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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The paper aims to explore consumer behavior towards “Made in” products in order to determine the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Influences of the D/H Ratio, Size, and Facade Design of an Enclosed Square on Its Perceptual Qualities as a Sustainable Urban Space in South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040675
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341 | PDF Full-text (3407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the dominance of the D/H ratio as a design element for an enclosed urban square, long claimed by numerous urban designers. It claims that like the D/H ratio, other design elements significantly affect the perceptual quality of an enclosed square, [...] Read more.
This study examines the dominance of the D/H ratio as a design element for an enclosed urban square, long claimed by numerous urban designers. It claims that like the D/H ratio, other design elements significantly affect the perceptual quality of an enclosed square, but their impacts differ according to the context in which they are applied. The study reviews the literature pertaining to enclosures as an urban design strategy and design elements for an enclosed urban square. Then it presents a comparative analysis of the impact of the D/H ratio and other design elements such as the size of the square and the facade design using a visual assessment survey with computer-simulated images of urban squares. Results of the analysis support the argument that like the D/H ratio, the square size and its facade design have a considerable but distinctly different influence on users’ perceptions of urban squares. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of Technical Progress on Sulfur Dioxide Kuznets Curve in China: A Spatial Panel Data Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040674
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1133 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used [...] Read more.
This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used in case the coefficient estimates are biased due to the negligence of spatial dependence. With the provincial panel data of China from 2004 to 2014, this is the first research that finds an inverse N-trajectory of the relationship between SO2 emission and economic growth and confirms the beneficial impacts of technical advancement on SO2 emission abatement. The empirical results also suggest that the industrial structure change is an important driving force of the SO2 EKC. In addition, the direct and spillover effects of determinants on sulfur emission are clarified and estimated by a correct approach. Finally, we check the stability of our conclusions on the EKC shape for SO2 and technical progress effects when controlling for different variables and specifications, through which we find the turning points are sensitive to variables selections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
EH-GC: An Efficient and Secure Architecture of Energy Harvesting Green Cloud Infrastructure
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040673
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1568 | PDF Full-text (2438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, the high power consumption of data centers is the biggest challenge to making cloud computing greener. Many researchers are still seeking effective solutions to reduce or harvest the energy produced at data centers. To address this challenge, we propose a green cloud [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the high power consumption of data centers is the biggest challenge to making cloud computing greener. Many researchers are still seeking effective solutions to reduce or harvest the energy produced at data centers. To address this challenge, we propose a green cloud infrastructure which provides security and efficiency based on energy harvesting (EH-GC). The EH-GC is basically focused on harvesting the heat energy produced by data centers in the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) infrastructure. A pyroelectric material is used to generate the electric current from heat using the Olsen cycle. In order to achieve efficient green cloud computing, the architecture utilizes a genetic algorithm for proper virtual machine allocation, taking into consideration less Service Level Agreement (SLA) violations. The architecture utilizes Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA) correlation analysis based on a triangular map area generation to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in the data center layer of the IaaS. Finally, the experimental analysis is explained based on the energy parameter, which proves that our model is efficient and secure, and that it efficiently reuses the energy emitted from the data center. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Urban Spatial Form and CO2 in Chinese Cities
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040672
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 939 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although several studies have explained the effect of urbanization on China’s carbon emissions, most have focused on population urbanization, while ignoring the urban spatial form. This study investigates the impact of urban spatial form, measured by residential density, on the evolution of carbon [...] Read more.
Although several studies have explained the effect of urbanization on China’s carbon emissions, most have focused on population urbanization, while ignoring the urban spatial form. This study investigates the impact of urban spatial form, measured by residential density, on the evolution of carbon emissions of 108 cities from 2003 to 2013 in China. The main results are as follows: (1) although urbanization significantly increases CO2 emissions, urban spatial form measured by residential density produces a negative effect on CO2 emissions in China.; (2) China has not become the “pollution haven” of foreign direct investment (FDI), instead, green FDI has reduced carbon emissions significantly; (3) the environmental dividends of low-carbon transformation have been observed in eastern and middle cities, but not in western ones. Therefore, establishing compact cities and traversing a low-carbon path is both feasible and necessary. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How Do Quality Practices Affect the Results?: The Experience of Thalassotherapy Centres in Spain
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040671
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
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Abstract
Most thalassotherapy centres in Spain do not have any quality certification but they are carrying out several actions of quality management in an attempt to obtain better results. Consequently, the aim of this research is to study if the implementation of quality practices [...] Read more.
Most thalassotherapy centres in Spain do not have any quality certification but they are carrying out several actions of quality management in an attempt to obtain better results. Consequently, the aim of this research is to study if the implementation of quality practices on thalassotherapy centres has the same impact on companies’ results as on the results of those companies that got the quality certifications. In addition, the relationships between different factors considered are going to be studied. Our sample is composed of Spanish thalassotherapy centres, and the statistical technique used is based on structural equation modelling, in particular partial least squares (PLS) regression. The data were provided by the answers given by 31 managers (70.45% of the selected sample) to a structured questionnaire based on previous research and statistically validated. The results of this research allow us to conclude that these kinds of organizations have implemented informal practices to improve the quality of the service in terms of leadership, personnel management, alliances, and resources and show that the practices that have been carried out by these centres to enhance the quality of the service have an impact on companies’ results. Managers of these kinds of establishments that want to improve customer results should focus their efforts on continuous improvement, whereas, if they are pursuing enhancement of other results, their efforts should be focused on process management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Adopt Biochar in Agriculture: The Producer’s Perspective
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040655
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1596 | PDF Full-text (1090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Most research on biochar has focused either on the mechanistic or the biophysical aspects, and there has been relatively little research into the social applicability and acceptance of biochar as a soil enhancer in agriculture. However, whether to adopt biochar in their practice [...] Read more.
Most research on biochar has focused either on the mechanistic or the biophysical aspects, and there has been relatively little research into the social applicability and acceptance of biochar as a soil enhancer in agriculture. However, whether to adopt biochar in their practice is ultimately the farmers’ decision, and their willingness to do so is crucial. Here, we show the producer’s perspective on adopting biochar, using Polish farmers as a case study. Poland is an interesting case study because biochar has only recently attracted the attention of researchers, entrepreneurs, and other stakeholders there. We performed standardized, semi-structured interviews with 161 Polish farmers to evaluate the socioeconomic potential of biochar application in practice. We found that 27% of the respondents claimed to be familiar with biochar. The respondents with a technical, non-agricultural level of education were most familiar with the term ‘biochar’ (36%), followed by the group of respondents with a higher-level agricultural education (31%). It was surprising that among the latter respondents, the majority (69%) did not know the term ‘biochar’, either in the context used for this study or in any other context. Twenty percent of the respondents expressed an interest in using biochar, while 43% were not willing to adopt it in their agricultural practice (37% ‘did not know yet’). If a farmer was familiar with the concept of sustainable agriculture, the probability of familiarity with biochar increased by 16% (p < 0.05). In addition, farmers interested in using biochar indicated that sustainable agriculture might improve the financial situation of their farms (52%). The perceived benefits of biochar that drive the willingness to adopt it included improved soil quality and increased income due to increased yields, while the constraints on its adoption were associated mainly with high costs. Our results also point to the necessity of information flow as well as engaging farmers in participatory research to adjust the research to their needs. Furthermore, our results highlight the importance of transparency with the farmers and appropriate dissemination and presentation of both the positive and the negative aspects of biochar adoption. We urge those studying biochar to engage in more interdisciplinary research and to go beyond laboratory and field research. Many innovations, even those that work, will not be adopted if socioeconomic considerations are not incorporated into the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture and Development)
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Open AccessReview
Review of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Potential for Its Adoption at an Automotive Company
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040670
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1979 | PDF Full-text (876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to guide the next steps of a PhD thesis through a structured review of the state of the art and implementation of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), and to identify challenges and potentials for its adoption at [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to guide the next steps of a PhD thesis through a structured review of the state of the art and implementation of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), and to identify challenges and potentials for its adoption at an automotive company. First, the structured literature review was conducted on LCSA to screen the current methodological and practical implementations and to identify the main research needs in the field. Second, a research on the current status of LCSA within the automotive industry was carried out by means of investigation of published sources of 15 Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). By combining the results of both steps and consulting with decision makers, the challenges and potential for adopting LCSA at an automotive company were identified. The main challenges for adoption of LCSA were found to be: (1) the consistent execution of the three life cycle based assessment methods; (2) the comparatively low maturity of Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA); and (3) the adequate presentation and interpretation of results. Next steps towards implementation would be a case study to gather experience on the combined execution of the three life cycle based assessments at an automotive company. Furthermore, it should be determined what the needs of decision makers at an automotive company are regarding the aggregation and interpretation of environmental, social, and economic impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
A Transition to Which Bioeconomy? An Exploration of Diverging Techno-Political Choices
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040669
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1518 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To date the concept of the bioeconomy—an economy based primarily on biogenic instead of fossil resources—has largely been associated with visions of “green growth” and the advancement of biotechnology and has been framed from within an industrial perspective. However, there is no consensus [...] Read more.
To date the concept of the bioeconomy—an economy based primarily on biogenic instead of fossil resources—has largely been associated with visions of “green growth” and the advancement of biotechnology and has been framed from within an industrial perspective. However, there is no consensus as to what a bioeconomy should effectively look like, and what type of society it would sustain. In this paper, we identify different types of narratives constructed around this concept and carve out the techno-political implications they convey. We map these narratives on a two-dimensional option space, which allows for a rough classification of narratives and their related imaginaries into four paradigmatic quadrants. We draw the narratives from three different sources: (i) policy documents of national and supra-national authorities; (ii) stakeholder interviews; and (iii) scenarios built in a biophysical modelling exercise. Our analysis shows that there is a considerable gap between official policy papers and visions supported by stakeholders. At least in the case of Austria there is also a gap between the official strategies and the option space identified through biophysical modelling. These gaps testify to the highly political nature of the concept of the bioeconomy and the diverging visions of society arising from it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvements in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Capacities after Shrub Planting to Stabilize Sand Dunes in China’s Horqin Sandy Land
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040662
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1434 | PDF Full-text (4070 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Caragana microphylla, a native perennial leguminous shrub, is widely used for desertification control in China’s Horqin Sandy Land. We investigated the effects of afforestation using C. microphylla in areas with fixed and active dunes on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage [...] Read more.
Caragana microphylla, a native perennial leguminous shrub, is widely used for desertification control in China’s Horqin Sandy Land. We investigated the effects of afforestation using C. microphylla in areas with fixed and active dunes on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in the soil total and light-fraction (LF) organic matter. Compared to the values in the control areas, soil organic carbon (SOC) storage to a depth of 100 cm increased by 88%, 74%, and 145% at 9, 15, and 31 years after shrub planting, respectively; the corresponding values were 68%, 61%, and 195% for total nitrogen (TN) storage, 109%, 199%, and 202% for LF organic carbon storage, and 203%, 337%, and 342% for LF nitrogen storage. The soil light-fraction (LF) organic matter contributed significantly to total SOC and TN storage, despite the low proportion of total soil mass accounted for by the LF dry matter. Thus, afforestation using C. microphylla was an effective way to sequester C and to restore degraded soils, but the process was slow; it would take more than 100 years to fully restore SOC storage in active dunes through afforestation with C. microphylla in the Horqin Sandy Land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Restoration for Sustainable Forest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Conservation in China’s Cement Industry
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040668
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China, as the world’s largest cement producer, accounts for more than 60% of global cement production. With the continuous development of the Chinese economy, resource and environmental constraints are becoming increasingly serious, and energy saving and emission reduction has become one of the [...] Read more.
China, as the world’s largest cement producer, accounts for more than 60% of global cement production. With the continuous development of the Chinese economy, resource and environmental constraints are becoming increasingly serious, and energy saving and emission reduction has become one of the choices with which all industries are faced in the process of development. The cement industry is one of the major sources of China’s carbon dioxide emissions and its effect on energy saving and emissions’ reduction determines the realization of the national goals of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Taking China’s cement industry as the main focus, this paper carries out quantitative analysis of the relationship between energy consumption in the cement industry and a number of variables: energy structure, energy prices, energy efficiency and total output value of the cement industry based on a cointegration model. The study further analyzes the energy saving potential of the cement industry by assuming different scenarios. The research results show that the energy saving potential of the cement industry is 19.06% and 33.69%, with medium and high energy efficiency, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
The Higher Carbon Intensity of Loans, the Higher Non-Performing Loan Ratio: The Case of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040667
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1201 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In response to the call of the Chinese government to support low-carbon development, the issue has come to the view gradually as to whether the behaviors of banks’ green credit will contribute to easing their own credit risk. To reflect the behaviors of [...] Read more.
In response to the call of the Chinese government to support low-carbon development, the issue has come to the view gradually as to whether the behaviors of banks’ green credit will contribute to easing their own credit risk. To reflect the behaviors of green credit of banks in detail, an indicator, named the carbon intensity of loans (CIL), is first proposed in this paper to measure the carbon emissions with association of the loans for commercial banks, on basis of the series of the input–output table. Then, a panel data model is used to explore the relationship between CIL and non-performing loan ratio, which measures the credit risk of banks. Based on the data of China’s commercial banks from 2007 to 2014, an empirical study has been conducted to investigate the impacts of CIL upon the non-performing loan ratio from a microscopic-level perspective. The result indicates that CIL has a positive effect on the non-performing loan ratio of banks. Since CIL is considered a significant indicator for the banks’ green credit, this paper comes to a conclusion that the green credit policy not only contributes to achieving of the emission-reduction targets for the society, but also promotes the development of banks’ credit risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Competitiveness Measurement of Chinese Cities Based on a Structural Equation Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040666
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1953 | PDF Full-text (3488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current era, competition among countries and regions is in fact among cities. Thus, how to measure urban competitiveness precisely is a basic and important question. The two main approaches to this are comprehensive evaluation based on a set of indicators and [...] Read more.
In the current era, competition among countries and regions is in fact among cities. Thus, how to measure urban competitiveness precisely is a basic and important question. The two main approaches to this are comprehensive evaluation based on a set of indicators and network analysis based on inter-city relations. However, both have shortcomings. In this study, we introduced structural equation model (SEM) into urban competitiveness measurement to integrate the two approaches. We built a partial least squares structural equation model (PLS–SEM) according to the analysis of causal relationship among urban attribute indicators → urban functions → urban competitiveness → urban flow intensities. Following the processes of algorithm selection, model building, fitting and assessment, and modification in PLS-SEM modeling, we measured the urban competitiveness of Chinese cities in 2010 and analyzed its distribution quantitatively and spatially. The results revealed relationships between factors contained in the model and urban competitiveness and proved that the PLS-SEM urban competitiveness measurement approach we proposed is theoretically reliable and statistically valid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Changes in Ecosystem Services in European Cities in the Continental Biogeographical Region in the Period from 1990–2012
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040665
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1376 | PDF Full-text (1076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecosystem services (ES) in cities and surrounding suburban areas are one of the major factors which guarantee quality of life. Most studies directly referring to urban ecosystem services are conducted on a local scale or for selected cities. There are few studies which [...] Read more.
Ecosystem services (ES) in cities and surrounding suburban areas are one of the major factors which guarantee quality of life. Most studies directly referring to urban ecosystem services are conducted on a local scale or for selected cities. There are few studies which focus on temporal changes of the provision of ecosystem services across a large number of cities. This paper analyzes selected land use type (forest, green urban area), soil sealing, selected ecosystem services (food provisioning, climate regulation, recreation), and biodiversity potential in 85 large cities (over 100,000 citizens) from the Continental (Central and Eastern) biogeographical region in Europe. We used the Corine Land Cover (CLC) data for 1990, 2000, 2006, and 2012. Our main findings are as follows: (1) The increase of forest areas was the highest in 2006–2012, and of urban green areas in 2000–2006, mostly in cities in Germany and the western part of the Czech Republic; (2) The process of soil sealing growth occurred in all studied cities and the rate was the most intense in Polish cities; (3) There was a decrease of food production and biodiversity potential in all the analyzed cities; (4) climate regulating services experienced only slight changes; (5) There was a very positive trend of the recreation indicator in most core zones of the cities in Germany and several cities in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Denmark. Moreover, our results of the temporal changes of land use and ES in European cities in the Continental biogeographical region indicate how important it is to monitor CLC and ES for potential spatial planning and regional policy interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maintaining Ecosystem Services to Support Urban Needs)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Thermal Distribution and Airflow for Efficient Energy Consumption in a Small Data Centers
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040664
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1560 | PDF Full-text (5617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data centers have become ubiquitous in the last few years in an attempt to keep pace with the processing and storage needs of the Internet and cloud computing. The steady growth in the heat densities of IT servers leads to a rise in [...] Read more.
Data centers have become ubiquitous in the last few years in an attempt to keep pace with the processing and storage needs of the Internet and cloud computing. The steady growth in the heat densities of IT servers leads to a rise in the energy needed to cool them, and constitutes approximately 40% of the power consumed by data centers. However, many data centers feature redundant air conditioning systems that contribute to inefficient air distribution, which significantly increases energy consumption. This remains an insufficiently explored problem. In this paper, a typical, small data center with tiles for an air supply system with a raised floor is used. We use a fluent (Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD) to simulate thermal distribution and airflow, and investigate the optimal conditions of air distribution to save energy. The effects of the airflow outlet angle along the tile, the cooling temperature and the rate of airflow on the beta index as well as the energy utilization index are discussed, and the optimal conditions are obtained. The reasonable airflow distribution achieved using 3D CFD calculations and the parameter settings provided in this paper can help reduce the energy consumption of data centers by improving the efficiency of the air conditioning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040663
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1598 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider [...] Read more.
Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Eco-Efficiency Evaluation Considering Environmental Stringency
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040661
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1497 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an extended data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for deriving eco-efficiency. In order to derive eco-efficiency, the proposed model utilizes the concepts of operational efficiency and environmental efficiency. Since DEA can separately measure operational efficiency and environmental efficiency, the treatment for [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an extended data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for deriving eco-efficiency. In order to derive eco-efficiency, the proposed model utilizes the concepts of operational efficiency and environmental efficiency. Since DEA can separately measure operational efficiency and environmental efficiency, the treatment for constructing the unified indicator is required to ultimately evaluate eco-efficiency through balancing operational and environmental concerns. To achieve this goal, we define the environmental stringency as the business condition reflecting the degree of enforcing environmental regulations across the firms or particular industries in different countries. The proposed model provides flexibility, as required by the pollution-intensity of industry, in that it allows the decision maker to evaluate DMU’s (decision-making unit) eco-efficiency appropriately depending on the business environment. We present a case of agricultural production systems to help readers understand what eco-efficiency becomes when we vary the stringency conditions. Through the illustrative example, this paper presents the potential application by which different environmental stringencies can successively be incorporated in DEA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resilience and Livelihoods in Supply Chains (RELISC): An Analytical Framework for the Development and Resilience of the UK Wood Fuel Sector
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040660
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2022 | PDF Full-text (984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioenergy is an important renewable energy source in the UK, but the bioenergy industry and in particular the wood fuel sub sector, is relatively under-developed. Socioeconomic factors have been identified as critical for facilitating deployment levels and sustainable development. However, previous studies have [...] Read more.
Bioenergy is an important renewable energy source in the UK, but the bioenergy industry and in particular the wood fuel sub sector, is relatively under-developed. Socioeconomic factors have been identified as critical for facilitating deployment levels and sustainable development. However, previous studies have mostly assessed these factors using quantitative methods and models, which are limited in assessing pertinent contextual factors such as institutional/regulatory governance, supply chain structure and governance, capital resource availability as well as actor decisions. As a step further, this research engages with these under-explored aspects of the system by developing a new analytical framework: the Resilience and Livelihoods in Supply Chains (RELISC) framework, which was designed by linking Value Chain Analysis, the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach and a supply chain resilience framework. Its application to a UK wood fuel supply chain produced useful insights. For example, the structure of the chain revealed a high level of dependency on a particular end user and contractor. Key institutional governance was critical in sustaining natural resources and providing access to finance. Internal supply chain governance was limited in ensuring the sustainability of resources and lack of actor awareness and interest were also limiting factors. In addition, five capital analyses revealed gaps in skills, networking and physical infrastructure. Finally, the design of the novel RELISC framework enables it to engage with diverse aspects of the system holistically and its application generated practical recommendations and strategies for supply chain resilience and sector growth, which are useful and applicable to other emerging sectors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sustainable Management of Plant Quarantine Pests: The Case of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040659
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1414 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The disease outbreak of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain CoDiRO (Complesso del Disseccamento Rapido dell’Olivo) in Salento (Apulia, South Italy) associated with severe cases of olive quick decline syndrome may represent not just a new disease paradigm, but a challenge for [...] Read more.
The disease outbreak of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain CoDiRO (Complesso del Disseccamento Rapido dell’Olivo) in Salento (Apulia, South Italy) associated with severe cases of olive quick decline syndrome may represent not just a new disease paradigm, but a challenge for policy formulation and science communication in plant pathology. Plant health management can be achieved by applying a technocratic model, in which objective science is thought to directly inform policy-making, or via decisionistic or inclusive models, in which scientific considerations drive risk assessment. Each could be applied to X. fastidiosa and CoDiRO strain management, thanks to consistent literature related to pathogen/host interactions, hosts, vectors, and diagnostic tools, reviewed here. However, consensus among stakeholders seems to be necessary in order to avoid plant health management failures or gridlocks, due to environmental, economic, and social implications in the X. fastidiosa threat. Here we discuss the role of consensus in building scientific opinion, reporting different approaches of governance after severe disease outbreaks in Europe. These case studies, and the available risk analysis for Xylella strains, should drive policy formulations towards more cooperative networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture and Development)
Open AccessArticle
Social Sustainability in an Ageing Chinese Society: Towards an Integrative Conceptual Framework
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040658
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Social sustainability is a relatively underexposed dimension of the sustainability debate. Diversified and discipline-specific study perspectives and the lack of contextualization make it difficult to gain a comprehensive understanding of social sustainability in non-Western societies. In examining the problems facing a rapidly ageing [...] Read more.
Social sustainability is a relatively underexposed dimension of the sustainability debate. Diversified and discipline-specific study perspectives and the lack of contextualization make it difficult to gain a comprehensive understanding of social sustainability in non-Western societies. In examining the problems facing a rapidly ageing Chinese society, this paper aims to construct an integrative conceptual framework of social sustainability, taking into account the Chinese contextual interpretations and elderly population in particular. This paper proposes an integrative conceptual framework composed of two key contextualized components: well-being and social justice. Well-being, according to Lindenberg, is the ultimate goal of life and is achieved by relevant themes organized in a hierarchical system. Social justice relating to the equal distribution of resources, opportunities, and rights is also significant for the achievement of well-being. Interpretations of social sustainability are explored within Chinese socio-cultural (Confucianism, collectivism), institutional (welfare regime, hukou system), and demographic (population ageing) contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Sustainability and Justice)
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Open AccessArticle
The Collective Strategies of Major Stakeholders in Land Expropriation: A Tripartite Game Analysis of Central Government, Local Governments, and Land-Lost Farmers
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040648
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1332 | PDF Full-text (3270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land expropriation, during the rapid urbanization process in China, results in rural conflicts and presents barriers in sustainable development. Collective strategies of major stakeholders should be clearly understood for finding effective measures to cope with conflicts. However, the existing studies usually assume two [...] Read more.
Land expropriation, during the rapid urbanization process in China, results in rural conflicts and presents barriers in sustainable development. Collective strategies of major stakeholders should be clearly understood for finding effective measures to cope with conflicts. However, the existing studies usually assume two types of stakeholders, which overlook the complicated practices as, at least central, government, local governments, and land-lost farmers are three major stakeholders. This research aims to explore the collective strategies of the three major stakeholders and examine how various factors contribute to conflicts with a tripartite evolutionary game model. The tripartite model is established based on the evolutionary game theories and relationships among the central and local governments, and land-lost farmers. A simulation analysis is also conducted on the MATLAB platform, which shows that serious asymmetry of information between stakeholders leads to the low efficiency of the game or serious conflicts. Thorough discussions on the influencing factors have also been conducted. The findings can provide good references for the central and local governments to reduce conflicts during land expropriation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simplified I-V Characteristic Tester for Photovoltaic Modules Using a DC-DC Boost Converter
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040657
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1382 | PDF Full-text (2377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an efficient testing system for measuring a PV module’s I-V curve is proposed. The proposed system is based on a controlled DC-DC boost converter. The advantage of using a DC-DC converter is that this converter is typically used in PV [...] Read more.
In this paper, an efficient testing system for measuring a PV module’s I-V curve is proposed. The proposed system is based on a controlled DC-DC boost converter. The advantage of using a DC-DC converter is that this converter is typically used in PV systems to track the maximum power point and to control the charging of the battery. Consequently, this device is utilized for I-V curve extraction without the need for further external devices. The I-V curve is extracted by modifying the duty cycle of the triggering signal of the boost converter’s switch. The proposed system has been tested experimentally using a 120 Wp PV module. The results show that the proposed system can successfully extract I-V curves of PV module. Notably, the performance of the tested module, as measured by this study’s system as well as with a reference system, was found to be in the range of 61–67% of the performance given in the datasheet. Hence, this result highlights the importance of considering a measurement of the actual performance of PV modules when designing any PV system so as to avoid an undersized system. The proposed I-V testing system can be used as a simple tool to diagnose any shortages or low performance problems in PV system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Photovoltaic Electricity)
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Open AccessArticle
Peripherization of Indemnificatory Housing Community under Land-Centered Urban Transformation: The Case of Nanjing, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040656
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Indemnificatory housing programs—a kind of state-backed urban low-end and nonmarket housing programs which used to be welfare—have now increasingly evolved to be the vehicle to promote capital accumulation. Most of these housing communities show peripherization with high rates of unemployment, low income, poverty, [...] Read more.
Indemnificatory housing programs—a kind of state-backed urban low-end and nonmarket housing programs which used to be welfare—have now increasingly evolved to be the vehicle to promote capital accumulation. Most of these housing communities show peripherization with high rates of unemployment, low income, poverty, and social exclusion, which violates their sustainability. This paper examines the impacts of land-centered urban transformation on indemnificatory housing communities, and analyzes the causes of unsustainable outcomes in political economy discourse. To achieve this, the social and economic conditions of a longstanding suburban indemnificatory housing community in Nanjing were analyzed. Survey data collected from March to April 2016 was evaluated to determine the peripherization of the residents within it. We found that for many residents, high rates of unemployment, low income, and poverty were mainly caused by their individual demographic and socioeconomic disadvantages, with the peripheral physical and social location contributing by exacerbating their vulnerabilities. It is concluded that local governments’ land-centered urban transformation and the central government’s affordable housing policies aimed at social and economic crisis mitigation combine to produce suburban indemnificatory housing communities, driving low-income relocated residents into more disadvantaged situations. This finding creates important lessons for the sustainable development of Chinese indemnificatory housing communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Excessive Product Packaging on Green Brand Attachment: The Mediation Roles of Green Brand Attitude and Green Brand Image
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040654
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1928 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study develops an original framework to explore the influence of excessive product packaging on green brand attachment and to discuss the mediation roles of green brand attitude and green brand image. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied to verify the research framework. [...] Read more.
This study develops an original framework to explore the influence of excessive product packaging on green brand attachment and to discuss the mediation roles of green brand attitude and green brand image. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied to verify the research framework. The results from a dataset of 238 valid questionnaires show that excessive product packaging has no direct effect on green brand attachment. However, green brand attitude and green brand image fully mediate the negative relationship between excessive product packaging and green brand attachment. Managerially, this study helps firms understand that excessive product packaging may bring damage to green brand attitude and green brand image, which positively relate to green brand attachment. Thus, committing to promoting the functional benefit of green products, firms must not neglect the negative effects of excessive product packaging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multicriteria Model to Evaluate Strategic Plans for the Nautical and Naval Industry in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040653
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1265 | PDF Full-text (1692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaluation of urban development plans is a key concern of the strategic planning of the city of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) due to the pressure exerted by both public and private sectors. Any strategic planning requirement deserves the inclusion of clear terms [...] Read more.
The evaluation of urban development plans is a key concern of the strategic planning of the city of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) due to the pressure exerted by both public and private sectors. Any strategic planning requirement deserves the inclusion of clear terms of coordination and cooperation among sectors, including local communities and the scientific sector. In this paper, we present a methodology for the sustainable evaluation of strategic nautical and naval projects for the development of the city of Cartagena de Indias. The methodology is based on the multicriteria technique Analytic Network Process, which allows considering political, socio-cultural and environmental aspects. The aim is to provide answers and guide the decision makers towards the optimal selection of strategies. Results provide some important insights into the overall conception of what sustainable evaluation means for the experts consulted. The procedure enhances participation and transparency and becomes a support for their decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Supplier Evaluation and Selection in Apparel Manufacturing Using a Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040650
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2030 | PDF Full-text (1510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing environmental awareness, apparel manufacturers have begun to consider environmental issues in supplier evaluation and selection. It is crucial to assess suppliers based on their environmental performance along with other criteria for supplier selection. This paper addresses the green supplier evaluation [...] Read more.
With the increasing environmental awareness, apparel manufacturers have begun to consider environmental issues in supplier evaluation and selection. It is crucial to assess suppliers based on their environmental performance along with other criteria for supplier selection. This paper addresses the green supplier evaluation and selection problem in global apparel manufacturing by developing a methodological framework for green supplier evaluation and selection based on the triple bottom line principle and a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model. First, a green supplier evaluation criteria hierarchy based on the triple bottom line principle is established based on comprehensive literature review, on-site investigation and policy analysis. Then, a fuzzy MCDM model is presented to evaluate and select the best material supplier. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Results show that the proposed framework can handle green supplier evaluation and selection in apparel manufacturing effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Issues in the Textile and Apparel Supply Chains)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach to Evaluating Light Pollution in Residential Zones: A Case Study of Beijing
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040652
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1278 | PDF Full-text (3334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outdoor lighting is becoming increasingly widespread, and residents are suffering from serious light pollution as a result. Residents’ awareness of their rights to protection has gradually increased. However, due to the sometimes-inaccessible nature of residential vertical light incidence intensity data and the high [...] Read more.
Outdoor lighting is becoming increasingly widespread, and residents are suffering from serious light pollution as a result. Residents’ awareness of their rights to protection has gradually increased. However, due to the sometimes-inaccessible nature of residential vertical light incidence intensity data and the high cost of obtaining specific measurements, there is no appropriate hierarchic compensation for residents suffering from different degrees of light pollution. It is therefore important to measure light pollution levels and their damage at the neighborhood scale to provide residents with basic materials for proper protection and to create more politically-suitable solutions. This article presents a light pollution assessment method that is easy to perform, is low-cost and has a short data-processing cycle. This method can be used to monitor residential zone light pollution in other cities. We chose three open areas to test the spatial variation pattern of light intensity. The results are in accordance with spatial interpolation patterns and can be fit, with high precision, using the inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW) method. This approach can also be used in three dimensions to quantitatively evaluate the distribution of light intensity. We use a mixed-use zone in Beijing known as The Place as our case study area. The vertical illumination at the windows of residential buildings ranges from 2 lux to 23 lux; the illumination in some areas is far higher than the value recommended by CIE. Such severe light pollution can seriously interfere with people's daily lives and has a serious influence on their rest and health. The results of this survey will serve as an important database to assess whether the planning of night-time lighting is scientific, and it will help protect the rights of residents and establish distinguished compensation mechanisms for light pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Problems with Firm-Led Voluntary Sustainability Schemes: The Case of Direct Trade Coffee
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040651
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Ensuring sustainable consumption and production is one of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable consumption can be supported through regulatory processes. Voluntary private regulatory schemes claiming to contribute to sustainability are a rapidly growing form of regulation. We study one such voluntary [...] Read more.
Ensuring sustainable consumption and production is one of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable consumption can be supported through regulatory processes. Voluntary private regulatory schemes claiming to contribute to sustainability are a rapidly growing form of regulation. We study one such voluntary sustainability scheme in order to look at the opportunities and challenges this type of regulatory process poses using Abbot and Snidal’s regulatory standard-setting framework (2009). Specifically, we examine direct trade voluntary schemes in the coffee industry. To do this, we selected six leading direct trade firms in the US and Scandinavia, analyzed firms’ websites in 2015 and 2016 and conducted interviews with four of the firms. We found direct trade as a voluntary scheme was an attempt to market and codify good sourcing practices. US-based founding firms have distanced themselves from the term due to perceived co-optation, which we conceptualize as the failure of industry to self-regulate and argue was enabled by the re-negotiation of standards without the power to enforce or penalize misuse of the term. Firms reacted to co-optation by releasing data to consumers directly; we argue this puts too much responsibility on consumers to monitor and enforce standards. By contrast, Scandinavian firms maintained standards enforced through trademark nationally. Both US and Scandinavian contexts demonstrate a weakness of firm-led agenda-setting for sustainable development in that schemes may be optimized for a particular business concern—in this case quality—rather than to achieve sustainable development goals. This is problematic if schemes are marketed on contribution to the public good when incentives within the scheme are not aligned to produce an optimal result for the public good. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
San Antonio 360: The Rise and Decline of the Concentric City 1890–2010
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040649
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper catalogs the suburban expansion of San Antonio, Texas by decade between the years 1890 and 2009, a time frame that saw the city reorganize its morphological structure four times. The city inhabited a 36-square mile grid until the late nineteenth century; [...] Read more.
This paper catalogs the suburban expansion of San Antonio, Texas by decade between the years 1890 and 2009, a time frame that saw the city reorganize its morphological structure four times. The city inhabited a 36-square mile grid until the late nineteenth century; expanded radially along streetcar lines during the early twentieth century; grew concentrically along automotive ring roads during the mid-twentieth century; and has assumed a polycentric organization within the past two decades. This research places San Antonio’s recent demographic and geographic boom into historical perspective, utilizing construction completions in host Bexar County to answer the following question: how did the form, location, and type of suburban growth shift over 120 years? The research reveals three trends: first, that historically concentric growth patterns began to assume a polycentric configuration in the late twentieth century; second, that patterns of centrifugal expansion began to accelerate dramatically during the same time period; and third, that the relative increase of multifamily completions has surpassed that of single-family completions in five of the last six decades. These findings suggest that the City of San Antonio, in order to establish a sustainable growth model, must prioritize the opportunities and constraints associated with polycentric suburban expansion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exclusive Contexts Resolver: A Low-Power Sensing Management System for Sustainable Context-Awareness in Exclusive Contexts
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040647
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Several studies focus on sustainable context-awareness of a mobile device to which power is supplied from a limited battery. However, the existing studies did not consider an unnecessary sensing operation in exclusive contexts wherein it is not possible for the exclusive contexts to [...] Read more.
Several studies focus on sustainable context-awareness of a mobile device to which power is supplied from a limited battery. However, the existing studies did not consider an unnecessary sensing operation in exclusive contexts wherein it is not possible for the exclusive contexts to logically exist at the same time and are instead occasionally inferred practically due to the inaccuracy of the context-awareness. Simultaneously inferring two or more exclusive contexts is semantically meaningless and leads to inefficient power consumption, and thus, it is necessary to handle this problem for sustainable context-awareness. To this end, in the present study, an exclusive contexts resolver (ExCore), which is a low-power sensing management system, is proposed for sustainable context-awareness in exclusive contexts. The ExCore takes the sensor behavior model to the developer and identifies the sensing operation inferring the exclusive contexts through unnecessary sensing operation search rules. It also generates low-power sensing operations. The application and middleware were evaluated with the low-power sensing operations generated by the ExCore. The results indicated an average power efficiency improvement of 12–62% depending on the test scenario. The ExCore helps application developers or middleware developers in providing sustainable context-aware service in exclusive contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
Total Factor Energy Efficiency of China’s Industrial Sector: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040646
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1373 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on stochastic frontier analysis and translog input distance function, this paper examines the total factor energy efficiency of China’s industry using input-output data of 30 sub-industries from 2002 to 2014, and decomposes the changes in estimated total factor energy efficiency into the [...] Read more.
Based on stochastic frontier analysis and translog input distance function, this paper examines the total factor energy efficiency of China’s industry using input-output data of 30 sub-industries from 2002 to 2014, and decomposes the changes in estimated total factor energy efficiency into the effects of technical change, technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and input-mix effect. The results show that during this period the total factor energy efficiency in China’s industry grew annually at a rate of 3.63%; technical change, technical efficiency change and input-mix effect contributed positively to the change in total factor energy efficiency; while scale efficiency change contributed negatively to it. Full article
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