Next Article in Journal
Senecavirus A Enhances Its Adaptive Evolution via Synonymous Codon Bias Evolution
Previous Article in Journal
Special Issue: Phage–Bacteria Interplay in Health and Disease
 
 
Article

Simultaneous Giant Virus and Virophage Quantification Using Droplet Digital PCR

1
Limnology-Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
2
Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jônatas Abrahão
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051056
Received: 5 April 2022 / Revised: 30 April 2022 / Accepted: 3 May 2022 / Published: 16 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Viruses are an abundant component of aquatic systems, but their detection and quantification remain a challenge. Virophages co-replicate with giant viruses in the shared host cell, and can inhibit the production of new giant virus particles, thereby increasing the survival of the infected host population. Here, we present a protocol for Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify simultaneously giant virus and virophage in a mixed sample, enabling the rapid, culture-free and high throughput detection of virus and virophage. As virophage can be present as free virus particles or integrated into the virus host’s genome as well as associated with organic particles, we developed a simple method that enables discrimination between free and particle-associated virophages. The latter include aggregated virophage particles as well as virophage integrated into the host genome. We used, for our experiments, a host-virus-virophage system consisting of Cafeteria burkhardae, CroV and mavirus. Our results show that ddPCR can be an efficient method to quantify virus and virophage, and we discuss potential applications of the method for studying ecological and evolutionary processes of virus and virophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: ddPCR; quantification; giant virus; virophage; CroV; mavirus; cafeteria ddPCR; quantification; giant virus; virophage; CroV; mavirus; cafeteria
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

del Arco, A.; Fischer, M.; Becks, L. Simultaneous Giant Virus and Virophage Quantification Using Droplet Digital PCR. Viruses 2022, 14, 1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051056

AMA Style

del Arco A, Fischer M, Becks L. Simultaneous Giant Virus and Virophage Quantification Using Droplet Digital PCR. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051056

Chicago/Turabian Style

del Arco, Ana, Matthias Fischer, and Lutz Becks. 2022. "Simultaneous Giant Virus and Virophage Quantification Using Droplet Digital PCR" Viruses 14, no. 5: 1056. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051056

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop