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Effect of Electrode Material on the Crystallization of GeTe Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for Phase Change Random Access Memory

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology (Seoultech), Seoul 01811, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Division of Advanced Materials, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34114, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050281
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale Switches)
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Abstract

The electrical switching behavior of the GeTe phase-changing material grown by atomic layer deposition is characterized for the phase change random access memory (PCRAM) application. Planar-type PCRAM devices are fabricated with a TiN or W bottom electrode (BE). The crystallization behavior is characterized by applying an electrical pulse train and analyzed by applying the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami kinetics model. The device with TiN BE shows a high Avrami coefficient (>4), meaning that continuous and multiple nucleations occur during crystallization (set switching). Meanwhile, the device with W BE shows a smaller Avrami coefficient (~3), representing retarded nucleation during the crystallization. In addition, larger voltage and power are necessary for crystallization in case of the device with W BE. It is believed that the thermal conductivity of the BE material affects the temperature distribution in the device, resulting in different crystallization kinetics and set switching behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: phase change random access memory; crystallization behavior; Johnson–Mehl–Avrami kinetics; electrode interfacial layer effect phase change random access memory; crystallization behavior; Johnson–Mehl–Avrami kinetics; electrode interfacial layer effect
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Oh, S.I.; Im, I.H.; Yoo, C.; Ryu, S.Y.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S.; Eom, T.; Hwang, C.S.; Choi, B.J. Effect of Electrode Material on the Crystallization of GeTe Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for Phase Change Random Access Memory. Micromachines 2019, 10, 281.

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