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Dietary Patterns and Dietary Adaptations in Women With and Without Gestational Diabetes: Evidence From the Growing Up in New Zealand Study

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The Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010227
Received: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes)
Diet is a cornerstone of the management of gestational diabetes (GDM). We investigated differences in dietary patterns and dietary adaptations among pregnant women with and without GDM participating in the Growing Up in New Zealand study. Presence of GDM was determined using coded clinical data and plasma glucose results meeting the New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes diagnostic criteria. Women answered a food frequency questionnaire and questions regarding dietary changes and information received during pregnancy. Women with GDM had lower adherence scores than those without GDM for ‘Junk’ (mean (SD) score −0.28 (0.95) versus 0.02 (1.01) p < 0.0005) and ‘Traditional/White bread’ dietary patterns (−0.18 (0.93) versus 0.01 (1.01) p = 0.002). More women with GDM reported avoiding foods high in fat or sugar (25.3% versus 5.7%, p < 0.05) compared to women without GDM. A greater proportion of women with GDM compared with those without GDM received information from dietitians or nutritionists (27.0% versus 1.7%, p < 0.05) or obstetricians (12.6% versus 7.5%, p < 0.05). More women diagnosed before the antenatal interview received advice from dietitians or nutritionists compared with those diagnosed after (46.9% versus 6.0%, p < 0.05). Women with GDM appear to make positive changes to their diet in response to advice received from health care professionals. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes; dietary patterns; pregnancy; maternal nutrition; dietary adaptations gestational diabetes; dietary patterns; pregnancy; maternal nutrition; dietary adaptations
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Lawrence, R.L.; Wall, C.R.; Bloomfield, F.H. Dietary Patterns and Dietary Adaptations in Women With and Without Gestational Diabetes: Evidence From the Growing Up in New Zealand Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 227.

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