Retrofitting of historical and traditional buildings is an effective thermal protection measure. The presence of thermal insulation in the composition of building envelopes might, however, bring some shortages due to a decrease of exterior surface temperatures or possible water vapor condensation. These shortages can improve living conditions for various microorganisms on the exterior surfaces, especially in the case of interior thermal insulation systems that are typical with thermal bridges and thus supply the surface with heat to a greater extent. This paper, therefore, aims at the investigation of hygrothermal conditions in selected critical construction details and evaluates the results from the point of view of potential biofilms growth. Two-dimensional modeling of coupled heat and moisture is applied and the hygrothermal patterns are evaluated based on an adjusted isopleth growth model. The results showed that the duration of favorable conditions for biofilms growth is relatively low, accounting for less than 180 h in the worst-case scenario. It means the exterior surfaces of historical buildings provided with interior thermal insulation systems are not threatened by biofilms growth. Anyway, other negative aspects have been revealed that should be treated individually. Possible wood decay or increased hygrothermal straining are the typical examples in that respect.
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