targeting this dying heritage are currently possible. This study features a proposal for a new form of recreating the structures under investigation by assigning them a range of possible simultaneous uses. Thus, the presented research proposal is a form of concern for preserving this historical legacy and an attempt at rising to contemporary challenges posed by an intensively changing environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Spatial–Temporal Characteristics of Industrial Land Supply Scale in Relation to Industrial Structure in China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111272 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
Taking China’s industrial land transfer data as the data source, this study quantitatively analyzes the transfer structure and spatial distribution of China’s industrial land from 2010 to 2019. By constructing the information entropy and the equilibrium degree model of industrial land-use structure, this [...] Read more.
Taking China’s industrial land transfer data as the data source, this study quantitatively analyzes the transfer structure and spatial distribution of China’s industrial land from 2010 to 2019. By constructing the information entropy and the equilibrium degree model of industrial land-use structure, this study evaluates the transfer characteristics of industrial land of different functional types in various provinces of China, analyzes the scale advantages of various types of transferred industrial land by using the land transfer scale advantage index, and summarizes the spatial distribution characteristics of different types of industrial land transfer in China through the spatial center of gravity analysis and cold/hot spot regional distribution mapping. The following results were obtained. (1) There are significant differences in the transfer scale of industrial land among provinces in China. The transfer scale of Eastern and Central China is large, whereas that of Western China is small. (2) From the perspective of land-use structure, the transfer scale of industrial land in the central and western regions is more balanced than that in the east. (3) From the gravity center distribution of the standard deviation ellipse, the land transfer direction of the energy industry, and the mining industry, and other types of industries is more significant than that of the culture and sports hygiene industries, modern manufacturing industry, and high-tech industry. (4) From the analysis of cold and hot spots, the mining industry, the energy industry, and other types of industries in the western region with rich mineral resources are the hot spots of industrial land transfer, and the southeast coast is the cold spot; the eastern coastal area is a hot area for land transfer of modern manufacturing, the high-tech industry, and the culture and sports hygiene industries. The results reveal the regional differences and spatial distribution characteristics of industrial transfer in China and provide a reference for authorities to formulate industrial planning and industrial land collection, storage, and transfer plans. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Developing a Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Coastal City Sustainability, Mitigation, and Adaptation: A Case Study of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Land 2021, 10(11), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111271 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Coastal hazards are an urgent issue of global concern considering the increasing population pressure in coastal regions, retreating coastlines, and rising seawater levels. Here we demonstrate the process of assessing the vulnerability of a coastal urban environment using the case of Kuala Terengganu, [...] Read more.
Coastal hazards are an urgent issue of global concern considering the increasing population pressure in coastal regions, retreating coastlines, and rising seawater levels. Here we demonstrate the process of assessing the vulnerability of a coastal urban environment using the case of Kuala Terengganu, a coastal town in Malaysia, and evaluating the potential social, environmental, and economic impacts. Uncertainties in the human dimensions of global change deeply affect the assessment and responses to environmental, climatic, and non-climate impacts on coastal city population growth and communities. We address these uncertainties by combining a Delphi-Analytical Hierarchy Process (Delphi-AHP) model and Geographic Information System (GIS)tools to determine mitigation and adaptation probabilities as part of a Coastal City Vulnerability Assessment. We conclude by presenting calculations of the short- and long-term suitability for land use and recommending hazard mitigation measures to equip city planners and decision-makers in evaluating hazards and potential impacts on coastal city areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Morphodynamics of Gully Development on the Platform–Slope System of Spoil Dumps under Platform Concentrated Flow
Land 2021, 10(11), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111270 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 452
Abstract
Severe gully erosion on spoil dumps, caused by dense concentrated flow derived from platforms, poses a significant threat to the land management of mining areas. However, little is known about the development processes and mechanisms of gullies on spoil dumps. A flow scouring [...] Read more.
Severe gully erosion on spoil dumps, caused by dense concentrated flow derived from platforms, poses a significant threat to the land management of mining areas. However, little is known about the development processes and mechanisms of gullies on spoil dumps. A flow scouring experiment was conducted on an established platform–slope system under 3.6–5.04 m3 h−1. The soils of the system consisted of a surface sandy loam A layer and anunderlying clay loam B layer. The results showed that the platform exhibited a gully development process of headcut-incision–headcut-expansion–stabilization and the steep slope experienced gully development of A-layer incision–A-layer expansion–B-layer incision–stabilization. The results showed 88.97–100% of Froude Number (Fr) decrement and 47.90–88.97% of Darcy–Weisbach roughness coefficient increment finished in the two incision stages on the steep slope. Gully depth has the most sensitive response to flow hydraulics. A significant linear correlation exists between gully depth and shear stress, runoff power, Fr, and Reynolds Number (R2 > 0.337). Overall, the optimal hydraulic indicator varies within different stages for describing the gully morphology development, illustrating the different action mechanism between flow hydraulics and gully morphology. Our findings provide a theoretical support for future mechanistic studies of gully erosion and the land management on spoil dump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing and Restoring of Degraded Land in Post-mining Areas)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Challenges for European Tourist-City-Ports: Strategies for a Sustainable Coexistence in the Cruise Post-COVID Context
Land 2021, 10(11), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111269 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
In recent years, cruise tourism has increased the negative effects caused by touristification in many European port cities. Despite this, these cities are in a great competition to be a destination, a tourist-port. Cruise tourism has come to stay, and a steady growth [...] Read more.
In recent years, cruise tourism has increased the negative effects caused by touristification in many European port cities. Despite this, these cities are in a great competition to be a destination, a tourist-port. Cruise tourism has come to stay, and a steady growth can be expected in a post-COVID-19 scenario, but at what cost? The tourist-port demands highly effective planning answers occurring simultaneously, and the global pandemic crisis provides a buffer of time to seek best practices, combining the expected economical (re)development with social, environmental, and cultural sustainability. This paper proposes five different strategies that contribute to finding a sustainable coexistence between tourist ports and their cities. To this end, trans-scalar strategies developed in previous research from different disciplines have been studied and categorized in a port-city context, in order to provide a holistic viewpoint on the measures carried out to maximize the benefits and limit the negative impacts of cruise tourism on cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Employment in Urban Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Community Perceptions about Participating in Urban Park Establishment in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia
Land 2021, 10(11), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111268 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Urban parks are essential for communities to maintain and improve health, culture, and quality of life. However, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, faces a shortage of urban parks due to overpopulation and unplanned land use. A good community-based strategy can help urban park [...] Read more.
Urban parks are essential for communities to maintain and improve health, culture, and quality of life. However, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, faces a shortage of urban parks due to overpopulation and unplanned land use. A good community-based strategy can help urban park planners and decision-makers understand residents’ needs. It can also improve livability and the urban environmental conditions at large. This paper attempts to understand residents’ perceptions about participating in urban park establishment and maintenance. As the past studies showed a lack of community participation in urban planning in Ulaanbaatar, it attempts to determine the extent to which residents perceive urban park benefits, the importance of community participation, preferred types of contribution, and willingness to contribution land in establishing urban parks in their neighborhood. In doing so, it identifies socio-demographic factors that influence their willingness to participate and contribute. A total of 600 paper-based questionnaires were randomly distributed among ger and apartment residents, and only 535 were analyzed. The result shows that approximately 73% of the respondents considered community participation very important for establishing urban parks in their neighborhood. Most respondents perceived urban park benefits as playgrounds for children, and relaxation and recreation. Respondents’ education and housing type were found significant in overall willingness to participate in park establishment and maintenance, whereas marital status and land size were observed statistically significant in the willingness of sharing some portions of their lands for park establishment in the ger area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluating the Space Use of Large Railway Hub Station Areas in Beijing toward Integrated Station-City Development
Land 2021, 10(11), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111267 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
With the large-scale construction of high-speed railways and the continuous increase in population flows, railway hubs are becoming the most dynamic places in cities. As a key node of intercity traffic and an important part of urban development, railway hub stations are the [...] Read more.
With the large-scale construction of high-speed railways and the continuous increase in population flows, railway hubs are becoming the most dynamic places in cities. As a key node of intercity traffic and an important part of urban development, railway hub stations are the main carriers for the implementation of the Integrated Station-City Development (ISCD) strategy. A comprehensive evaluation of the space use of railway hub station areas can provide a basic understanding of the intensive utilization and optimization of urban space. However, existing relevant studies lack a comprehensive assessment of the compound structures and functions within large railway hub station areas at the microscopic level. Therefore, this paper was guided by integrated station-city development, relying on Geographic Information Science (GIS)technology, and big data such as Points of Interest (POI) and real-time traffic, focusing on walking accessibility, facility convenience, function compound, and land development intensity used around railway hub station areas. The uses of the station areas in four large railway hubs in Beijing were analyzed. Based on this, we built an ISCD index, combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and assessed the degree of ISCD in the four railway hubs. The study showed that among the four large railway hubs in Beijing, the Beijing North railway station offers the best walking accessibility. The Beijing railway station features the largest facility convenience, function compound, and land development intensity. In general, the levels of ISCD of the Beijing and Beijing North Railway Stations were significantly higher than those of the Beijing West and Beijing South Railway Stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Land Use and Sustainable Urban Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Delineating Urban Functional Zones Using U-Net Deep Learning: Case Study of Kuancheng District, Changchun, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111266 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Scientific functional zone planning is the key to achieving long-term development goals for cities. The rapid development of remote sensing technology allows for the identification of urban functional zones, which is important since they serve as basic spatial units for urban planning and [...] Read more.
Scientific functional zone planning is the key to achieving long-term development goals for cities. The rapid development of remote sensing technology allows for the identification of urban functional zones, which is important since they serve as basic spatial units for urban planning and functioning. The accuracy of three methods—kernel density estimation, term frequency-inverse document frequency, and deep learning—for detecting urban functional zones was investigated using the Gaode points of interest, high-resolution satellite images, and OpenStreetMap. Kuancheng District was divided into twenty-one functional types (five single functional types and twenty mixed ones). The results showed that an approach using deep learning had a higher accuracy than the other two methods for delineating four out of five functions (excluding the commercial function) when compared with a field survey. The field survey showed that Kuancheng District was progressing towards completing the goals of the Land-Use Plan of the Central City of Changchun (2011–2020). Based on these findings, we illustrate the feasibility of identifying urban functional areas and lay out a framework for transforming them. Our results can guide the adjustment of the urban spatial structure and provide a reference basis for the scientific and reasonable development of urban land-use planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use Optimisation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Does Rural Production–Living–Ecological Spaces Have a Preference for Regional Endowments? A Case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111265 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Production–Living–Ecological Space (PLES) is the functional projection of sustainable development in territory spatial planning. Its rational layout has become the most important task for developing countries to enhance ecological awareness and achieve sustainable goals. This study took the rural areas of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) [...] Read more.
Production–Living–Ecological Space (PLES) is the functional projection of sustainable development in territory spatial planning. Its rational layout has become the most important task for developing countries to enhance ecological awareness and achieve sustainable goals. This study took the rural areas of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) as an example to analyze the relationship by means of quantitative cumulation between regional endowments (natural factors, location and facilities) and PLES to figure out the preference mechanism. The Boosted Regression Tree model (BRT) was used to obtain the contribution rate of factors and the internal marginal effect between 1980~2018. Our conclusions are as follows: Living space (LS) enjoyed the highest advantage of regional endowment level, followed by production space (PS). Except for the distance to water, other indicators were significantly different in the PLES, and the suitable range of various types was expanded from LS to PS and ecological space (ES). During the transfer, elevation had a universal effect. The process of increasing naturalness was affected by the distance of high-level urban areas, which verified the continuous effect of Chinese ecological civilization. This study clarified the selectivity of regional endowments to PLES, which will greatly guide the direction of regional territory spatial planning and the next step of regional sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sediment Yield in Dam-Controlled Watersheds in the Pisha Sandstone Region on the Northern Loess Plateau, China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111264 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Soil erosion has become the dominant environmental issue endangering sustainable development in agriculture and the ecosystem on the Loess Plateau. Determination of watershed soil erosion rates and sediment yields is essential for reasonable utilization of water resources and soil loss control. In this [...] Read more.
Soil erosion has become the dominant environmental issue endangering sustainable development in agriculture and the ecosystem on the Loess Plateau. Determination of watershed soil erosion rates and sediment yields is essential for reasonable utilization of water resources and soil loss control. In this study, we employed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry to determine the sediment yields in 24 dam-controlled watersheds in the Pisha sandstone region of the northern Loess Plateau. High differences in total sediment were trapped before the check dams due to their running periods and sediment yields. The estimated specific sediment yield ranged from 34.32 t/(ha∙a) to 123.80 t/(ha∙a) with an average of 63.55 t/(ha∙a), which indicated that the Pisha sandstone region had an intense soil erosion rate. Furthermore, the modified Sediment Distributed Delivery (SEDD) model was applied to identify the erosion-prone areas in the watersheds, and the sediment retained in the check dams were used for model calibration. The performance of the model was acceptable, and the modeling results indicated that the steep Pisha sandstone was the major sediment source for the watersheds, accounting for approximately 87.37% of the sediment yield. Catchment area, erosive precipitation, and badland proportion were the key factors for sediment yield in the dam-controlled watersheds of the Pisha sandstone region, according to multiple regression analyses. These findings indicated that the modified SEDD model is very efficient in identifying spatial heterogeneities of sediment yield in the watershed but requires comprehensive calibration and validation with long-term observations. The Pisha sandstone region is still the key area of soil erosion control in the Loess Plateau, which needs more attention for soil and water conservation due to high sediment yield. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Does Farmland Scale Management Promote Rural Collective Action? An Empirical Study of Canal Irrigation Systems in China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111263 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
Farmland scale management represents an inevitable trend toward global modern agriculture. In the new development context, the key to solving the tough problem of the insufficient supply of rural public goods is to effectively improve the enthusiasm of farming households to participate in [...] Read more.
Farmland scale management represents an inevitable trend toward global modern agriculture. In the new development context, the key to solving the tough problem of the insufficient supply of rural public goods is to effectively improve the enthusiasm of farming households to participate in rural collective action in countries with a small arable area per capita, such as India, China and countries in Eastern Europe. This paper adopts the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework in the context of a land system with Chinese characteristics, and uses sample data of 3663 rural households in 17 provinces to study the impact of farmland scale and various relevant systems on farming households’ participation in rural collective action. We found that the advantages of collective action, such as reduced production costs, enhanced risk resistance and improved production efficiency, can offset the disadvantages incurred by free-riding behavior, and the expansion of farmland scale can significantly facilitate rural collective action. Additionally, as the farmland scale expands, stable farmland tenure and reasonable farmland tenure transfer can help to optimize the allocation of arable land resources, increase investment, and reduce free-riding behavior, thus effectively stimulating farming households to actively participate in collective action. However, since socialized agricultural services lead to the separation of the suppliers and the users of rural public goods, the expansion of farmland scale shows a negative effect. Therefore, in the context of the continuous migration of the rural population to cities, a stable farmland tenure adjustment mechanism should be established, while the balance between farmland tenure transfer and socialized agricultural services, in pushing forward rural collective action, should be emphasized, so as to ensure the effective supply of rural public goods in propelling farmland scale management. Especially in promoting the development of socialized agricultural services, more attention should be paid to specifying the responsibilities and obligations of the main provider of commercialized services in the supply of rural public goods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mining, Urban Growth, and Agrarian Changes in the Atacama Desert: The Case of the Calama Oasis in Northern Chile
Land 2021, 10(11), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111262 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
Since the mid-twentieth century, Latin American rural territories have undergone significant transformations. One of the leading causes is the expansion of large-scale operations that exploit natural resources for world market exportation with low processing. In this paper, we study the changes in agricultural [...] Read more.
Since the mid-twentieth century, Latin American rural territories have undergone significant transformations. One of the leading causes is the expansion of large-scale operations that exploit natural resources for world market exportation with low processing. In this paper, we study the changes in agricultural activities, livestock, and land use in the Calama oasis (the Atacama Desert, northern Chile) in relation to the growth of large-scale copper mining and other chained processes (urbanization and increased demand for water resources); based on a mixed methodology combining descriptive statistics, archival and bibliographic review, ethnography, and spatial analysis. We present the results through a historical reconstruction of the analyzed dimensions and their relationships, accounting for contradictory dynamics in time and space. We identify how mining and urban growth promote some agricultural and livestock activities under certain economic and political conditions, while in other contexts, these activities have been severely weakened, seeing increasing urbanization of rural land, rural-urban pluriactivity, and a growing deagrarianization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Land Management Interaction with Urbanization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Understanding the Impacts of Financial Flows in the Landscape
Land 2021, 10(11), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111261 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Donors and non-governmental organizations are showing increased interest in integrated landscape initiatives (ILIs), where landscape stakeholders work together to achieve common goals related to development, climate change and conservation. In order to support the work of ILIs, we developed a novel methodology with [...] Read more.
Donors and non-governmental organizations are showing increased interest in integrated landscape initiatives (ILIs), where landscape stakeholders work together to achieve common goals related to development, climate change and conservation. In order to support the work of ILIs, we developed a novel methodology with which stakeholders—organized in multi-stakeholder partnerships—can assess how financial flows in the landscape are impacting their common goals and to identify funding gaps. Piloting the methodology in three landscapes in Indonesia, Ghana and Vietnam, we found that there were trade-offs between ensuring broad stakeholder participation in the assessments (to capture different perspectives) and the level of technical and quantifiable detail that could be acquired. The methodology effectively contributed to a common understanding among landscape-level stakeholders and triggered discussions on methods in which financial flows can be adapted to reduce their negative impacts or increase their positive impacts. It also functioned as a basis for the development of joint action plans and to initiate collaborations with the providers of financial flows that have potential to contribute to common landscape objectives. In addition to promoting common understanding and providing a basis for the development of action plans, we conclude that implementing the methodology also helped with strengthening the landscape partnerships themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Landscapes for Sustainable Trade and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impacts of Climate Change on Livestock Location in the US: A Statistical Analysis
Land 2021, 10(11), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111260 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Livestock production is a valuable part of US agriculture as it contributes 50% of total agricultural value. Climate change is likely a threat to livestock production, but research regarding the impact of climate change on livestock sectors is limited. This paper examines how [...] Read more.
Livestock production is a valuable part of US agriculture as it contributes 50% of total agricultural value. Climate change is likely a threat to livestock production, but research regarding the impact of climate change on livestock sectors is limited. This paper examines how climate change affects livestock mix and location. Specifically, we examine climate effects on grazing animals and, in particular, on beef cattle, dairy cattle, goats, and sheep. We examine this in the US based on county-level data by using fractional multinomial logit econometrics. Our results show that climate is an influential determinant of where livestock herds are located and species mix. The impacts of climate vary by species and region. We also find significant influences from geographic characteristics and animal product prices. Subsequently, we project how climate change would influence future livestock mix and location. It reveals a likely growth in beef cow land shares across most of the US with the largest gains in the northwest. We also find substitutions between species as climate change progresses with dairy cows exhibiting the largest reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Land Use, Economics and Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Making Agriculture Carbon Neutral Amid a Changing Climate: The Case of South-Western Australia
Land 2021, 10(11), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111259 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Making Australian agriculture carbon neutral by 2050 is a goal espoused by several agricultural organisations in Australia. How costly might it be to attain that goal, especially when adverse climate change projections apply to agriculture in southern Australia? This study uses scenario analysis [...] Read more.
Making Australian agriculture carbon neutral by 2050 is a goal espoused by several agricultural organisations in Australia. How costly might it be to attain that goal, especially when adverse climate change projections apply to agriculture in southern Australia? This study uses scenario analysis to examine agricultural emissions and their abatement via reforestation in south-western Australia under projected climate change. Most scenarios include the likelihood of agricultural emissions being reduced in the coming decades. However, the impact of projected adverse climate change on tree growth and tree survival means that the cost of achieving agricultural carbon neutrality via reforestation is forecast to increase in south-western Australia. Agricultural R&D and innovation that enable agricultural emissions to diminish in the coming decades will be crucial to lessen the cost of achieving carbon neutrality. On balance, the more likely scenarios reveal the real cost of achieving carbon neutrality will not greatly increase. The cost of achieving carbon neutrality under the various scenarios is raised by an additional AUD22 million to AUD100 million per annum in constant 2020 dollar terms. This magnitude of cost increase is very small relative to the region’s gross value of agricultural production that is regularly greater than AUD10 billion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Land Use, Economics and Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Urban Community Power: Enhancing Urban Forest Diversity and Reversing Ecosystem Disservices in Zomba City, Malawi
Land 2021, 10(11), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111258 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Tree species diversity in urban green spaces supports the provision of a wide range of urban ecosystem services, well studied in developed countries and less so in developing countries, where little is discussed concerning the role of urban communities in addressing the eminent [...] Read more.
Tree species diversity in urban green spaces supports the provision of a wide range of urban ecosystem services, well studied in developed countries and less so in developing countries, where little is discussed concerning the role of urban communities in addressing the eminent threat facing green spaces. A study was, therefore, conducted to assess the impact of community involvement in the management of urban green spaces, which is mostly left in the hands of the central government in most developing countries. Two hills, namely, Sadzi and Chiperoni hills, were selected within Zomba city, where the latter has no community involvement in managing it. Trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) of ≥5 cm were measured and identified to species level from 25 sampled plots (20 × 20 m each). The results found a total of 51 species, 40 genera and 17 families, with the Fabaceae family dominant in both hills. A Shannon index of above 3.0 was recorded from both hills, with a greater tree density for Sadzi hill at 695 trees/ha. Sadzi hill has gained more than a twofold increase in green cover, while Chiperoni has lost 10%. Despite being in the regenerating phase, the community management is contributing to urban green space provision, ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Is Next for Urban Landscape Ecology?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Socio-Economic Effects of National Park Governance and Management: Lessons from Post-Socialist Era Estonia
Land 2021, 10(11), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111257 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Despite the significant increase in protected territory globally, there is a common understanding that the designation of protected areas alone does not guarantee their effectiveness nor halt the loss of biodiversity. In addition to biodiversity conservation, protected areas are expected to perform a [...] Read more.
Despite the significant increase in protected territory globally, there is a common understanding that the designation of protected areas alone does not guarantee their effectiveness nor halt the loss of biodiversity. In addition to biodiversity conservation, protected areas are expected to perform a number of other functions, such as provide ecosystem services and improve local socio-economic conditions. Therefore, the need to strive towards mixed, decentralized conservation management and stakeholder involvement is increasingly emphasized. Although there is limited research, it has been noted that protected areas have not served wider objectives effectively enough. The current study provides insight concerning socio-economic effects of different governance and management practices of protected areas based on perceptions of residents and stakeholders of five national parks of Estonia. It was found that conservation status has an important impact on local socio-economic conditions largely depending on governance and management practices, resulting in both, positive and negative effects. It was concluded that the centralization of nature conservation and the abolition of protected area administrations have led to a gradual distancing of nature conservation from local conditions and the population, causing concern about the preservation of the living environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Life Cycle Assessment of an Energy-Biochar Chain Involving a Gasification Plant in Italy
Land 2021, 10(11), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111256 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a fundamental tool for evaluating the environmental and energy load of a production cycle. Its application to renewable energy production systems offers the possibility of identifying the environmental benefits of such processes—especially those related to the by-products of [...] Read more.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a fundamental tool for evaluating the environmental and energy load of a production cycle. Its application to renewable energy production systems offers the possibility of identifying the environmental benefits of such processes—especially those related to the by-products of production processes (i.e., digestion or biochar). Biochar has received worldwide interest because of its potential uses in bioenergy production, due to its coproducts (bio-oil and syngas), as well as in global warming mitigation, sustainable agriculture, pollutant removal, and other uses. Biochar production and use of soil is a strategy for carbon sequestration that could contribute to the reduction of emissions, providing simultaneous benefits to soil and opportunities for bioenergy generation. However, to confirm all of biochar’s benefits, it is necessary to characterize the environmental and energy loads of the production cycle. In this work, soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, use of fertilizers, and use of water for irrigation have been considered in the biochar’s LCA, where the latter is used as a soil conditioner. Primary data taken from experiments and prior studies, as well as open-source available databases, were combined to evaluate the environmental impacts of energy production from biomass, as well as the biochar life cycle, including pre- and post-conversion processes. From the found results, it can be deduced that the use of gasification production of energy and biochar is an attractive strategy for mitigating the environmental impacts analyzed here—especially climate change, with a net decrease of about −8.3 × 103 kg CO2 eq. Finally, this study highlighted strategic research developments that combine the specific characteristics of biochar and soil that need to be amended. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Urban-Rural Income Gap on the Population Peri-Urbanization Rate in China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111255 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Attracted by the urban–rural income gap (URIG), a massive agricultural transfer population has flooded into cities and became a peri-urbanized population due to the restrictions of the household registration system. This trend eventually leads to the rising population peri-urbanization rate (PPUR), which is [...] Read more.
Attracted by the urban–rural income gap (URIG), a massive agricultural transfer population has flooded into cities and became a peri-urbanized population due to the restrictions of the household registration system. This trend eventually leads to the rising population peri-urbanization rate (PPUR), which is equal to the proportion of urban resident population with rural household registration in the total residents, and seriously affects the development of new-type people-oriented urbanization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of URIG on PPUR at the national and regional levels using the spatial exploration analysis and spatial Durbin model from the perspective of comparative economic interests. Empirical results revealed that PPUR had high spatial agglomeration, as indicated by high values in Eastern China and low values in Central and Western China. Moreover, the PPUR of most provinces in China was rising, dominated by intermediate values. At the national level, URIG promoted the increase of PPUR in the province, but inhibited the increase of PPUR in nearby provinces. Except for household registration, other control variables, such as industrial structure, fixed asset formation rate, infrastructure, medical resources and land-centered urbanization, also contributed to the PPUR in the province. At the regional level, the URIG of Central and Western China contributed to the increase of PPUR, whereas in Eastern China it inhibited the increase of PPUR. The strong correlation of URIG and PPUR calls for relevant policies for narrowing URIG and reducing PPUR. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Natural and Socioeconomic Influences on Land-Use Intensity: Evidence from China
Land 2021, 10(11), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111254 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Intensive land use can support sustainable socioeconomic development, especially in the context of limited land resources and high population. It is measured by land-use intensity that reflects the degree of land-use efficiency. In order to support decision-making for efficient land use, we investigated [...] Read more.
Intensive land use can support sustainable socioeconomic development, especially in the context of limited land resources and high population. It is measured by land-use intensity that reflects the degree of land-use efficiency. In order to support decision-making for efficient land use, we investigated the mechanism whereby natural and socioeconomic factors influence land-use intensity from the perspectives of overall, region-, and city-based analysis, respectively. This investigation was conducted in Chinese cities using the multiple linear stepwise regression method and geographic information system techniques. The results indicate that: (1) socioeconomic factors have more positive impact on land-use intensity than natural factors as nine of the top 10 indicators with the highest SRC values are in the socioeconomic category according to the overall assessment; (2) education input variously contributes to land-use intensity because of the mobility of a well-educated workforce between different cities; (3) the increase in transportation land may not promote intensive land use in remarkably expanding cities due to the defective appraisal system for governmental achievements; and that (4) in developed cities, economic structure contributes more to land-use intensity than the total economic volume, whereas the opposite is the case in less-developed cities. This study can serve as a guide for the government to prepare strategies for efficient land use, hence promoting sustainable socioeconomic development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elementome of Endemic Dolomitic Flora: Pterocephalus spathulatus (Lag.) Coult
Land 2021, 10(11), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111253 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Unusual dolomite substrates present a phenomenon known as dolomitophily, which refers to the specificity of the flora that grows on them. Within the dolomitic flora, one of the most widespread plants in Spain is the characteristic species Pterocephalus spathulatus (Lag.) Coult., which forms [...] Read more.
Unusual dolomite substrates present a phenomenon known as dolomitophily, which refers to the specificity of the flora that grows on them. Within the dolomitic flora, one of the most widespread plants in Spain is the characteristic species Pterocephalus spathulatus (Lag.) Coult., which forms whitish prostrate thymes. The present study focused on the knowledge about the ionome (or elementome) of a characteristic dolomite species and some of its applications, both in terms of its nutritional behaviour and in determining the factors that favour the rich and rare flora growing on dolomitic soils. Soil, foliar, stem and root samples of the species studied were collected from different locations in the south of Spain. The samples were analysed to determine their mineral composition. The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and the Translocation Factor (TF) were calculated, relating the values of the mineral contents in the soil, both total and phytoavailable, to the values from the foliar, root and stem samples. It was found that this species was able to accumulate some elements, including B, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti, Tl and Zn, which can be phytotoxic in high concentrations, and are considered to be some of the main toxic metals in soils. In addition, it was observed that the plant can accumulate metals in the stem and leaves (TF), thus proving that it is capable of transporting them from the root to the aerial part of the plant. The data obtained may indicate that other species in the plant community may possess this bioindicator or even phytoremediation capacity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Ecosystem Collapse Risk Assessments
Land 2021, 10(11), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111252 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Progress is being made in assessing the conservation status of ecosystems, notably through initiatives such as the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) and the NatureServe Conservation Status Assessment (NCS). Both of these approaches consider conservation status in terms of the risk of [...] Read more.
Progress is being made in assessing the conservation status of ecosystems, notably through initiatives such as the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) and the NatureServe Conservation Status Assessment (NCS). Both of these approaches consider conservation status in terms of the risk of ecosystem collapse. However, the scientific understanding of ecosystem collapse is still at a relatively early stage. Consequently, concerns have been raised regarding the scientific basis of ecosystem conservation assessments focusing on collapse risk. Here I explore how these concerns might potentially be addressed by considering how the concept is defined, and by briefly reviewing the theoretical basis of ecosystem collapse. I then examine the implications of recent research results for the design of ecosystem collapse risk assessments, and the challenges identified in those assessments conducted to date. Recommendations are made regarding how collapse risk assessments might be strengthened based on current scientific understanding, and how this understanding could be improved by further research. In addition, I examine the potential implications for conservation policy and practice if the scientific basis of collapse risk assessments is not strengthened in this way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identifying Endangered Terrestrial Ecosystems)
Article
Assessment of Land Cover Dynamics and Drivers of Urban Expansion Using Geospatial and Logistic Regression Approach in Wa Municipality, Ghana
Land 2021, 10(11), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111251 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
The current trends of land use dynamics have revealed a significant transformation of settlement spaces. In the Wa Municipality of Ghana, the changes in land use and land cover are inspired by a plethora of driving forces. In this study, we assessed the [...] Read more.
The current trends of land use dynamics have revealed a significant transformation of settlement spaces. In the Wa Municipality of Ghana, the changes in land use and land cover are inspired by a plethora of driving forces. In this study, we assessed the geo-physical drivers of settlement expansion under land use dynamics in the Wa Municipality of Ghana. The study employed geospatial and remote sensing tools to map and analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of the landscape, using Landsat satellite imageries: thematic mapper (TM), enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) and operational land imager (OLI) from 1990 to 2020. The study employed a binomial logistic regression model to statistically assess the geo-physical drivers of settlement expansion. Random forest (RF)–supervised classification based on spatio-temporal analyses generated relatively higher classification accuracies, with overall accuracy ranging from 89.33% to 93.3%. Urban expansion for the last three decades was prominent, as the period from 1990 to 2001 gained 11.44 km2 landmass of settlement, while there was 11.30 km2 gained from 2001 to 2010, and 29.44 km2 gained from 2010 to 2020. Out of the independent variables assessed, the distance to existing settlements, distance to river, and distance to primary, tertiary and unclassified roads were responsible for urban expansion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop