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Open AccessArticle

Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women

1
Department of Nutrition, Section of Public Nutrition and Health, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C. (CIAD), Carretera a La Victoria km 0.6, 83304 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
2
Department of Food Sciences, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C. (CIAD), Carretera a La Victoria km 0.6, 83304 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
3
Center for Population Health Research, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad No. 655, Colonia Santa María Ahuacatitlán, Cerrada Los Pinos y Caminera, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101078
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens as biomarkers for dietary phytoestrogen intake in Mexican women. Participants were 100 healthy women from 25 to 80 years of age. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24 h recall were used to estimate habitual and recent intakes of isoflavones, lignans, flavonols, coumestrol, resveratrol, naringenin, and luteolin. Urinary concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI) and diode array detector (DAD) (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations between dietary intake and urine concentrations. The habitual consumption (FFQ) of total phytoestrogens was 37.56 mg/day. In urine, the higher compounds were naringenin (60.1 µg/L) and enterolactone (41.7 µg/L). Recent intakes (24 h recall) of isoflavones (r = 0.460, p < 0.001), lignans (r = 0.550, p < 0.0001), flavonoids (r = 0.240, p < 0.05), and total phytoestrogens (r = 0.410, p < 0.001) were correlated to their urinary levels. Total phytoestrogen intakes estimated by the FFQ showed higher correlations to urinary levels (r = 0.730, p < 0.0001). Urinary phytoestrogens may be useful as biomarkers of phytoestrogen intake, and as a tool for evaluating the relationship of intake and disease risk in Mexican women. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoestrogen intake; urinary excretion; biomarker; Mexican women phytoestrogen intake; urinary excretion; biomarker; Mexican women
MDPI and ACS Style

Chávez-Suárez, K.M.; Ortega-Vélez, M.I.; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A.I.; Galván-Portillo, M.; López-Carrillo, L.; Esparza-Romero, J.; Saucedo-Tamayo, M.S.; Robles-Burgueño, M.R.; Palma-Durán, S.A.; Gutiérrez-Coronado, M.L.; Campa-Siqueiros, M.M.; Grajeda-Cota, P.; Caire-Juvera, G. Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1078.

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