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Open AccessArticle

Sensitivity-Based Model of Low Voltage Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

by Anna Rita Di Fazio 1,*,†, Mario Russo 1,†, Sara Valeri 1,† and Michele De Santis 2,†
1
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via di Biasio 43, I-03043 Cassino, Italy
2
Engineering Department, Università Niccolò Cusano, I-00166 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2016, 9(10), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100801
Received: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
A key issue in Low Voltage(LV) distribution systems is to identify strategies for the optimal management and control in the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). To reduce the number of variables to be monitored and controlled, virtual levels of aggregation, called Virtual Microgrids (VMs), are introduced and identified by using new models of the distribution system. To this aim, this paper, revisiting and improving the approach outlined in a conference paper, presents a sensitivity-based model of an LV distribution system, supplied by a Medium/Low Voltage (MV/LV) substation and composed by several feeders, which is suitable for the optimal management and control of the grid and for VM definition. The main features of the proposed method are: it evaluates the sensitivity coefficients in a closed form; it provides an overview of the sensitivity of the network to the variations of each DER connected to the grid; and it presents a limited computational burden. A comparison of the proposed method with both the exact load flow solutions and a perturb-and-observe method is discussed in a case study. Finally, the method is used to evaluate the impact of the DERs on the nodal voltages of the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed energy resources; microgrids; distribution system modeling; sensitivity analysis; voltage regulation distributed energy resources; microgrids; distribution system modeling; sensitivity analysis; voltage regulation
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Di Fazio, A.R.; Russo, M.; Valeri, S.; De Santis, M. Sensitivity-Based Model of Low Voltage Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources. Energies 2016, 9, 801.

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