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Identification of Sulfate Sources and Biogeochemical Processes in an Aquifer Affected by Peatland: Insights from Monitoring the Isotopic Composition of Groundwater Sulfate in Kampinos National Park, Poland
Open AccessArticle

Investigation into Groundwater Resources in Southern Part of the Red River’s Delta Plain, Vietnam by the Use of Isotopic Techniques

1
Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Duc Thang Ward, North Tu Liem District, 1000 Hanoi, Vietnam
2
National Center for Water Resources Planning and Investigation, Sai Dong Ward, Long Bien District, 1000 Hanoi, Vietnam
3
Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, Nghia Do Ward, Cau Giay District, 1000 Hanoi, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102120
Received: 10 August 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Water Stable Isotopes in Hydrological Process)
Groundwater in the Red River’s delta plain, North Vietnam, was found in Holocene, Pleistocene, Neogene and Triassic aquifers in fresh, brackish and saline types with a total dissolved solids (TDS) content ranging from less than 1 g L−1 to higher than 3 g L−1. Saline water exists inHolocene aquifer, but fresh and brackish water exist in Pleistocene, Neogene and Triassic aquifers. This study aims at the investigation into genesis and processes controlling quality of water resources in the region. For this isotopic, combined with geochemical techniques were applied. The techniques include: (i) measurement of water’s isotopic compositions (δ2H, δ18O) in water; (ii) determination of water’s age by the 3H- and 14C-dating method, and (iii) chemical analyses for main cations and anions in water. Results obtained revealed that saline water in Holocene aquifer was affected by seawater intrusion, fresh water in deeper aquifers originated from meteoric water but with old ages, up to 10,000–14,000 yr. The recharge area of fresh water is from the northwest highland at an altitude of 140–160m above sea level. The recharge water flows northwesterly towards southeasterly to the seacoast at a rate of 2.5m y−1. Chemistry of water resources in the study region is controlled by ferric, sulfate and nitrate reduction with organic matters as well as dissolution of inorganic carbonate minerals present in the sediment deposits. Results of isotopic signatures in water from Neogene, Triassic and Pleistocene aquifers suggested the three aquifers are connected to each other due to the existence of faults and fissures in Mesozoic basement across the delta region in combination with high rate of groundwater mining. Moreover, the high rate of freshwater abstraction from Pleistocene aquifer currently causes sea water to flow backwards to production well field located in the center of the region.
Keywords: isotopic techniques; water isotopic signature; 3H- and 14C-dating; saltwater intrusion; Red River’s delta; Vietnam isotopic techniques; water isotopic signature; 3H- and 14C-dating; saltwater intrusion; Red River’s delta; Vietnam
MDPI and ACS Style

Van Lam, N.; Van Hoan, H.; Duc Nhan, D. Investigation into Groundwater Resources in Southern Part of the Red River’s Delta Plain, Vietnam by the Use of Isotopic Techniques. Water 2019, 11, 2120.

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