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Pediatr. Rep., Volume 14, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 4 articles

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Article
Impact of Intracranial Hypertension on Outcome of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Pediatric Patients: A 15-Year Single Center Experience
Pediatr. Rep. 2022, 14(3), 352-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric14030042 (registering DOI) - 16 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Background: Intracranial hypertension (IC-HTN) is significantly associated with higher risk for an unfavorable outcome in pediatric trauma. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is widely becoming a standard of neurocritical care for children. Methods: The present study was designed to evaluate influences of IC-HTN on [...] Read more.
Background: Intracranial hypertension (IC-HTN) is significantly associated with higher risk for an unfavorable outcome in pediatric trauma. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is widely becoming a standard of neurocritical care for children. Methods: The present study was designed to evaluate influences of IC-HTN on clinical outcomes of pediatric TBI patients. Demographic, injury severity, radiologic characteristics were used as possible predictors of IC-HTN or of functional outcome. Results: A total of 118 pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with severe TBI (sTBI) were included. Among sTBI cases, patients with GCS < 5 had significantly higher risk for IC-HTN and for mortality. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between IC-HTN and severity scoring systems. Kaplan–Meier analysis determined a significant difference for good recovery among patients who had no ICP elevations, compared to those who had at least one episode of IC-HTN (log-rank chi-square = 11.16, p = 0.001). A multivariable predictive logistic regression analysis distinguished the ICP-monitored patients at risk for developing IC-HTN. The model finally revealed that higher ISS and Helsinki CT score increased the odds for developing IC-HTN (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of ICP-guided clinical practices, which may lead to increasing percentages of good recovery for children. Full article
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Case Report
Robot-Assisted Ankle Rehabilitation Using the Hybrid Assistive Limb for Children after Equinus Surgery: A Report of Two Cases
Pediatr. Rep. 2022, 14(3), 338-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric14030041 - 10 Aug 2022
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Abstract
After equinus corrective surgery, repetitive exercises for ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are crucial during rehabilitation. The single-joint Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL-SJ) is an advanced exoskeletal robotic device with a control system that uses bioelectrical signals to assist joint motion in real time [...] Read more.
After equinus corrective surgery, repetitive exercises for ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are crucial during rehabilitation. The single-joint Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL-SJ) is an advanced exoskeletal robotic device with a control system that uses bioelectrical signals to assist joint motion in real time and demonstrates joint torque assistance with the wearer’s voluntary movement. We present two cases of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation after equinus surgery using the HAL-SJ in children. Case 1 was an 8-year-old boy, whereas case 2 was a 6-year-old boy. When they were allowed to walk without braces, training with the HAL-SJ was performed postoperatively for 20 min per session a total of eight times (2–4 sessions per week). Assessments were performed before and after HAL-SJ training. During gait analysis, case 1 had improved joint angles during the stance phase on the operated side; however, case 2 had improved joint angles during the stance and swing phases. The co-activation index values of the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, which were high before training, decreased after training and approached the standard value. The HAL-SJ may provide systematic feedback regarding voluntary ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion and is considered to have motor learning effects. Full article
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Perspective
What Are the Minimal Feeds Required for Starting Enteral Ibuprofen in Preterm Infants with PDA?
Pediatr. Rep. 2022, 14(3), 333-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric14030040 - 24 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Ibuprofen is commonly used for the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. It seems that the oral formulation incurs a higher closure rate and has a better safety profile in preterm infants born > 26 weeks’ gestation. There [...] Read more.
Ibuprofen is commonly used for the treatment of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. It seems that the oral formulation incurs a higher closure rate and has a better safety profile in preterm infants born > 26 weeks’ gestation. There is no consensus across Canadian centers regarding the minimum volume of enteral feeds required prior to starting ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, and the current practice is comfort-based depending on the centre and the local prevalence of neonatal morbidities. Full article
Review
Management of Anticoagulation during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Children
Pediatr. Rep. 2022, 14(3), 320-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric14030039 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is often used in critically ill children with severe cardiopulmonary failure. Worldwide, about 3600 children are supported by ECMO each year, with an increase of 10% in cases per year. Although anticoagulation is necessary to prevent circuit thrombosis during [...] Read more.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is often used in critically ill children with severe cardiopulmonary failure. Worldwide, about 3600 children are supported by ECMO each year, with an increase of 10% in cases per year. Although anticoagulation is necessary to prevent circuit thrombosis during ECMO support, bleeding and thrombosis are associated with significantly increased mortality risk. In addition, maintaining balanced hemostasis is a challenging task during ECMO support. While heparin is a standard anticoagulation therapy in ECMO, recently, newer anticoagulant agents are also in use. Currently, there is a wide variation in anticoagulation management and diagnostic monitoring in children receiving ECMO. This review intends to describe the pathophysiology of coagulation during ECMO support, review of literature on current and newer anticoagulant agents, and outline various diagnostic tests used for anticoagulation monitoring. We will also discuss knowledge gaps and future areas of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Pediatric Reports)
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