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Investigating Atrazine Concentrations in the Zwischenscholle Aquifer Using MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D Package and MT3DMS

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India
2
Agrosphere Institute (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
4
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041019
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Simulation models that describe the flow and transport processes of pesticides in soil and groundwater are important tools to analyze how surface pesticide applications influence groundwater quality. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the slow decline and the stable spatial pattern of atrazine concentrations after its ban, which were observed in a long-term monitoring study of pesticide concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer (Germany), could be explained by such model simulations. Model simulations were carried out using MODFLOW model coupled with the HYDRUS-1D package and MT3DMS. The results indicate that the spatial variability in the atrazine application rate and the volume of water entering and leaving the aquifer through lateral boundaries produced variations in the spatial distribution of atrazine in the aquifer. The simulated and observed water table levels and the average annual atrazine concentrations were found to be comparable. The long-term analysis of the simulated impact of atrazine applications in the study area shows that atrazine persisted in groundwater even 20 years after its ban at an average atrazine concentration of 0.035 µg/L. These results corroborate the findings of the previous monitoring studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D package and MT3DMS; pesticide contamination; atrazine; groundwater contamination MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D package and MT3DMS; pesticide contamination; atrazine; groundwater contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beegum, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Šimůnek, J.; Herbst, M.; Sudheer, K.P.; Nambi, I.M. Investigating Atrazine Concentrations in the Zwischenscholle Aquifer Using MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D Package and MT3DMS. Water 2020, 12, 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041019

AMA Style

Beegum S, Vanderborght J, Šimůnek J, Herbst M, Sudheer KP, Nambi IM. Investigating Atrazine Concentrations in the Zwischenscholle Aquifer Using MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D Package and MT3DMS. Water. 2020; 12(4):1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beegum, Sahila, Jan Vanderborght, Jiří Šimůnek, Michael Herbst, K. P. Sudheer, and Indumathi M Nambi. 2020. "Investigating Atrazine Concentrations in the Zwischenscholle Aquifer Using MODFLOW with the HYDRUS-1D Package and MT3DMS" Water 12, no. 4: 1019. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041019

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