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Open AccessArticle

Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice

by Chang Man Kim 1,†, Seong Joon Yi 2,†, Il Je Cho 3,* and Sae Kwang Ku 3,*
1
Department of Science Education, College of Education, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-714, Korea
2
Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
3
MRC-GHF, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-715, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4316-4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5114316
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorder and Obesity)
Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG). fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg), RG (250 mg/kg), simvastatin (10 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg) and metformin (250 mg/kg) were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermentation; high fat diet; metabolic disorders; obesity; red-koji; red ginseng fermentation; high fat diet; metabolic disorders; obesity; red-koji; red ginseng
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Kim, C.M.; Yi, S.J.; Cho, I.J.; Ku, S.K. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4316-4332.

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