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Dietary Diversity and Micronutrients Adequacy in Women of Childbearing Age: Results from ELANS Study

Departamento de Bioquimica, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 94088, Costa Rica
Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Sao Judas Tadeu, Sao Paulo 01000, Brazil
Departamento de Nutriçao, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01000, Brazil
Committee of Nutrition and Wellbeing, International Life Science Institute (ILSI-Argentina), Buenos Aires C1059ABF, Argentina
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Argentina, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires B1675, Argentina
Instituto Pensi, Fundaçao Jose Egydio Setubal, Sabara Hospital Infantil, Sao Paulo 01239-040, Brazil
Departamento de Pediatria, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 04023-062, Brazil
Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1010, Venezuela
Departamento de Nutricion y Bioquimica, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota 110111, Colombia
Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito 17-1200-841, Ecuador
Centro de Nutricion Molecular y Enfermedades Cronicas, Departamento de Nutricion, Diabetes y Metabolismo, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Santiago 833-0024, Chile
Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima 15026, Peru
Instituto de Investigaciones Psicologicas & Centro de Investigacion en Neurociencias, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 11501, Costa Rica
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1994;
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Dietary diversity, an important component of diet quality, is associated with an increased probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Women of childbearing age (WCA) are particularly vulnerable to micronutrient inadequacy. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) has been used widely as a proxy measurement of micronutrient adequacy. This study aimed to assess the association between MDD-W and nutrients adequacy among WCA of eight Latin American countries. Nutrient intakes from 3704 WCA were analyzed with two 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary diversity was calculated based on ten food groups with a cut-off point of intake ≥5 groups. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.72 points, and 57.7% of WCA achieved MDD-W. Vitamin D and E showed a mean Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) of 0.03 and 0.38, respectively. WCA with a diverse diet (MDD-W > 5) reported a significantly higher intake of most micronutrients and healthy food groups with less consumption of red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. MDD-W was significantly associated with the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of 18 micronutrients evaluated. Nevertheless, even those women with a diverse diet fell short of meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for vitamins D and E. MDD-W is an appropriate tool to evaluate micronutrients adequacy in WCA from Latin America, showing that women who achieved the MDD-W reported higher adequacy ratios for most micronutrients and an overall healthier diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dietary diversity; nutrient adequacy; food groups; micronutrients; women of reproductive age Dietary diversity; nutrient adequacy; food groups; micronutrients; women of reproductive age
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Gómez, G.; Nogueira Previdelli, Á.; Fisberg, R.M.; Kovalskys, I.; Fisberg, M.; Herrera-Cuenca, M.; Cortés Sanabria, L.Y.; Yépez García, M.C.; Rigotti, A.; Liria-Domínguez, M.R.; Guajardo, V.; Quesada, D.; Murillo, A.G.; Brenes, J.C., on behalf of the ELANS Study Group; Dietary Diversity and Micronutrients Adequacy in Women of Childbearing Age: Results from ELANS Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1994.

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