Next Article in Journal
A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults
Previous Article in Journal
Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1084;

Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain

School of Medicinal Sciences and Health Products, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2692 KB, uploaded 1 October 2017]   |  


Choline is involved in relevant neurochemical processes. In particular, it is the precursor and metabolite of acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is an essential component of different membrane phospholipids that are involved in intraneuronal signal transduction. On the other hand, cholinergic precursors are involved in ACh release and carry out a neuroprotective effect based on an anti-inflammatory action. Based on these findings, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of choline and choline precursor (Choline alphoscerate, GPC) in the modulation of inflammatory processes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 87 mg of choline chloride/kg/day (65 mg/kg/day of choline), and at choline-equivalent doses of GPC (150 mg/kg/day) and vehicle for two weeks. The brains were dissected and used for immunochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1β, IL-1β; Interleukin-6 , IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, TNF-α) and endothelial adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule, ICAM-1 and Vascular cell Adhesion Molecule, VCAM-1) were studied in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The results clearly demonstrated that treatment with choline or GPC did not affect the expression of the inflammatory markers in the different cerebral areas evaluated. Therefore, choline and GPC did not stimulate the inflammatory processes that we assessed in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; Choline alphoscerate; acetylcholine; inflammatory markers; rat brain choline; Choline alphoscerate; acetylcholine; inflammatory markers; rat brain

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tayebati, S.K.; Martinelli, I.; Moruzzi, M.; Amenta, F.; Tomassoni, D. Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1084.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top