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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Orifice-to-Pipe Diameter Ratio on Leakage Flow: An Experimental Study

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60451-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102189
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
The traditional orifice discharge formula used to estimate the flow rate through a leak opening at a pipe wall often produces inaccurate results. This paper reports an original experimental study in which the influence of orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio on leakage flow rate was investigated for several internal/external flow conditions and orifice holes with different shapes. The results revealed that orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio (or pipe wall curvature) indeed influenced the leakage flow, with the discharge coefficient ( C d ) presenting a wide variation (0.60–0.85). As the orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio decreased, the values of C d systematically decreased from about 12% to 3%. Overall, the values of C d also decreased with β (ratio of pressure head differential at the orifice to wall thickness), as observed in previous studies. On the other hand, orifice shape, main pipe flow velocity, and external medium (water or air) all had a secondary effect on C d . The results obtained in the present study not only demonstrated that orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio affects the outflow, but also that real scale pipes may exhibit a relevant deviation of C d from the classical range (0.61–0.67) reported in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: discharge; orifice; pipe leakage; orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio; water distribution system; discharge coefficient discharge; orifice; pipe leakage; orifice-to-pipe diameter ratio; water distribution system; discharge coefficient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, T.; Zhang, X.; E. Lima Neto, I.; Zhang, T.; Shao, Y.; Ye, M. Impact of Orifice-to-Pipe Diameter Ratio on Leakage Flow: An Experimental Study. Water 2019, 11, 2189. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102189

AMA Style

Yu T, Zhang X, E. Lima Neto I, Zhang T, Shao Y, Ye M. Impact of Orifice-to-Pipe Diameter Ratio on Leakage Flow: An Experimental Study. Water. 2019; 11(10):2189. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Tingchao; Zhang, Xiangqiu; E. Lima Neto, Iran; Zhang, Tuqiao; Shao, Yu; Ye, Miaomiao. 2019. "Impact of Orifice-to-Pipe Diameter Ratio on Leakage Flow: An Experimental Study" Water 11, no. 10: 2189. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102189

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