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Article

Assessing the Cadmium Effects on the Benthic Foraminifer Ammonia cf. parkinsoniana: An Acute Toxicity Test

1
Ocean Science Consulting Ltd., Dunbar EH42 1RR, East Lothian, UK
2
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait
3
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Urbino University, 61029 Urbino, Italy
4
Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Urbino University, 61029 Urbino, Italy
5
Departamento de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550-013, Brazil
6
Departamento de Geociências, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041018
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 28 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impact on Coastal Environments)
Heavy metals are one of the most hazardous pollutants in marine environments because of their bioaccumulation and biomagnification capabilities. Among them, cadmium (Cd) has been considered as one of the most dangerous for marine organisms. Here we incubated Ammonia cf. parkinsoniana specimens, a benthic foraminiferal taxon used in previous experiments, for up to 48 h in natural seawater with different concentrations of Cd to unravel the physiological change. We document a reduced pseudopodial activity of the Cd-treated specimens at concentrations >10–100 ppb in comparison with the control specimens. Moreover, confocal images of Cd-treated specimens using Nile Red as a fluorescent probe reveal an enhanced intracellular neutral lipid accumulation in the form of lipid droplets at 6 h and 12 h. This bioassay experiment allows for the direct evaluation of Cd-dose to A. cf. parkinsoniana-response relationships under laboratory controlled conditions and provides complementary information to field observations as well as to water quality guidelines and thresholds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; benthic foraminifera; ecotoxicology; confocal images cadmium; benthic foraminifera; ecotoxicology; confocal images
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MDPI and ACS Style

Losada Ros, M.T.; Al-Enezi, E.; Cesarini, E.; Canonico, B.; Bucci, C.; Alves Martins, M.V.; Papa, S.; Frontalini, F. Assessing the Cadmium Effects on the Benthic Foraminifer Ammonia cf. parkinsoniana: An Acute Toxicity Test. Water 2020, 12, 1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041018

AMA Style

Losada Ros MT, Al-Enezi E, Cesarini E, Canonico B, Bucci C, Alves Martins MV, Papa S, Frontalini F. Assessing the Cadmium Effects on the Benthic Foraminifer Ammonia cf. parkinsoniana: An Acute Toxicity Test. Water. 2020; 12(4):1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Losada Ros, María Teresa, Eqbal Al-Enezi, Erica Cesarini, Barbara Canonico, Carla Bucci, Maria Virgínia Alves Martins, Stefano Papa, and Fabrizio Frontalini. 2020. "Assessing the Cadmium Effects on the Benthic Foraminifer Ammonia cf. parkinsoniana: An Acute Toxicity Test" Water 12, no. 4: 1018. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041018

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