While an area-wide implementation of electric vehicles (EVs) and electric heat pumps (HPs) will contribute to a decarbonization of the energy system, they represent new challenges for existing low-voltage (LV) power grids. Hence, this study investigates potential grid congestions on the basis of three contrasting load approaches applied to four different grid regions. Within the three load approaches, temporal characteristics of various grid customer classes (EVs, HPs, households etc.) are derived from highly resolved realistic load profiles. In accordance with classic grid planning, firstly a static load approach is analyzed by applying the modeled coincidence for each consumer class individually. Secondly, this static approach is modified by including combined coincidence factors, taking temporal consumer class interactions into account. Finally, both static load approaches are compared with detailed annual time series analyses by means of load flow simulations using real-life LV grid data. The evaluation of inadmissible voltage characteristics and thermal congestions identifies future grid extension needs depending on the considered grid region. In addition, the variation of the applied load approach highlights the need to consider consumer-specific temporal behavior. In fact, by neglecting temporal interactions between conventional and future grid customers, the classic grid planning approach overestimates future grid extension needs. To counteract an oversizing of future grid structures, this paper presents a combined consideration of EVs’ and HPs’ coincidence as well as resulting grid consequences on the LV level.
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