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Effect of the Natural Sweetener Xylitol on Gut Hormone Secretion and Gastric Emptying in Humans: A Pilot Dose-Ranging Study

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St. Clara Research Ltd. at St. Claraspital, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Basel, 4001 Basel, Switzerland
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Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital of Basel, 4001 Basel, Switzerland
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Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders, Catholic University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute University College Dublin, 3444 Dublin, Ireland
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Department of Biomedical Sciences and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Department of Surgery, Clarunis, St. Claraspital, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010174
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Sugar consumption is associated with a whole range of negative health effects and should be reduced and the natural sweetener xylitol might be helpful in achieving this goal. The present study was conducted as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Twelve healthy, lean volunteers received intragastric solutions with 7, 17 or 35 g xylitol or tap water on four separate days. We examined effects on: gut hormones, glucose, insulin, glucagon, uric acid, lipid profile, as well as gastric emptying rates, appetite-related sensations and gastrointestinal symptoms. We found: (i) a dose-dependent stimulation of cholecystokinin (CCK), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (aGLP-1), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)-release, and decelerated gastric emptying rates, (ii) a dose-dependent increase in blood glucose and insulin, (iii) no effect on motilin, glucagon, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)-release, (iv) no effect on blood lipids, but a rise in uric acid, and (v) increased bowel sounds as only side effects. In conclusion, low doses of xylitol stimulate the secretion of gut hormones and induce a deceleration in gastric emptying rates. There is no effect on blood lipids and only little effect on plasma glucose and insulin. This combination of properties (low-glycemic sweetener which stimulates satiation hormone release) makes xylitol an attractive candidate for sugar replacement. View Full-Text
Keywords: xylitol; natural sweeteners; gut hormones; appetite-related sensations; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal symptoms; blood lipids; uric acid xylitol; natural sweeteners; gut hormones; appetite-related sensations; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal symptoms; blood lipids; uric acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meyer-Gerspach, A.C.; Drewe, J.; Verbeure, W.; Roux, C.W.l.; Dellatorre-Teixeira, L.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Holst, J.J.; Hartmann, B.; Tack, J.; Peterli, R.; Beglinger, C.; Wölnerhanssen, B.K. Effect of the Natural Sweetener Xylitol on Gut Hormone Secretion and Gastric Emptying in Humans: A Pilot Dose-Ranging Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010174

AMA Style

Meyer-Gerspach AC, Drewe J, Verbeure W, Roux CWl, Dellatorre-Teixeira L, Rehfeld JF, Holst JJ, Hartmann B, Tack J, Peterli R, Beglinger C, Wölnerhanssen BK. Effect of the Natural Sweetener Xylitol on Gut Hormone Secretion and Gastric Emptying in Humans: A Pilot Dose-Ranging Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010174

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meyer-Gerspach, Anne C., Jürgen Drewe, Wout Verbeure, Carel W.l. Roux, Ludmilla Dellatorre-Teixeira, Jens F. Rehfeld, Jens J. Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Jan Tack, Ralph Peterli, Christoph Beglinger, and Bettina K. Wölnerhanssen. 2021. "Effect of the Natural Sweetener Xylitol on Gut Hormone Secretion and Gastric Emptying in Humans: A Pilot Dose-Ranging Study" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010174

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