Next Article in Journal
Treadmill Exercise before and during Pregnancy Improves Bone Deficits in Pregnant Growth Restricted Rats without the Exacerbated Effects of High Fat Diet
Next Article in Special Issue
Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide following Cessation of L-carnitine Supplementation in Healthy Aged Women
Previous Article in Journal
Early Time-Restricted Feeding Improves 24-Hour Glucose Levels and Affects Markers of the Circadian Clock, Aging, and Autophagy in Humans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nutritional Considerations for Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Narrative Review
Open AccessArticle

Milk Powder Fortified with Potassium and Phytosterols to Decrease the Risk of Cardiovascular Events among the Adult Population in Malaysia: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

1
Nestlé Research Center, 1000 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Università della Svizzera Italiana, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
3
Centre of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061235
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Determinants and Cardiovascular Disease)
  |  
PDF [958 KB, uploaded 30 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the consumption of a milk powder product fortified with potassium (+1050.28 mg/day) and phytosterols (+1200 mg/day) to lower systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively, and, therefore, the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke among the 35–75-year-old population in Malaysia. A Markov model was created against a do-nothing option, from a governmental perspective, and with a time horizon of 40 years. Different data sources, encompassing clinical studies, practice guidelines, grey literature, and statistical yearbooks, were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on the base case estimates. With an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio equal to international dollars (int$) 22,518.03 per quality-adjusted life-years gained, the intervention can be classified as very cost-effective. If adopted nationwide, it would help prevent at least 13,400 MIs, 30,500 strokes, and more than 10,600 and 17,100 MI- and stroke-related deaths. The discounted cost savings generated for the health care system by those who consume the fortified milk powder would amount to int$8.1 per person, corresponding to 0.7% of the total yearly health expenditure per capita. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. Together with other preventive interventions, the consumption of milk powder fortified with potassium and phytosterols represents a cost-effective strategy to attenuate the rapid increase in cardiovascular burden in Malaysia. View Full-Text
Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis; Malaysia; potassium; phytosterols; cardiovascular; fortified food; blood pressure; cholesterol cost-effectiveness analysis; Malaysia; potassium; phytosterols; cardiovascular; fortified food; blood pressure; cholesterol
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gandola, A.E.; Dainelli, L.; Zimmermann, D.; Dahlui, M.; Detzel, P. Milk Powder Fortified with Potassium and Phytosterols to Decrease the Risk of Cardiovascular Events among the Adult Population in Malaysia: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1235.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top