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Hypertension Programmed by Perinatal High-Fat Diet: Effect of Maternal Gut Microbiota-Targeted Therapy

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Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
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Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122908
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
Hypertension can originate in early life caused by perinatal high-fat (HF) consumption. Gut microbiota and their metabolites short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the development of hypertension. Despite the beneficial effects of prebiotic/probiotic on human health, little is known whether maternal use of prebiotics/probiotics could protect offspring against the development of hypertension in adulthood. We investigated whether perinatal HF diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring can be prevented by therapeutic uses of prebiotic inulin or probiotic Lactobacillus casei during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets), with 5% w/w long chain inulin (PRE), or 2 × 108 CFU/day Lactobacillus casei via oral gavage (PRO) during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n = 8/group) were assigned to four groups: control, HF, PRE, and PRO. Rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. Maternal prebiotic or probiotic therapy prevents elevated blood pressure (BP) programmed by perinatal HF consumption. Both prebiotic and probiotic therapies decreased the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and renal mRNA expression of Ace, but increased abundance of genus Lactobacillus and Akkermansia. Additionally, prebiotic treatment prevents HF-induced elevation of BP is associated with reduced fecal propionate and acetate levels, while probiotic therapy restored several Lactobacillus species. Maternal probiotic or prebiotic therapy caused a reduction in plasma TMAO level and TMAO-to-TMA ratio. The beneficial effects of prebiotic or probiotic therapy on elevated BP programmed by perinatal HF diet are relevant to alterations of microbial populations, modulation of microbial-derived metabolites, and mediation of the renin-angiotensin system. Our results cast a new light on the use of maternal prebiotic/probiotic therapy to prevent hypertension programmed by perinatal HF consumption. The possibility of applying gut microbiota-targeted therapies as a reprogramming strategy for hypertension warrants further clinical translation. View Full-Text
Keywords: developmental programming; gut microbiota; hypertension; prebiotic; probiotic; renin-angiotensin system; short chain fatty acid; trimethylamine N-oxide developmental programming; gut microbiota; hypertension; prebiotic; probiotic; renin-angiotensin system; short chain fatty acid; trimethylamine N-oxide
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Hsu, C.-N.; Hou, C.-Y.; Chan, J.Y.; Lee, C.-T.; Tain, Y.-L. Hypertension Programmed by Perinatal High-Fat Diet: Effect of Maternal Gut Microbiota-Targeted Therapy. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2908.

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