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Open AccessArticle

Association Between Sport Participation, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Social Correlates Among Adolescents: The PAHL Study

1
Department of Didactics of Physical Activity, Faculty of Physical Education, Sport and Rehabilitation, Poznań University of Physical Education, Królowej Jadwigi 27/39, 61-871 Poznań, Poland
2
Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation Focus Area; Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122793
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Background: Evidence suggests that social support impacts on participation in sport or physical activity (PA), and is associated with health benefits, although the link is complex and not well understood. The study aim was to examine whether participation in organized sports is related to body composition, physical fitness, and social correlates for PA. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 238 adolescents (90 boys and 148 girls), mean age 14.9 ± 0.8 years, who were participants in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study, were collected. The participants were divided into two groups: sport participation (SP) and non-sport participation (NSP). Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were assessed according to standard procedures. Weight (kg) and height (m2) were used to calculate body mass index (BMI), and skinfolds were used to calculate body fat percentage. The European Test of Physical Fitness (EUROFIT) battery of tests was used to assess physical fitness. The standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and Social Support for PA questionnaires were used to obtain information on PA and social correlates for PA, respectively. Participants were asked to choose between participation and non-participation in sport. Results: The SP group had lower BMI component values (p = 0.011, d = 0.52 for percentage body fat (%BF); p = 0.011, d = 0.53 for sum of skinfolds (∑SKF) obtained higher physical fitness scores in selected items (p = 0.003, d = 0.64 for sit ups (SUP); p < 0.000, d = 0.96 for maximal oxygen consumption VO2max) and received higher social support (p < 0.001, d = 0.86 for social support (SS)), than the NSP group. The social support received by those participating in sport correlated positively with most fitness components (p = 0.013, r2 = 18% for bent arm hang (BAH); p = 0.000, r2 = 12% for sit ups (SUP); p = 0.000, r2 = 17% for VO2max). Physical fitness components were negatively associated with most body composition components for both groups. Conclusions: The results provide a better understanding of sport participation in organized sports-related, body composition-related and physical fitness-related associations with changes in social support received by adolescents and may contribute to the development of more accurate promotive strategies to increase children’s and adolescents’ engagement in sport and PA. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; sport; body composition; physical fitness; social support; adolescents physical activity; sport; body composition; physical fitness; social support; adolescents
MDPI and ACS Style

Agata, K.; Monyeki, M.A. Association Between Sport Participation, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Social Correlates Among Adolescents: The PAHL Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2793.

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