Mass hauling operations play central roles in construction projects. They typically use many haulers that consume large amounts of energy and emit signiﬁcant quantities of CO2. However, practical methods for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of such operations during the project planning stage are scarce, while most of the previous methods focus on construction stage or after the construction stages which limited the practical adoption of reduction strategy in the early planning phase. This paper presents a detailed model for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of mass haulers that integrates the mass hauling plan with a set of predictive equations. The mass hauling plan is generated using a planning program such as DynaRoad in conjunction with data on the productivity of selected haulers and the amount of material to be hauled during cutting, ﬁlling, borrowing, and disposal operations. This plan is then used as input for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the selected hauling ﬂeet. The proposed model will help planners to assess the energy and environmental performance of mass hauling plans, and to select hauler and ﬂeet conﬁgurations that will minimize these quantities. The model was applied in a case study, demonstrating that it can reliably predict energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and hauler productivity as functions of the hauling distance for individual haulers and entire hauling ﬂeets.
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