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Viruses, Volume 16, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 183 articles

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27 pages, 8655 KiB  
Article
Interleukin 27, Similar to Interferons, Modulates Gene Expression of Tripartite Motif (TRIM) Family Members and Interferes with Mayaro Virus Replication in Human Macrophages
by Lady Johana Hernández-Sarmiento, Y. S. Tamayo-Molina, Juan Felipe Valdés-López and Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060996 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Background: The Tripartite motif (TRIM) family includes more than 80 distinct human genes. Their function has been implicated in regulating important cellular processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, autophagy, and innate immunity. During viral infections, macrophages are key components of innate immunity that produce [...] Read more.
Background: The Tripartite motif (TRIM) family includes more than 80 distinct human genes. Their function has been implicated in regulating important cellular processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, autophagy, and innate immunity. During viral infections, macrophages are key components of innate immunity that produce interferons (IFNs) and IL27. We recently published that IL27 and IFNs induce transcriptional changes in various genes, including those involved in JAK-STAT signaling. Furthermore, IL27 and IFNs share proinflammatory and antiviral pathways in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), resulting in both common and unique expression of inflammatory factors and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) encoding antiviral proteins. Interestingly, many TRIM proteins have been recognized as ISGs in recent years. Although it is already very well described that TRIM expression is induced by IFNs, it is not fully understood whether TRIM genes are induced in macrophages by IL27. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of stimulation with IL27 and type I, II, and III IFNs on the mRNA expression profiles of TRIM genes in MDMs. Methods: We used bulk RNA-seq to examine the TRIM expression profile of MDMs treated with IFNs or IL27. Initially, we characterized the expression patterns of different TRIM subfamilies using a heatmap. Subsequently, a volcano plot was employed to identify commonly differentially expressed TRIM genes. Additionally, we conducted gene ontology analysis with ClueGO to explore the biological processes of the regulated TRIMs, created a gene-gene interaction network using GeneMANIA, and examined protein-protein interactions with the STRING database. Finally, RNA-seq data was validated using RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the effect of IL27 on Mayaro virus replication was also evaluated. Results: We found that IL27, similar to IFNs, upregulates several TRIM genes’ expression in human macrophages. Specifically, we identified three common TRIM genes (TRIM19, 21, and 22) induced by IL27 and all types of human IFNs. Additionally, we performed the first report of transcriptional regulation of TRIM19, 21, 22, and 69 genes in response to IL27. The TRIMs involved a broad range of biological processes, including defense response to viruses, viral life cycle regulation, and negative regulation of viral processes. In addition, we observed a decrease in Mayaro virus replication in MDMs previously treated with IL27. Conclusions: Our results show that IL27, like IFNs, modulates the transcriptional expression of different TRIM-family members involved in the induction of innate immunity and an antiviral response. In addition, the functional analysis demonstrated that, like IFN, IL27 reduced Mayaro virus replication in MDMs. This implies that IL27 and IFNs share many similarities at a functional level. Moreover, identifying distinct TRIM groups and their differential expressions in response to IL27 provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the antiviral response in human macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TRIM Proteins in Antiviral Immunity and Virus Pathogenesis)
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9 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Influence of Seropositivity against Adenovirus-36 on the Risk of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in the Child Population of Southern Chile
by Roberto Brito, Jorge Sapunar, Nicolás Aguilar-Farías, Juan Navarro-Riquelme, Monica Pavez, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata and Alvaro Cerda
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060995 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Background: Previous infection with Adenovirus-36 (HAdv-D36) has been associated with adipogenesis and glycemic regulation in cell culture and animal models. In humans, HAdv-D36 antibodies correlate with increased obesity risk yet paradoxically enhance glycemic control across various demographics. This study assesses the association of [...] Read more.
Background: Previous infection with Adenovirus-36 (HAdv-D36) has been associated with adipogenesis and glycemic regulation in cell culture and animal models. In humans, HAdv-D36 antibodies correlate with increased obesity risk yet paradoxically enhance glycemic control across various demographics. This study assesses the association of HAdv-D36 seropositivity with obesity, lipid, and glycemic profiles among school-aged children. Methods: We evaluated 208 children aged 9–13, categorized by BMI z-scores into normal weight (−1 to +1), overweight (+1 to +2), and obese (>+3). Assessments included anthropometry, Tanner stage for pubertal development, and biochemical tests (relating to lipids, glucose, and insulin), alongside HAdv-D36 seropositivity checked via ELISA. Insulin resistance was gauged using Chilean pediatric criteria. Results: The cohort displayed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity. HAdv-D36 seropositivity was 5.4%, showing no correlation with nutritional status. Additionally, no link between HAdv-D36 seropositivity and lipid levels was observed. Notably, insulin levels and HOMA-RI were significantly lower in HAdv-D36 positive children (p < 0.001). No cases of insulin resistance were reported in the HAdv-D36 (+) group in our population. Conclusions: HAdv-D36 seropositivity appears to decrease insulin secretion and resistance, aligning with earlier findings. However, no association with obesity development was found in the child population of southern Chile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Clinical Application of Adenovirus (AdV), 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 3132 KiB  
Article
Evolution of an Extended Pathogenicity Motif in VP2 of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Isolates from Farmed Rainbow Trout in Turkey
by Cuneyt Tamer, Kristina Ulrich, Nicholas Di Paola, Hanne Nur Kurucay, Harun Albayrak and Manfred Weidmann
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060994 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes economic losses with a highly variable mortality rate worldwide, especially in rainbow trout. The virus has a double-stranded bi-partite RNA genome designated segment A and B. New complete genome sequences of nine rainbow trout isolates from Turkey [...] Read more.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes economic losses with a highly variable mortality rate worldwide, especially in rainbow trout. The virus has a double-stranded bi-partite RNA genome designated segment A and B. New complete genome sequences of nine rainbow trout isolates from Turkey were determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, identifying all as genotype 5 (serotype Sp). A time-dependent change in the extended pathogenicity motif of VP2 from P217T221A247 (PTA) to PTE P217T221E247 over a period of 10 years was identified. A wider analysis of 99 IPNV sequences from Turkey and Iran revealed the emergence of the motif PTE from 2007 to 2017, inducing significant morbidity in fry by 2013. In fact, displacement of the PTA motif, by the PTE motif in IPNV isolates appeared to be connected to a production peak of rainbow trout in 2013. An additional CAI analysis provided more evidence, indicating that rainbow trout culture in Turkey has an influence on the evolution of IPNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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19 pages, 12243 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characterization and Pathogenicity of a Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain in China
by Yan Ouyang, Yingbing Du, Hejin Zhang, Jiahui Guo, Zheng Sun, Xiuxin Luo, Xiaowei Mei, Shaobo Xiao, Liurong Fang and Yanrong Zhou
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060993 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Since it was first reported in 2013, the NADC30-like PRRSV has been epidemic in China. Hubei Province is known as China’s key hog-exporting region. To understand the prevalence and genetic variation of PRRSV, herein, we detected and analyzed 317 lung tissue samples from [...] Read more.
Since it was first reported in 2013, the NADC30-like PRRSV has been epidemic in China. Hubei Province is known as China’s key hog-exporting region. To understand the prevalence and genetic variation of PRRSV, herein, we detected and analyzed 317 lung tissue samples from pigs with respiratory disease in Hubei Province, and demonstrated that the NADC30-like strain was the second-most predominant strain during 2017–2018, following the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Additionally, we isolated a new NADC30-like PRRSV strain, named CHN-HB-2018, which could be stably passaged in Marc-145 cells. Genetic characterization analysis showed that compared with the NADC30 strain, the CHN-HB-2018 strain had several amino acid variations in glycoprotein (GP) 3, GP5, and nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2). Moreover, the CHN-HB-2018 strain showed a unique 5-amino acid (aa) deletion in NSP2, which has not previously been reported. Gene recombination analysis identified the CHN-HB-2018 strain as a potentially recombinant PRRSV of the NADC30-like strain and HP-PRRSV. Animal experiments indicated that the CHN-HB-2018 strain has a mild pathogenicity, with no mortality and only mild fever observed in piglets. This study contributes to defining the evolutionary characteristics of PRRSV and its molecular epidemiology in Hubei Province, and provides a potential candidate strain for PRRSV vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2024)
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14 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
Hepatitis C Virus as a Possible Helper Virus in Human Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection
by Maria Grazia Crobu, Paolo Ravanini, Clotilde Impaloni, Claudia Martello, Olivia Bargiacchi, Christian Di Domenico, Giulia Faolotto, Paola Macaluso, Alessio Mercandino, Miriam Riggi, Vittorio Quaglia, Stefano Andreoni, Mario Pirisi and Carlo Smirne
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060992 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Previous studies reported that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) could help disseminate the hepatitis D virus (HDV) in vivo through the unrelated hepatitis B virus (HBV), but with essentially inconclusive results. To try to shed light on this still-debated topic, 146 anti-HCV-positive subjects [...] Read more.
Previous studies reported that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) could help disseminate the hepatitis D virus (HDV) in vivo through the unrelated hepatitis B virus (HBV), but with essentially inconclusive results. To try to shed light on this still-debated topic, 146 anti-HCV-positive subjects (of whom 91 HCV/HIV co-infected, and 43 with prior HCV eradication) were screened for anti-HDV antibodies (anti-HD), after careful selection for negativity to any serologic or virologic marker of current or past HBV infection. One single HCV/HIV co-infected patient (0.7%) tested highly positive for anti-HD, but with no positive HDV-RNA. Her husband, in turn, was a HCV/HIV co-infected subject with a previous contact with HBV. While conducting a thorough review of the relevant literature, the authors attempted to exhaustively describe the medical history of both the anti-HD-positive patient and her partner, believing it to be the key to dissecting the possible complex mechanisms of HDV transmission from one subject to another, and speculating that in the present case, it may have been HCV itself that behaved as an HDV helper virus. In conclusion, this preliminary research, while needing further validation in large prospective studies, provided some further evidence of a role of HCV in HDV dissemination in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus 2024)
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15 pages, 13995 KiB  
Article
Development of a Ferritin Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine with PRRSV GP5 Protein
by Xinjian Chang, Jun Ma, Yanrong Zhou, Shaobo Xiao, Xun Xiao and Liurong Fang
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060991 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) presents a significant threat to the global swine industry. The development of highly effective subunit nanovaccines is a promising strategy for preventing PRRSV variant infections. In this study, two different types of ferritin (Ft) nanovaccines targeting [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) presents a significant threat to the global swine industry. The development of highly effective subunit nanovaccines is a promising strategy for preventing PRRSV variant infections. In this study, two different types of ferritin (Ft) nanovaccines targeting the major glycoprotein GP5, named GP5m-Ft and (Bp-IVp)3-Ft, were constructed and evaluated as vaccine candidates for PRRSV. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated that both purified GP5m-Ft and (Bp-IVp)3-Ft proteins could self-assemble into nanospheres. A comparison of the immunogenicity of GP5m-Ft and (Bp-IVp)3-Ft with an inactivated PRRSV vaccine in BALB/c mice revealed that mice immunized with GP5m-Ft exhibited the highest ELISA antibody levels, neutralizing antibody titers, the lymphocyte proliferation index, and IFN-γ levels. Furthermore, vaccination with the GP5m-Ft nanoparticle effectively protected piglets against a highly pathogenic PRRSV challenge. These findings suggest that GP5m-Ft is a promising vaccine candidate for controlling PRRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Virology and Disease Control in China 2023)
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3 pages, 164 KiB  
Editorial
The Emerging Tool of the Human Anellovirome
by Daniele Focosi, Pietro Giorgio Spezia and Fabrizio Maggi
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060990 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
The blood virome is dominated by the Anelloviridae family, which emerges early in life; the anellome, which represents the variety of anelloviruses within an individual, stabilizes by adulthood [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Research of Anelloviruses)
14 pages, 634 KiB  
Article
The Topical Novel Formulations of Interferon α-2в Effectively Inhibit HSV-1 Keratitis in the Rabbit Eye Model and HSV-2 Genital Herpes in Mice
by Anna Ivanina, Irina Leneva, Irina Falynskova, Ekaterina Glubokova, Nadezhda Kartashova, Nadezda Pankova, Sergei Korovkin and Oxana Svitich
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060989 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are widespread human pathogens that establish chronic latent infections leading to recurrent episodes. Current treatments are limited, necessitating the development of novel antiviral strategies. This study aimed to assess the antiviral efficacy of [...] Read more.
Herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are widespread human pathogens that establish chronic latent infections leading to recurrent episodes. Current treatments are limited, necessitating the development of novel antiviral strategies. This study aimed to assess the antiviral efficacy of novel topical formulations containing interferon alpha-2b (IFN α-2b) against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The formulations, Oftalmoferon® forte (eye drops) and Interferon Vaginal Tablets, demonstrated potent antiviral effects against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells, respectively, with concentration-dependent inhibition of viral replication. Subsequently, their efficacy was tested in animal models: HSV-1 keratitis in the rabbit eye model and HSV-2 genital herpes in mice. Oftalmoferon® forte effectively treated HSV-1 keratitis, reducing clinical symptoms and ulcerations compared to virus control. Interferon Vaginal Tablets showed promising results in controlling HSV‑2 genital herpes in mice, improving survival rates, reducing clinical signs, weight loss and viral replication. The novel IFN α-2b formulations exhibited significant antiviral activity against HSV infections in cell culture and animal models. These findings suggest the potential of these formulations as alternative treatments for HSV infections, particularly in cases resistant to current therapies. Further studies are warranted to optimize treatment regimens and assess clinical efficacy in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
16 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
C-terminal binding protein: Regulator between Viral Infection and Tumorigenesis
by Meihui Huang, Yucong Li, Yuxiao Li and Shuiping Liu
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060988 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), a transcriptional co-repressor, significantly influences cellular signaling, impacting various biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune responses. The CtBP family comprises two highly conserved proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, which have been shown to play critical roles in [...] Read more.
C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), a transcriptional co-repressor, significantly influences cellular signaling, impacting various biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune responses. The CtBP family comprises two highly conserved proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, which have been shown to play critical roles in both tumorigenesis and the regulation of viral infections. Elevated CtBP expression is noted in various tumor tissues, promoting tumorigenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis through multiple pathways. Additionally, CtBP’s role in viral infections varies, exhibiting differing or even opposing effects depending on the virus. This review synthesizes the advances in CtBP’s function research in viral infections and virus-associated tumorigenesis, offering new insights into potential antiviral and anticancer strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Clinical Application of Adenovirus (AdV), 2nd Edition)
14 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Production and Immunogenicity of FeLV Gag-Based VLPs Exposing a Stabilized FeLV Envelope Glycoprotein
by Raquel Ortiz, Ana Barajas, Anna Pons-Grífols, Benjamin Trinité, Ferran Tarrés-Freixas, Carla Rovirosa, Víctor Urrea, Antonio Barreiro, Anna Gonzalez-Tendero, Maria Rovira-Rigau, Maria Cardona, Laura Ferrer, Bonaventura Clotet, Jorge Carrillo, Carmen Aguilar-Gurrieri and Julià Blanco
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060987 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 226
Abstract
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of retroviruses, such as the Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), is the main target of neutralizing humoral response, and therefore, a promising vaccine candidate, despite its reported poor immunogenicity. The incorporation of mutations that stabilize analogous proteins from other viruses [...] Read more.
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of retroviruses, such as the Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), is the main target of neutralizing humoral response, and therefore, a promising vaccine candidate, despite its reported poor immunogenicity. The incorporation of mutations that stabilize analogous proteins from other viruses in their prefusion conformation (e.g., HIV Env, SARS-CoV-2 S, or RSV F glycoproteins) has improved their capability to induce neutralizing protective immune responses. Therefore, we have stabilized the FeLV Env protein following a strategy based on the incorporation of a disulfide bond and an Ile/Pro mutation (SOSIP) previously used to generate soluble HIV Env trimers. We have characterized this SOSIP-FeLV Env in its soluble form and as a transmembrane protein present at high density on the surface of FeLV Gag-based VLPs. Furthermore, we have tested its immunogenicity in DNA-immunization assays in C57BL/6 mice. Low anti-FeLV Env responses were detected in SOSIP-FeLV soluble protein-immunized animals; however, unexpectedly no responses were detected in the animals immunized with SOSIP-FeLV Gag-based VLPs. In contrast, high humoral response against FeLV Gag was observed in the animals immunized with control Gag VLPs lacking SOSIP-FeLV Env, while this response was significantly impaired when the VLPs incorporated SOSIP-FeLV Env. Our data suggest that FeLV Env can be stabilized as a soluble protein and can be expressed in high-density VLPs. However, when formulated as a DNA vaccine, SOSIP-FeLV Env remains poorly immunogenic, a limitation that must be overcome to develop an effective FeLV vaccine. Full article
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9 pages, 1845 KiB  
Brief Report
Unveiling of the Co-Infection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus and Caprine Enterovirus in Goat Herds with Severe Diarrhea in China
by Qun Zhang, Xuebo Zheng, Fan Zhang, Xuyuan Cui, Naitian Yan, Junying Hu, Yidi Guo and Xinping Wang
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060986 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Here, we report the discovery of two viruses associated with a disease characterized by severe diarrhea on a large-scale goat farm in Jilin province. Electron Microscopy observations revealed two kinds of virus particles with the sizes of 150–210 nm and 20–30 nm, respectively. [...] Read more.
Here, we report the discovery of two viruses associated with a disease characterized by severe diarrhea on a large-scale goat farm in Jilin province. Electron Microscopy observations revealed two kinds of virus particles with the sizes of 150–210 nm and 20–30 nm, respectively. Detection of 276 fecal specimens from the diseased herds showed the extensive infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (63.77%, 176/276) and caprine enterovirus (76.81%, 212/276), with a co-infection rate of 57.97% (160/276). These results were partially validated with RT-PCR, where all five PPRV-positive and CEV-positive specimens yielded the expected size of fragments, respectively, while no fragments were amplified from PPRV-negative and CEV-negative specimens. Moreover, corresponding PPRV and CEV fragments were amplified in PPRV and CEV double-positive specimens. Histopathological examinations revealed severe microscopic lesions such as degeneration, necrosis, and detachment of epithelial cells in the bronchioles and intestine. An immunohistochemistry assay detected PPRV antigens in bronchioles, cartilage tissue, intestine, and lymph nodes. Simultaneously, caprine enterovirus antigens were detected in lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues from the goats infected by the peste des petits ruminants virus. These results demonstrated the co-infection of peste des petits ruminants virus with caprine enterovirus in goats, revealing the tissue tropism for these two viruses, thus laying a basis for the future diagnosis, prevention, and epidemiological survey for these two virus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Enterovirus Research)
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18 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Modulatory Roles of AHR, FFAR2, FXR, and TGR5 Gene Expression in Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and COVID-19 Outcomes
by Mykhailo Buchynskyi, Valentyn Oksenych, Iryna Kamyshna, Ihor Vorobets, Iryna Halabitska and Oleksandr Kamyshnyi
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060985 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This study explores the potential influence of gut hormone receptor and immune response gene expression on COVID-19 outcomes in MAFLD patients. Methods: We investigated gene expression levels of AHR, FFAR2 [...] Read more.
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This study explores the potential influence of gut hormone receptor and immune response gene expression on COVID-19 outcomes in MAFLD patients. Methods: We investigated gene expression levels of AHR, FFAR2, FXR, and TGR5 in patients with MAFLD and COVID-19 compared to controls. We examined associations between gene expression and clinical outcomes. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed altered AHR expression, potentially impacting immune response and recovery. Downregulated AHR in patients with MAFLD correlated with increased coagulation parameters. Elevated FFAR2 expression in patients with MAFLD was linked to specific immune cell populations and hospital stay duration. A significantly lower FXR expression was observed in both MAFLD and severe COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings suggest potential modulatory roles for AHR, FFAR2, and FXR in COVID-19 and MAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals)
21 pages, 1352 KiB  
Review
Host Cell Proteases Involved in Human Respiratory Viral Infections and Their Inhibitors: A Review
by Bailey Lubinski and Gary R. Whittaker
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060984 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Viral tropism is most commonly linked to receptor use, but host cell protease use can be a notable factor in susceptibility to infection. Here we review the use of host cell proteases by human viruses, focusing on those with primarily respiratory tropism, particularly [...] Read more.
Viral tropism is most commonly linked to receptor use, but host cell protease use can be a notable factor in susceptibility to infection. Here we review the use of host cell proteases by human viruses, focusing on those with primarily respiratory tropism, particularly SARS-CoV-2. We first describe the various classes of proteases present in the respiratory tract, as well as elsewhere in the body, and incorporate the targeting of these proteases as therapeutic drugs for use in humans. Host cell proteases are also linked to the systemic spread of viruses and play important roles outside of the respiratory tract; therefore, we address how proteases affect viruses across the spectrum of infections that can occur in humans, intending to understand the extrapulmonary spread of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
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10 pages, 1212 KiB  
Article
Genetic Reassortment in a Child Coinfected with Two Influenza B Viruses, B/Yamagata Lineage and B/Victoria-Lineage Strains
by Yoko Matsuzaki, Kanetsu Sugawara, Yuko Kidoguchi, Yoko Kadowaki, Yoshitaka Shimotai, Yuriko Katsushima, Fumio Katsushima, Shizuka Tanaka, Yohei Matoba, Kenichi Komabayashi, Yoko Aoki and Katsumi Mizuta
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060983 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
We identified a child coinfected with influenza B viruses of B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages, in whom we analyzed the occurrence of genetic reassortment. Plaque purification was performed using a throat swab specimen from a 9-year-old child, resulting in 34 well-isolated plaques. The genomic [...] Read more.
We identified a child coinfected with influenza B viruses of B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages, in whom we analyzed the occurrence of genetic reassortment. Plaque purification was performed using a throat swab specimen from a 9-year-old child, resulting in 34 well-isolated plaques. The genomic composition of eight gene segments (HA, NA, PB1, PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS genes) for each plaque was determined at the lineage level. Of the 34 plaques, 21 (61.8%) had B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata)-like sequences in all gene segments, while the other 13 (38.2%) were reassortants with B/Texas/02/2013 (B/Victoria)-like sequences in 1–5 of the 8 segments. The PB1 segment had the most B/Victoria lineage genes (23.5%; 8 of 34 plaques), while PB2 and PA had the least (2.9%; 1 of 34 plaques). Reassortants with B/Victoria lineage genes in 2–5 segments showed the same level of growth as viruses with B/Yamagata lineage genes in all segments. However, reassortants with B/Victoria lineage genes only in the NA, PB1, NP, or NS segments exhibited reduced or undetectable growth. We demonstrated that various gene reassortments occurred in a child. These results suggest that simultaneous outbreaks of two influenza B virus lineages increase genetic diversity and could promote the emergence of new epidemic strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza 3.0)
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14 pages, 2991 KiB  
Review
Does Prior Respiratory Viral Infection Provide Cross-Protection Against Subsequent Respiratory Viral Infections? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Vennila Gopal, Matthew Chung Yi Koh, Jinghao Nicholas Ngiam, Ong Hang-Cheng, Jyoti Somani, Paul Anatharajah Tambyah and Jeremy Tey
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060982 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The epidemiology of different respiratory viral infections is believed to be affected by prior viral infections in addition to seasonal effects. This PROSPERO-registered systematic review identified 7388 studies, of which six met our criteria to answer the question specifically. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
The epidemiology of different respiratory viral infections is believed to be affected by prior viral infections in addition to seasonal effects. This PROSPERO-registered systematic review identified 7388 studies, of which six met our criteria to answer the question specifically. The purpose of this review was to compare the prevalence of sequential viral infections in those with previously documented positive versus negative swabs. The pooled prevalence of sequential viral infections over varying periods from 30–1000 days of follow-up was higher following a negative respiratory viral swab at 0.15 than following a positive swab at 0.08, indicating the potential protective effects of prior respiratory viral infections. However, significant heterogeneity and publication biases were noted. There is some evidence, albeit of low quality, of a possible protective effect of an initial viral infection against subsequent infections by a different virus, which is possibly due to broad, nonspecific innate immunity. Future prospective studies are needed to validate our findings. Full article
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9 pages, 966 KiB  
Brief Report
Transmission Patterns of Co-Circulation of Omicron Sub-Lineages in Hong Kong SAR, China, a City with Rigorous Social Distancing Measures, in 2022
by Ning Chow, Teng Long, Lam-Kwong Lee, Ivan Tak-Fai Wong, Annie Wing-Tung Lee, Wing-Yin Tam, Harmen Fung-Tin Wong, Jake Siu-Lun Leung, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Kristine Shik Luk, Alex Yat-Man Ho, Jimmy Yiu-Wing Lam, Miranda Chong-Yee Yau, Tak-Lun Que, Kam-Tong Yip, Viola Chi-Ying Chow, River Chun-Wai Wong, Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Hong-lin Chen and Gilman Kit-Hang Siu
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060981 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the changing landscape of circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the local community of Hong Kong throughout 2022. We examined how adjustments to quarantine arrangements influenced the transmission pattern of Omicron variants in a city with relatively rigorous social [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the changing landscape of circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the local community of Hong Kong throughout 2022. We examined how adjustments to quarantine arrangements influenced the transmission pattern of Omicron variants in a city with relatively rigorous social distancing measures at that time. Methods: In 2022, a total of 4684 local SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced using the Oxford Nanopore GridION sequencer. SARS-CoV-2 consensus genomes were generated by MAFFT, and the maximum likelihood phylogeny of these genomes was determined using IQ-TREE. The dynamic changes in lineages were depicted in a time tree created by Nextstrain. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the correlation between changes in the number of lineages and adjustments to quarantine arrangements. Results: By the end of 2022, a total of 83 SARS-CoV-2 lineages were identified in the community. The increase in the number of new lineages was significantly associated with the relaxation of quarantine arrangements (One-way ANOVA, F(5, 47) = 18.233, p < 0.001)). Over time, Omicron BA.5 sub-lineages replaced BA.2.2 and became the predominant Omicron variants in Hong Kong. The influx of new lineages reshaped the dynamics of Omicron variants in the community without fluctuating the death rate and hospitalization rate (One-way ANOVA, F(5, 47) = 2.037, p = 0.091). Conclusion: This study revealed that even with an extended mandatory quarantine period for incoming travelers, it may not be feasible to completely prevent the introduction and subsequent community spread of highly contagious Omicron variants. Ongoing molecular surveillance of COVID-19 remains essential to monitor the emergence of new recombinant variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, 3rd Edition)
24 pages, 3085 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Molecular Clone of Deformed Wing Virus B
by Sandra Barth, Sebastian Affeldt, Claudia Blaurock, Irmin Lobedank, Anette Netsch, Kerstin Seitz, Till Rümenapf and Benjamin Lamp
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060980 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) play a crucial role in agriculture through their pollination activities. However, they have faced significant health challenges over the past decades that can limit colony performance and even lead to collapse. A primary culprit is the parasitic [...] Read more.
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) play a crucial role in agriculture through their pollination activities. However, they have faced significant health challenges over the past decades that can limit colony performance and even lead to collapse. A primary culprit is the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, known for transmitting harmful bee viruses. Among these viruses is deformed wing virus (DWV), which impacts bee pupae during their development, resulting in either pupal demise or in the emergence of crippled adult bees. In this study, we focused on DWV master variant B. DWV-B prevalence has risen sharply in recent decades and appears to be outcompeting variant A of DWV. We generated a molecular clone of a typical DWV-B strain to compare it with our established DWV-A clone, examining RNA replication, protein expression, and virulence. Initially, we analyzed the genome using RACE-PCR and RT-PCR techniques. Subsequently, we conducted full-genome RT-PCR and inserted the complete viral cDNA into a bacterial plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons with available full-length sequences were performed, followed by functional analyses using a live bee pupae model. Upon the transfection of in vitro-transcribed RNA, bee pupae exhibited symptoms of DWV infection, with detectable viral protein expression and stable RNA replication observed in subsequent virus passages. The DWV-B clone displayed a lower virulence compared to the DWV-A clone after the transfection of synthetic RNA, as evidenced by a reduced pupal mortality rate of only 20% compared to 80% in the case of DWV-A and a lack of malformations in 50% of the emerging bees. Comparable results were observed in experiments with low infection doses of the passaged virus clones. In these tests, 90% of bees infected with DWV-B showed no clinical symptoms, while 100% of pupae infected with DWV-A died. However, at high infection doses, both DWV-A and DWV-B caused mortality rates exceeding 90%. Taken together, we have generated an authentic virus clone of DWV-B and characterized it in animal experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
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13 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Missed Opportunities: A Retrospective Study of Hepatitis C Testing in Hospital Inpatients
by Christine Roder, Carl Cosgrave, Kathryn Mackie, Bridgette McNamara, Joseph S. Doyle and Amanda J. Wade
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060979 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Increasing testing is key to achieving hepatitis C elimination. This retrospective study aimed to assess the testing cascade of patients at a regional hospital in Victoria, Australia, who inject drugs or are living with hepatitis C, to identify missed opportunities for hepatitis C [...] Read more.
Increasing testing is key to achieving hepatitis C elimination. This retrospective study aimed to assess the testing cascade of patients at a regional hospital in Victoria, Australia, who inject drugs or are living with hepatitis C, to identify missed opportunities for hepatitis C care. Adult hospital inpatients and emergency department (ED) attendees from 2018 to 2021 with indications for intravenous drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C on their discharge or ED summary were included. Data sources: hospital admissions, pathology, hospital pharmacy, and outpatients. We assessed progression through the testing cascade and performed logistic regression analysis for predictors of hepatitis C care, including testing and treatment. Of 79,923 adults admitted, 1345 (1.7%) had IDU-coded separations and 628 (0.8%) had hepatitis C-coded separations (N = 1892). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) status at the end of the study was unknown for 1569 (82.9%). ED admissions were associated with increased odds of not providing hepatitis C care (odds ratio 3.29, 95% confidence interval 2.42–4.48). More than 2% of inpatients at our hospital have an indication for testing, however, most are not being tested despite their hospital contact. As we work toward HCV elimination in our region, we need to incorporate testing and linkage strategies within hospital departments with a higher prevalence of people at risk of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus Infection among People Who Inject Drugs)
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18 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Human Rotaviruses of Multiple Genotypes Acquire Conserved VP4 Mutations during Serial Passage
by Maximilian H. Carter, Jennifer Gribble, Julia R. Diller, Mark R. Denison, Sara A. Mirza, James D. Chappell, Natasha B. Halasa and Kristen M. Ogden
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060978 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Human rotaviruses exhibit limited tropism and replicate poorly in most cell lines. Attachment protein VP4 is a key rotavirus tropism determinant. Previous studies in which human rotaviruses were adapted to cultured cells identified mutations in VP4. However, most such studies were conducted using [...] Read more.
Human rotaviruses exhibit limited tropism and replicate poorly in most cell lines. Attachment protein VP4 is a key rotavirus tropism determinant. Previous studies in which human rotaviruses were adapted to cultured cells identified mutations in VP4. However, most such studies were conducted using only a single human rotavirus genotype. In the current study, we serially passaged 50 human rotavirus clinical specimens representing five of the genotypes most frequently associated with severe human disease, each in triplicate, three to five times in primary monkey kidney cells then ten times in the MA104 monkey kidney cell line. From 13 of the 50 specimens, we obtained 25 rotavirus antigen-positive lineages representing all five genotypes, which tended to replicate more efficiently in MA104 cells at late versus early passage. We used Illumina next-generation sequencing and analysis to identify variants that arose during passage. In VP4, variants encoded 28 mutations that were conserved for all P[8] rotaviruses and 12 mutations that were conserved for all five genotypes. These findings suggest there may be a conserved mechanism of human rotavirus adaptation to MA104 cells. In the future, such a conserved adaptation mechanism could be exploited to study human rotavirus biology or efficiently manufacture vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotaviruses and Rotavirus Vaccines)
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17 pages, 1717 KiB  
Review
Experimental Evolution Studies in Φ6 Cystovirus
by Sonia Singhal, Akiko K. Balitactac, Aruna G. Nayagam, Parnian Pour Bahrami, Sara Nayeem and Paul E. Turner
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060977 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Experimental evolution studies, in which biological populations are evolved in a specific environment over time, can address questions about the nature of spontaneous mutations, responses to selection, and the origins and maintenance of novel traits. Here, we review more than 30 years of [...] Read more.
Experimental evolution studies, in which biological populations are evolved in a specific environment over time, can address questions about the nature of spontaneous mutations, responses to selection, and the origins and maintenance of novel traits. Here, we review more than 30 years of experimental evolution studies using the bacteriophage (phage) Φ6 cystovirus. Similar to many lab-studied bacteriophages, Φ6 has a high mutation rate, large population size, fast generation time, and can be genetically engineered or cryogenically frozen, which facilitates its rapid evolution in the laboratory and the subsequent characterization of the effects of its mutations. Moreover, its segmented RNA genome, outer membrane, and capacity for multiple phages to coinfect a single host cell make Φ6 a good non-pathogenic model for investigating the evolution of RNA viruses that infect humans. We describe experiments that used Φ6 to address the fitness effects of spontaneous mutations, the consequences of evolution in the presence of coinfection, the evolution of host ranges, and mechanisms and consequences of the evolution of thermostability. We highlight open areas of inquiry where further experimentation on Φ6 could inform predictions for pathogenic viruses. Full article
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2 pages, 1282 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Liu et al. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase Suppresses Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus Infection by Blocking Spike Protein-Mediated Membrane Fusion. Viruses 2023, 15, 2406
by Dakai Liu, Da Shi, Hongyan Shi, Liaoyuan Zhang, Jiyu Zhang, Miaomiao Zeng, Tingshuai Feng, Xiaoman Yang, Xin Zhang, Jianfei Chen, Zhaoyang Jing, Zhaoyang Ji, Jialin Zhang and Li Feng
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060976 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 160
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Enteric Viruses)
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26 pages, 7907 KiB  
Article
HPV, HBV, and HIV-1 Viral Integration Site Mapping: A Streamlined Workflow from NGS to Genomic Insights of Carcinogenesis
by Jane Shen-Gunther and Acarizia Easley
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060975 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Viral integration within the host genome plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Various disruptive mechanisms are involved, leading to genomic instability, mutations, and DNA damage. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), we can now precisely identify viral and host genomic breakpoints and chimeric sequences, which [...] Read more.
Viral integration within the host genome plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Various disruptive mechanisms are involved, leading to genomic instability, mutations, and DNA damage. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), we can now precisely identify viral and host genomic breakpoints and chimeric sequences, which are useful for integration site analysis. In this study, we evaluated a commercial hybrid capture NGS panel specifically designed for detecting three key viruses: HPV, HBV, and HIV-1. We also tested workflows for Viral Hybrid Capture (VHC) and Viral Integration Site (VIS) analysis, leveraging customized viral databases in CLC Microbial Genomics. By analyzing sequenced data from virally infected cancer cell lines (including SiHa, HeLa, CaSki, C-33A, DoTc2, 2A3, SCC154 for HPV; 3B2, SNU-182 for HBV; and ACH-2 for HIV-1), we precisely pinpointed viral integration sites. The workflow also highlighted disrupted and neighboring human genes that may play a crucial role in tumor development. Our results included informative virus–host read mappings, genomic breakpoints, and integration circular plots. These visual representations enhance our understanding of the integration process. In conclusion, our seamless end-to-end workflow bridges the gap in understanding viral contributions to cancer development, paving the way for improved diagnostics and treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Within-Host Viral Dynamics: A Window into Viral Evolution)
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6 pages, 194 KiB  
Communication
Short Communication: Understanding the Barriers to Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination in Saudi Arabia
by Jobran M. Moshi, Aarman Sohaili, Hassan N. Moafa, Ahlam Mohammed S. Hakami, Mohsen M. Mashi and Pierre P. M. Thomas
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060974 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Cervical cancer, along with other sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) conditions, poses a significant burden in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite the availability of effective preventive methods such as vaccinations, particularly against the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), awareness about such [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer, along with other sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) conditions, poses a significant burden in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite the availability of effective preventive methods such as vaccinations, particularly against the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), awareness about such preventive methods and HPV vaccination remains alarmingly low in the KSA, even with governmental effort and support. While many women are aware of the risks, the uptake of the HPV vaccine remains below 10% (7.6%) at the country level. This highlights the urgent need for Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) at the community level to raise awareness, dispel misconceptions, and empower women to embrace vaccinations. Additionally, there is a need to revitalize the cancer registry system to better track and monitor cervical cancer cases. This short communication aims to map these barriers while identifying opportunities for impactful research. Drawing from the scientific literature, government reports, and expert insights, we highlight the challenges surrounding the tackling of HPV. By exploring diverse sources of knowledge, this paper not only highlights current obstacles but also proposes actionable solutions for future interventions. Full article
46 pages, 1596 KiB  
Review
The Immune System—A Double-Edged Sword for Adenovirus-Based Therapies
by Rebecca Wallace, Carly M. Bliss and Alan L. Parker
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060973 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Pathogenic adenovirus (Ad) infections are widespread but typically mild and transient, except in the immunocompromised. As vectors for gene therapy, vaccine, and oncology applications, Ad-based platforms offer advantages, including ease of genetic manipulation, scale of production, and well-established safety profiles, making them attractive [...] Read more.
Pathogenic adenovirus (Ad) infections are widespread but typically mild and transient, except in the immunocompromised. As vectors for gene therapy, vaccine, and oncology applications, Ad-based platforms offer advantages, including ease of genetic manipulation, scale of production, and well-established safety profiles, making them attractive tools for therapeutic development. However, the immune system often poses a significant challenge that must be overcome for adenovirus-based therapies to be truly efficacious. Both pre-existing anti-Ad immunity in the population as well as the rapid development of an immune response against engineered adenoviral vectors can have detrimental effects on the downstream impact of an adenovirus-based therapeutic. This review focuses on the different challenges posed, including pre-existing natural immunity and anti-vector immunity induced by a therapeutic, in the context of innate and adaptive immune responses. We summarise different approaches developed with the aim of tackling these problems, as well as their outcomes and potential future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 15th International Adenovirus Meeting)
45 pages, 712 KiB  
Review
Making a Monkey out of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Pathogenesis: Immune Cell Depletion Experiments as a Tool to Understand the Immune Correlates of Protection and Pathogenicity in HIV Infection
by Jen Symmonds, Thaidra Gaufin, Cuiling Xu, Kevin D. Raehtz, Ruy M. Ribeiro, Ivona Pandrea and Cristian Apetrei
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060972 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis is critical for designing successful HIV vaccines and cure strategies. However, achieving this goal is complicated by the virus’s direct interactions with immune cells, the induction of persistent reservoirs in the immune system cells, and multiple [...] Read more.
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis is critical for designing successful HIV vaccines and cure strategies. However, achieving this goal is complicated by the virus’s direct interactions with immune cells, the induction of persistent reservoirs in the immune system cells, and multiple strategies developed by the virus for immune evasion. Meanwhile, HIV and SIV infections induce a pandysfunction of the immune cell populations, making it difficult to untangle the various concurrent mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis. Over the years, one of the most successful approaches for dissecting the immune correlates of protection in HIV/SIV infection has been the in vivo depletion of various immune cell populations and assessment of the impact of these depletions on the outcome of infection in non-human primate models. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the strategies and results of manipulating SIV pathogenesis through in vivo depletions of key immune cells populations. Although each of these methods has its limitations, they have all contributed to our understanding of key pathogenic pathways in HIV/SIV infection. Full article
29 pages, 408 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Drugs and Substance Abuse on Viral Pathogenesis—A South African Perspective
by Lufuno Ratshisusu, Omphile E. Simani, Jason T. Blackard and Selokela G. Selabe
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060971 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Illicit drug and alcohol abuse have significant negative consequences for individuals who inject drugs/use drugs (PWID/UDs), including decreased immune system function and increased viral pathogenesis. PWID/UDs are at high risk of contracting or transmitting viral illnesses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis [...] Read more.
Illicit drug and alcohol abuse have significant negative consequences for individuals who inject drugs/use drugs (PWID/UDs), including decreased immune system function and increased viral pathogenesis. PWID/UDs are at high risk of contracting or transmitting viral illnesses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In South Africa, a dangerous drug-taking method known as “Bluetoothing” has emerged among nyaope users, whereby the users of this drug, after injecting, withdraw blood from their veins and then reinject it into another user. Hence, the transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) is exacerbated by this “Bluetooth” practice among nyaope users. Moreover, several substances of abuse promote HIV, HBV, and HCV replication. With a specific focus on the nyaope drug, viral replication, and transmission, we address the important influence of abused addictive substances and polysubstance use in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and Drugs of Abuse, 3rd Edition)
12 pages, 1082 KiB  
Review
The Role of Satellites in the Evolution of Begomoviruses
by Anupam Varma and Manoj Kumar Singh
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060970 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Begomoviruses have emerged as destructive pathogens of crops, particularly in the tropics and subtropics, causing enormous economic losses and threatening food security. Epidemics caused by begomoviruses have even spread in regions and crops that were previously free from these viruses. The most seriously [...] Read more.
Begomoviruses have emerged as destructive pathogens of crops, particularly in the tropics and subtropics, causing enormous economic losses and threatening food security. Epidemics caused by begomoviruses have even spread in regions and crops that were previously free from these viruses. The most seriously affected crops include cassava; cotton; grain legumes; and cucurbitaceous, malvaceous, and solanaceous vegetables. Alphasatellites, betasatellites, and deltasatellites are associated with the diseases caused by begomoviruses, but begomovirus–betasatellite complexes have played significant roles in the evolution of begomoviruses, causing widespread epidemics in many economically important crops throughout the world. This article provides an overview of the evolution, distribution, and approaches used by betasatellites in the suppression of host plant defense responses and increasing disease severity. Full article
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14 pages, 3668 KiB  
Article
Identification and Genomic Characterization of Two Novel Hepatoviruses in Shrews from Yunnan Province, China
by Yi Tang, Kai Zhao, Hong-Min Yin, Li-Ping Yang, Yue-Chun Wu, Feng-Yi Li, Ze Yang, Hui-Xuan Lu, Bo Wang, Yin Yang, Yun-Zhi Zhang and Xing-Lou Yang
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060969 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of the genus Hepatovirus (Picornaviridae HepV), remains a significant viral pathogen, frequently causing enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of HepVs carried by small terrestrial mammals in the wild in [...] Read more.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of the genus Hepatovirus (Picornaviridae HepV), remains a significant viral pathogen, frequently causing enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of HepVs carried by small terrestrial mammals in the wild in Yunnan Province, China. Utilizing HepV-specific broad-spectrum RT-PCR, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and QNome nanopore sequencing (QNS) techniques, we identified and characterized two novel HepVs provisionally named EpMa-HAV and EpLe-HAV, discovered in the long-tailed mountain shrew (Episoriculus macrurus) and long-tailed brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus leucops), respectively. Our sequence and phylogenetic analyses of EpMa-HAV and EpLe-HAV indicated that they belong to the species Hepatovirus I (HepV-I) clade II, also known as the Chinese shrew HepV clade. Notably, the codon usage bias pattern of novel shrew HepVs is consistent with that of previously identified Chinese shrew HepV. Furthermore, our structural analysis demonstrated that shrew HepVs differ from other mammalian HepVs in RNA secondary structure and exhibit variances in key protein sites. Overall, the discovery of two novel HepVs in shrews expands the host range of HepV and underscores the existence of genetically diverse animal homologs of human HAV within the genus HepV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Hepatitis Viruses and Their Animal Homologues)
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3 pages, 444 KiB  
Editorial
Phage Display in Cancer Research: Special Issue Editorial
by Valery A. Petrenko
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060968 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Soon after its birth in 1985, following a short lag period [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display in Cancer Research)
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14 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
Neurological Manifestations of Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pediatric Patients: A 3-Year Study on Differences between Pandemic Waves
by Iolanda Cristina Vivisenco, Andreea Lescaie, Ana Dragomirescu, Ioana Cătălina Ioniță, Irina Florescu, Bogdan Ciocea, Andreea Rodica Grama, Maria-Dorina Crăciun, Carmen-Daniela Chivu, Coriolan Emil Ulmeanu and Viorela Gabriela Nițescu
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060967 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
This study analyzed the neurological manifestation profiles of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection across pandemic waves in pediatric patients. The study collected data on patients aged between 0 and 18 years, diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to a pediatric [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the neurological manifestation profiles of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection across pandemic waves in pediatric patients. The study collected data on patients aged between 0 and 18 years, diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to a pediatric tertiary hospital between 1 March 2020 and 28 February 2023. This study included 1677 patients. Neurological manifestations were noted in 10% (n = 168) of patients with a median age of 3.2 years (interquartile range: 1–11.92). Neurological manifestations were significantly associated with the pandemic waves (p = 0.006) and age groups (p < 0.001). Seizures were noted in 4.2% of cases and reached an increasing frequency over time (p = 0.001), but were not associated with age groups. Febrile seizures accounted for the majority of seizures. Headache was reported in 2.6% of cases and had similar frequencies across the pandemic waves and age groups. Muscular involvement was noted in 2% of cases, reached a decreasing frequency over time (p < 0.001), and showed different frequencies among the age groups. Neurological manifestations of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit distinct patterns, depending on the pandemic wave and patient age group. The Wuhan and Omicron waves involved the nervous system more often than the other waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Complications and Co-infections)
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