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Review

Glial Cells as Therapeutic Approaches in Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

1
Genomic Instability Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Center for Molecular Biology “Severo Ochoa” (CBMSO) UAM/CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Networking Research Center on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28031 Madrid, Spain
4
Departamento de Biología (Fisiología Animal), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
5
Departamento de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Marisol Ruiz-Meana and Javier Inserte
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071639
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 24 June 2021 / Accepted: 26 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
Ischemic stroke is the second cause of mortality and the first cause of long-term disability constituting a serious socioeconomic burden worldwide. Approved treatments include thrombectomy and rtPA intravenous administration, which, despite their efficacy in some cases, are not suitable for a great proportion of patients. Glial cell-related therapies are progressively overcoming inefficient neuron-centered approaches in the preclinical phase. Exploiting the ability of microglia to naturally switch between detrimental and protective phenotypes represents a promising therapeutic treatment, in a similar way to what happens with astrocytes. However, the duality present in many of the roles of these cells upon ischemia poses a notorious difficulty in disentangling the precise pathways to target. Still, promoting M2/A2 microglia/astrocyte protective phenotypes and inhibiting M1/A1 neurotoxic profiles is globally rendering promising results in different in vivo models of stroke. On the other hand, described oligodendrogenesis after brain ischemia seems to be strictly beneficial, although these cells are the less studied players in the stroke paradigm and negative effects could be described for oligodendrocytes in the next years. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the precise role of mentioned glial cell types in the main pathological events of ischemic stroke, including inflammation, blood brain barrier integrity, excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species management, metabolic support, and neurogenesis, among others, with a special attention to tested therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; glia; neuroprotection; microglia; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; therapy ischemic stroke; glia; neuroprotection; microglia; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernández, I.H.; Villa-González, M.; Martín, G.; Soto, M.; Pérez-Álvarez, M.J. Glial Cells as Therapeutic Approaches in Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Cells 2021, 10, 1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071639

AMA Style

Hernández IH, Villa-González M, Martín G, Soto M, Pérez-Álvarez MJ. Glial Cells as Therapeutic Approaches in Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Cells. 2021; 10(7):1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071639

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hernández, Ivó H., Mario Villa-González, Gerardo Martín, Manuel Soto, and María J. Pérez-Álvarez 2021. "Glial Cells as Therapeutic Approaches in Brain Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury" Cells 10, no. 7: 1639. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071639

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