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Article

Nutrient Profiles of Dishes Consumed by the Adequate and High-Salt Groups in the 2014–2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan

1
Department of Nutritional Epidemiology and Shokuiku, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
2
Department of Food Function and Labeling, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
3
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
4
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Faculty of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura-cho, Oura-gun, Gunma 374-0193, Japan
5
Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan
6
Research Institute for Agricultural and Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pedro Moreira
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082591
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Healthiness and Sustainability of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines)
Dish-based nutrient profile analyses are essential for setting goals to achieve a balanced diet. In 2014, the Japanese government proposed the “Healthy Meal” criteria, which requires a salt content of 3 g/650 kcal per meal. To examine the current intake status of a nationally representative sample, we conducted a series of secondary analyses of the 2014–2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey data. Participants (aged 18–74 years) were grouped as “high-salt” consumers if their salt intake was 3 g/650 kcal or higher and “adequate” consumers if they consumed less than 3 g/650 kcal. A total of 13,615 participants were identified as “adequate” consumers and 22,300 as “high-salt” consumers. The median salt intake in the “high-salt” group was 11.3 g/day, while that in the “adequate” group was 7.5 g/day. Almost all dishes consumed by the “adequate” group had significantly high energy and fat content but low salt content, compared with those consumed by the “high-salt” group. For example, the median energy, fat, and salt contents in the main dishes consumed by the “adequate” group were 173 kcal, 10.4 g, and 0.9 g/dish, respectively, while those in the main dishes consumed by the “high-salt” group were 159 kcal, 8.9 g, and 1.1 g/dish, respectively. Examples of balanced dishes that are low in both salt and fat content can be proposed to help improve the Japanese consumers’ dietary behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium; dish; dietary survey sodium; dish; dietary survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takimoto, H.; Okada, E.; Takebayashi, J.; Tada, Y.; Yoshizaki, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Ishimi, Y. Nutrient Profiles of Dishes Consumed by the Adequate and High-Salt Groups in the 2014–2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082591

AMA Style

Takimoto H, Okada E, Takebayashi J, Tada Y, Yoshizaki T, Yokoyama Y, Ishimi Y. Nutrient Profiles of Dishes Consumed by the Adequate and High-Salt Groups in the 2014–2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takimoto, Hidemi, Emiko Okada, Jun Takebayashi, Yuki Tada, Takahiro Yoshizaki, Yuri Yokoyama, and Yoshiko Ishimi. 2021. "Nutrient Profiles of Dishes Consumed by the Adequate and High-Salt Groups in the 2014–2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082591

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