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Open AccessArticle

Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Real Hospital Wastewaters for Effluent Quality Amelioration

Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Water 2019, 11(10), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102165
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Engineering and Environmental Catalysis)
The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the wastewater effluents has confirmed that conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not sufficiently effective in the pharmaceuticals’ removal. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the photocatalytic degradation of PhACs using TiO2-P25, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4, CN) and a heterojunction of perovskite strodium titanate and graphitic carbon nitride SrTiO3/g-C3N4 (20% g-C3N4, 20CNSTO) photocatalytic materials, in hospital wastewater effluents, by simulated solar irradiation. The experiments were performed by using real wastewater samples collected from the university hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent of Ioannina city (Northwestern Greece) and inherent pharmaceutical concentration levels. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the cases of TiO2 and CN, more than 70% of the initial concentration (e.g., venlafaxine) was degraded after 90 min, while 20CNSTO presented lower photocatalytic performance. Furthermore, some compounds were sporadically detected (e.g., fluoxetine) or their concentrations remained stable during the photocatalytic treatment time period (e.g., trimethoprim). In total 11 transformation products (TPs) were formed along the degradation processes and were identified by using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. View Full-Text
Keywords: hospital wastewater; pharmaceutical compounds; photocatalysis; TiO2; g-C3N4; SrTiO3/g-C3N4; transformation products; metabolites hospital wastewater; pharmaceutical compounds; photocatalysis; TiO2; g-C3N4; SrTiO3/g-C3N4; transformation products; metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Konstas, P.-S.; Kosma, C.; Konstantinou, I.; Albanis, T. Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Real Hospital Wastewaters for Effluent Quality Amelioration. Water 2019, 11, 2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102165

AMA Style

Konstas P-S, Kosma C, Konstantinou I, Albanis T. Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Real Hospital Wastewaters for Effluent Quality Amelioration. Water. 2019; 11(10):2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Konstas, Panagiotis-Spyridon; Kosma, Christina; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Albanis, Triantafyllos. 2019. "Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Real Hospital Wastewaters for Effluent Quality Amelioration" Water 11, no. 10: 2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102165

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