Next Article in Journal
A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults
Previous Article in Journal
Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol
Open AccessArticle

Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain

1
School of Medicinal Sciences and Health Products, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101084
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Choline is involved in relevant neurochemical processes. In particular, it is the precursor and metabolite of acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is an essential component of different membrane phospholipids that are involved in intraneuronal signal transduction. On the other hand, cholinergic precursors are involved in ACh release and carry out a neuroprotective effect based on an anti-inflammatory action. Based on these findings, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of choline and choline precursor (Choline alphoscerate, GPC) in the modulation of inflammatory processes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 87 mg of choline chloride/kg/day (65 mg/kg/day of choline), and at choline-equivalent doses of GPC (150 mg/kg/day) and vehicle for two weeks. The brains were dissected and used for immunochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1β, IL-1β; Interleukin-6 , IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, TNF-α) and endothelial adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule, ICAM-1 and Vascular cell Adhesion Molecule, VCAM-1) were studied in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The results clearly demonstrated that treatment with choline or GPC did not affect the expression of the inflammatory markers in the different cerebral areas evaluated. Therefore, choline and GPC did not stimulate the inflammatory processes that we assessed in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; Choline alphoscerate; acetylcholine; inflammatory markers; rat brain choline; Choline alphoscerate; acetylcholine; inflammatory markers; rat brain
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tayebati, S.K.; Martinelli, I.; Moruzzi, M.; Amenta, F.; Tomassoni, D. Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1084.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop