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Actin Cytoskeleton Straddling the Immunological Synapse between Cytotoxic Lymphocytes and Cancer Cells

1
Cytoskeleton and Cancer Progression; Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Oncology 84 Val Fleuri, L-1526 Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
2
University of Luxembourg, Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication, 2 Avenue de l’Université, L-4365 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
3
University of Strasbourg, 67081 Strasbourg, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050463
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment: Interaction and Metabolism)
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Abstract

The immune system is a fundamental part of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as cytolytic T cells and natural killer cells, control tumor growth and disease progression by interacting and eliminating tumor cells. The actin cytoskeleton of cytotoxic lymphocytes engaged in an immunological synapse has received considerable research attention. It has been recognized as a central mediator of the formation and maturation of the immunological synapse, and its signaling and cytolytic activities. In comparison, fewer studies have explored the organization and function of actin filaments on the target cancer cell side of the immunological synapse. However, there is growing evidence that the actin cytoskeleton of cancer cells also undergoes extensive remodeling upon cytotoxic lymphocyte attack, and that such remodeling can alter physical and functional interactions at the immunological synapse. In this article, we review the current knowledge of actin organization and functions at both sides of the immunological synapse between cytotoxic lymphocytes and cancer cells, with particular focus on synapse formation, signaling and cytolytic activity, and immune evasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: actin cytoskeleton; cytotoxic T lymphocytes; immune evasion; immune surveillance; immunological synapse; natural killer cells actin cytoskeleton; cytotoxic T lymphocytes; immune evasion; immune surveillance; immunological synapse; natural killer cells
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Wurzer, H.; Hoffmann, C.; Al Absi, A.; Thomas, C. Actin Cytoskeleton Straddling the Immunological Synapse between Cytotoxic Lymphocytes and Cancer Cells. Cells 2019, 8, 463.

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