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Micromachines, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2010) – 3 articles , Pages 82-152

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619 KiB  
Article
A Novel Piezo-Actuator-Sensor Micromachine for Mechanical Characterization of Micro-Specimens
by Leila Ladani and Steven Nelson
Micromachines 2010, 1(3), 129-152; https://doi.org/10.3390/microm1030129 - 14 Dec 2010
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7101
Abstract
Difficulties associated with testing and characterization of materials at microscale demands for new technologies and devices that are capable of measuring forces and strains at microscale. To address this issue, a novel electroactive-based micro-electro-mechanical machine is designed. The micromachine is comprised of two [...] Read more.
Difficulties associated with testing and characterization of materials at microscale demands for new technologies and devices that are capable of measuring forces and strains at microscale. To address this issue, a novel electroactive-based micro-electro-mechanical machine is designed. The micromachine is comprised of two electroactive (piezoelectric) micro-elements mounted on a rigid frame. Electrical activation of one of the elements causes it to expand and induce a stress in the intervening micro-specimen. The response of the microspecimen to the stress is measured by the deformation and thereby voltage/resistance induced in the second electro-active element. The concept is theoretically proven using analytical modeling in conjunction with non-linear, three dimensional finite element analyses for the micromachine. Correlation of the output voltage to the specimen stiffness is shown. It is also demonstrated through finite element and analytical analysis that this technique is capable of detecting non-linear behavior of materials. A characteristic curve for an isotropic specimen exhibiting linear elastic behavior is developed. Application of the proposed device in measuring coefficient of thermal expansion is explored and analytical analysis is conducted. Full article
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390 KiB  
Article
Optimization Strategy for Resonant Mass Sensor Design in the Presence of Squeeze Film Damping
by Chengzhang Li and Michele H. Miller
Micromachines 2010, 1(3), 112-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/microm1010112 - 14 Dec 2010
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7092
Abstract
This paper investigates the design optimization of an electrostatically actuated microcantilever resonator that operates in air. The nonlinear effects of electrostatic actuation and air damping make the structural dynamics modeling more complex. There is a need for an efficient way to simulate the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the design optimization of an electrostatically actuated microcantilever resonator that operates in air. The nonlinear effects of electrostatic actuation and air damping make the structural dynamics modeling more complex. There is a need for an efficient way to simulate the system behavior so that the design can be more readily optimized. This paper describes an efficient analytical approach for determining the optimum design for a microcantilever resonant mass sensor. One simple case is described. The sensor design is a square plate that is coated with a functional polymer and attached to the substrate with folded leg springs. The plate has a square hole in the middle to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping. With the analytical approach, the optimum hole size for maximum sensitivity is found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micromechanics and Microengineering)
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2661 KiB  
Review
A Review on Mixing in Microfluidics
by Yong Kweon Suh and Sangmo Kang
Micromachines 2010, 1(3), 82-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi1030082 - 30 Sep 2010
Cited by 265 | Viewed by 24161
Abstract
Small-scale mixing is of uttermost importance in bio- and chemical analyses using micro TAS (total analysis systems) or lab-on-chips. Many microfluidic applications involve chemical reactions where, most often, the fluid diffusivity is very low so that without the help of chaotic advection the [...] Read more.
Small-scale mixing is of uttermost importance in bio- and chemical analyses using micro TAS (total analysis systems) or lab-on-chips. Many microfluidic applications involve chemical reactions where, most often, the fluid diffusivity is very low so that without the help of chaotic advection the reaction time can be extremely long. In this article, we will review various kinds of mixers developed for use in microfluidic devices. Our review starts by defining the terminology necessary to understand the fundamental concept of mixing and by introducing quantities for evaluating the mixing performance, such as mixing index and residence time. In particular, we will review the concept of chaotic advection and the mathematical terms, Poincare section and Lyapunov exponent. Since these concepts are developed from nonlinear dynamical systems, they should play important roles in devising microfluidic devices with enhanced mixing performance. Following, we review the various designs of mixers that are employed in applications. We will classify the designs in terms of the driving forces, including mechanical, electrical and magnetic forces, used to control fluid flow upon mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of each design will also be addressed. Finally, we will briefly touch on the expected future development regarding mixer design and related issues for the further enhancement of mixing performance. Full article
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