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Article

Dose Expression for Pesticide Application in Citrus: Influence of Canopy Size and Sprayer

1
Centro de Agroingeniería, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), CV-315, km 10.7, 46113 Moncada, Spain
2
Department of Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering (FABE), The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
USAD-ARS Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU), 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
4
Marketing EMEA, Bayer CropScience, S.L., Avda. Baix Llobregat, 3-5, 08970 Sant Joan Despí, Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121887
Received: 27 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pest and Disease Management)
Pesticides in three-dimensional (3D) crops are usually applied sidewise, so the vertical component must be considered for adjusting the applications. For this, different approaches have been proposed. Leaf Wall Area (LWA) was selected to express the minimum dose to be used in efficacy field trials for plant protection product (PPP) authorization in northern areas of Europe, where 3D crops are grown as narrow wall-forming structures. However, southern European areas also managed 3D crops as wide walls or globular crops with non-negligible canopy width. Therefore, a Tree Row Volume (TRV) model is thought to be more appropriate for dose expression. Furthermore, efficacy evaluations for pesticide authorization are usually carried out with manual sprayers in young plantations with medium-sized trees. However, growers normally apply PPP with air-blast sprayers in plantations of different tree sizes. The objective of this study was to determine which dose expression is more suitable in citrus orchards, as well as to analyze, in turn, the influence of the sprayer. The results demonstrated that TRV was the most appropriate for dose expression. Knapsacks and air-blast sprayers distributed the spray on the canopy in different ways, and the size of the vegetation influenced the differences between them. Moreover, knapsack sprayers produced higher ground losses, and air-blast sprayers produced higher potential drift. View Full-Text
Keywords: knapsack sprayer; air-blast sprayer; LWA; TRV; coverage; leaf deposition; drift knapsack sprayer; air-blast sprayer; LWA; TRV; coverage; leaf deposition; drift
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcerá, C.; Fonte, A.; Salcedo, R.; Soler, A.; Chueca, P. Dose Expression for Pesticide Application in Citrus: Influence of Canopy Size and Sprayer. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121887

AMA Style

Garcerá C, Fonte A, Salcedo R, Soler A, Chueca P. Dose Expression for Pesticide Application in Citrus: Influence of Canopy Size and Sprayer. Agronomy. 2020; 10(12):1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcerá, Cruz, Alberto Fonte, Ramón Salcedo, Agustí Soler, and Patricia Chueca. 2020. "Dose Expression for Pesticide Application in Citrus: Influence of Canopy Size and Sprayer" Agronomy 10, no. 12: 1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121887

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