Special Issue "Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Masao Kanamori
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Sport and Health Science/Department of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto/Kusatu Prefecture 525-8577, Japan
Interests: epidemiology of health promotion; climate change and its impact on health; prevention of dementia; sport medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

People try to escape the crowds of cities, seeking to improve their moods by going out to the countryside and highlands/mountains. We are seeking research papers on health effects, such as physiological changes due to leisure–sports/physical activity. We are seeking, not only research on the effects of diseases but also recent research findings, such as the elimination of anxiety, mood changes, and improving quality of life.

Prof. Masao Kanamori
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • physical activity
  • leisure-sport
  • heath
  • health effect

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Motivating Diabetic and Hypertensive Patients to Engage in Regular Physical Activity: A Multi-Component Intervention Derived from the Concept of Photovoice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071219 - 05 Apr 2019
Abstract
Aims: A community-based multi-component intervention (increasing awareness of the importance of physical activity in chronic illness management through reading comic books, training regarding warm-up stretching exercises, identifying facilitators and barriers to exercise through photosharing, supporting self-reflection and development of action plans) was developed [...] Read more.
Aims: A community-based multi-component intervention (increasing awareness of the importance of physical activity in chronic illness management through reading comic books, training regarding warm-up stretching exercises, identifying facilitators and barriers to exercise through photosharing, supporting self-reflection and development of action plans) was developed to promote physical activity (PA) among patients with diabetes and hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention on health behaviour (walking) and health outcomes. Design: A non-randomized controlled trial with waitlisted control and pre- and post-measures. Setting: Community centres for the elderly. Participants: A total of 204 older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited. They were assigned to either the intervention group (IG) or waitlisted to the control group (CG). Intervention: Under the supervision of a nurse, six weekly group meetings were arranged in community centres for the elderly in which the participants freely exchanged their views regarding the barriers and facilitators of regular physical activity. Participants were encouraged to take photos in their neighbourhood or at home and brought these photos to share at the group meetings. The photos showed both the barriers and the facilitators to PA. In the last meeting, each participant worked out a plan to perform PA in the coming four weeks. Measures: PA referred to the number of steps taken per day and it was measured by a Garmin Accelerometer at baseline, Week 6 and Week 10. Other measures included the nine-item Self-Efficacy Scale for Exercise–Chinese version (SEE-C), and the 23-item Chinese Barriers to Exercise Scale and Senior Fitness Tests. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) models compared the outcomes over time between IG and CG. Results: A statistically significant difference in the changes in the average number of steps taken daily between the two groups at Week 10 (mean difference = 965.4; 95% confidence interval: 92.2, 1838.6, p = 0.030) was observed, although the difference at Week 6 was non-significant (mean difference = 777.6; 95% confidence interval: −35.3, 1590.5, p = 0.061). IG participants also showed significant improvements in lower body strength (mean difference = 0.967; 95% confidence interval: 0.029, 1.904, p = 0.043) and lower limb flexibility (mean difference = 2.068; 95% confidence interval: 0.404, 3.731, p = 0.015) at Week 10 compared to CG participants. Conclusion: This multi-component intervention improved the participants’ physical activity level and physical fitness, particularly in lower limb flexibility and body strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
A Study of Physical Activity Determinants among High-Risk Hypertensive Filipino and Korean Americans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071156 - 31 Mar 2019
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) serves a critical role in maintaining health and preventing chronic diseases, though its influence on high-risk Asian American populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine PA levels among Filipino and Korean Americans at high risk of [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) serves a critical role in maintaining health and preventing chronic diseases, though its influence on high-risk Asian American populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine PA levels among Filipino and Korean Americans at high risk of hypertension and to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with PA levels in these populations. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 137 participants in the Greater Philadelphia Area. Data was collected on PA levels, sociodemographic factors, and health factors. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors associated with low, moderate, and high PA and predictive probabilities were calculated for interaction terms, incorporating ethnicity and blood pressure variables. Overall, 42.33% of participants belonged to the moderately active PA group and 21.90% belonged to the highly active group. In the final multinomial regression model, it was found that having gone to college increased the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = 1.96, p = 0.034), while having high blood pressure reduced the odds of being in the moderately active PA group (coef. = −2.21, p = 0.022). Lastly, being Korean versus Filipino reduced the odds of being in the highly active category (coef. = −2.89, p = 0.035). Based on predictive probabilities, Koreans and Filipinos with high blood pressure were more likely to belong in the low active PA category (52.31% and 46.33%). These findings highlight the need for culturally relevant PA interventions for promoting and increasing PA levels to prevent and manage hypertension among these populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchy of Factors Affecting the Condition and Development of Sports and Recreation Infrastructure—Impact on the Recreational Activity and Health of the Residents of a City (Poznan Case Study)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040556 - 14 Feb 2019
Abstract
The aim of the article is to identify which groups of factors (economic, social, and spatial) significantly determine the condition and development of the sports and recreation infrastructure of the city of Poznan and shape the needs and expectations of its residents. Standardized [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to identify which groups of factors (economic, social, and spatial) significantly determine the condition and development of the sports and recreation infrastructure of the city of Poznan and shape the needs and expectations of its residents. Standardized interviews among 39 service providers and 1159 service recipients made it possible to collect primary data on the presentation of the pace and directions of changes taking place in the sports and recreational facilities of the city, paying special attention to identifying and prioritizing factors determining this development. In order to establish the hierarchy of factors analyzed in the paper and operating within the same research problem for both groups of respondents (service recipients and service providers), the Anderson-Darling test was used. The test results were referenced to the already existing “Sportowy Poznan” (“Sports Poznan”) program. The assessment made by service recipients shows that the factor having the strongest limiting effect on the use of sports and recreation services is the economic factor. In the assessment made by the respondents using their services, the efforts of city authorities to make Poznan sports clubs operate in a professional manner gained the lowest score. The results of the Anderson–Darling test show that the social factor of preparing infrastructure for the residents of the city of Poznan was the most important for the respondents, obtaining a test value of 0.886. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
The National After-School Athletics Program Participation as a Tool to Reduce the Risk of Obesity in Adolescents after One Year of Intervention: A Nationwide Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030405 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Regular exercise during school hours is encouraged; however many children and adolescents fail to meet the recommendations during this time. Extracurricular activities may be a more appealing way for youth to achieve guidelines, and it is recommended that they attend two sessions each [...] Read more.
Regular exercise during school hours is encouraged; however many children and adolescents fail to meet the recommendations during this time. Extracurricular activities may be a more appealing way for youth to achieve guidelines, and it is recommended that they attend two sessions each week. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of participation in a national physical activity program accompanied by nutritional education for trainers on the risk of obesity and body composition in a nationwide sample of boys and girls, after one year of intervention. The #goathletics Study was conducted in a group of 1014 adolescents aged 12–13: 507 individuals for the Athletics for All program (210 boys, 297 girls) and 507 pair-matched individuals not participating in any physical activity program (matching including: gender, age, city of residence). The body mass (kg), Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist circumference (WC) (cm), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (-) and body composition (%) (measured using bioelectrical impedance method) were compared in a gender-related sub-groups using t-Student test (for parametric distributions) or Mann-Whitney U test (for nonparametric distributions) and chi2 test (for the share of sub-groups). After one year of intervention, lower body mass percentile, BMI percentile, WC, WHtR and fat mass share, higher muscle mass share, as well as lower frequency of overweight/obesity and abdominal fat distribution were observed both for boys and girls participating in the physical activity intervention compared to the pair-matched controls. The after-school physical activity program accompanied by nutritional education for trainers may be a highly effective method for reducing the risk of obesity both for boys and girls, as regular participation is ensured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of 12-Week Swimming Training on Body Composition in Young Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030346 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Systematic physical activity can permanently prevent disadvantageous developments in the human body. This is very important especially for women, for whom the maintenance of a lean body in good shape is sometimes a primary consideration. However, in most cases, this activity is [...] Read more.
Background: Systematic physical activity can permanently prevent disadvantageous developments in the human body. This is very important especially for women, for whom the maintenance of a lean body in good shape is sometimes a primary consideration. However, in most cases, this activity is taken randomly and does not produce the desired effects such as reducing body fat. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in female body composition induced by 12 weeks of swimming training compared to sedentary controls. Methods: Training sessions occurred three times per week (60 min/session). Height, body mass, and waist/hip circumference and waist/hips ratio (WHR) were measured. Body cell mass (BCM), total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW), fat mass (FM), lean mass (FFM), and muscle mass (MM) were measured using bioelectrical impedance (pre/post). Results: Training elicited decreases in hip circumference and increase in WHR. No changes were recorded in BCM, TBW, ECW, ICW, FM, FFM, and MM. Controls experienced decreases in values of BCM, ICW, and MM and increases in ECW. Conclusion: The applied swimming training did not significantly affect the body composition parameters. Inactivity also triggered a tendency toward unhealthy movement of water from the intracellular to extracellular space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Prediction of Motivational Climate in Handball Players’ Fear of Failure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030344 - 26 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sports can at times become a negative socializing agent for athletes. The objectives here were to analyse the relationship between motivational climates (involving coaches and peers) and fear of failure in players according to gender and sports experience, and also to control for [...] Read more.
Sports can at times become a negative socializing agent for athletes. The objectives here were to analyse the relationship between motivational climates (involving coaches and peers) and fear of failure in players according to gender and sports experience, and also to control for the extent to which these motivational climates predict the different aversive causes of fear of failure. To this aim, a non-experimental, descriptive, and sectional design was used in which participants answered the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire, the Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sports Questionnaire, and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. The sample included 479 handball players aged 16–17 years old (mean = 16.60; standard deviation = 0.50) who were playing in Spanish regional youth category handball teams. The results revealed that the task-involving training climate predominates in both genders over the ego-involving training climate, particularly in girls and in less experienced players. The peer ego-involving climate also predominates with respect to the peer task-involving climate in both genders, but this is particularly so for boys and in more experienced players. Furthermore, except for fear of feeling shame, which was predicted by the peer ego-involving climate, all the aversive causes of fear of failure are predicted mainly by the coach climate. The immediate environment was proved to be determinant in avoidance behaviours and fear of failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
The Factors Affecting Older Adults’ Intention toward Ongoing Participation in Virtual Reality Leisure Activities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030333 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to the aging of organs, older adults may have limited physical strength for participating in outdoor activities. Therefore, indoor activities offer an alternative for maintaining the health of older adults. Following advances in technology, individuals can use virtual reality to exercise in [...] Read more.
Due to the aging of organs, older adults may have limited physical strength for participating in outdoor activities. Therefore, indoor activities offer an alternative for maintaining the health of older adults. Following advances in technology, individuals can use virtual reality to exercise in their homes and are no longer subject to the constraints of the outdoor environment or weather conditions. In addition, these activities are easier to participate in when compared to real-world leisure activities. The present research included 294 older adults as its research subjects. They were given firsthand experience of Wii games for 10 weeks, in order to examine the ongoing participation intention of older adults following an experience with virtual reality leisure activities. The study found that experience attributes, experience consequences, and experience values were important factors in determining ongoing participation intention and can effectively predict ongoing participation intention. Four experience attributes—ease of use, usefulness, safety and flexibility, and fun—significantly influenced the experience value and experience consequences of older adults’ participants. Experience values also influenced ongoing participation intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Taekwondo Practice on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020204 - 12 Jan 2019
Abstract
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-developmental/behavioral disorders among adolescents. Sport and physical activity seem to play a major role in the development of cognition, memory, selective attention and motor reaction time, especially among adolescents with ADHD. In [...] Read more.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-developmental/behavioral disorders among adolescents. Sport and physical activity seem to play a major role in the development of cognition, memory, selective attention and motor reaction time, especially among adolescents with ADHD. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a one-and-a-half-year-long Taekwondo (TKD) intervention on cognitive function in adolescents with ADHD. Two cognitive instruments, namely the Stroop and the Ruff 2 and 7 tests, were administered to assess attentional inhibitory control and sustained and selective visual attention, respectively. Comparisons between the TKD and control groups at baseline did not reveal significant differences. For post-test scores, there were statistically significant differences on the Stroop color block test (large effect size or ES = 1.26 [95% confidence interval or CI 0.30–2.22]), the color-word interference test (large ES = 2.16 [95% CI 1.10–3.26]), the interference test (large ES = 1.63 [95% CI 0.62–2.64]) and error (large ES = −2.20 [95% CI −3.31 to −1.10]). Similar trends were reported for the Ruff 2 and 7 automated detection trials (large ES = 2.78 [95% CI 1.55–4.01]), controlled search trials (large ES = 2.56 [95% CI 1.38–3.75]) and total speed (large ES = −2.90 [95% CI −4.15 to −1.64]). In conclusion, TKD practice increased selective attention in adolescents with ADHD. Practitioners should implement martial art programs in their general plans to favorably influence attention and health in adolescents with ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
The Importance of the Coach in Predicting Implicit Beliefs about Skill and Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Handball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010078 - 29 Dec 2018
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to determine the predictive capacity of the motivational climate generated by coaches and perceived by handball players on implicit beliefs about ability and beliefs about the causes of success in sport. The sample consisted of 444 [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to determine the predictive capacity of the motivational climate generated by coaches and perceived by handball players on implicit beliefs about ability and beliefs about the causes of success in sport. The sample consisted of 444 youth handball players. These players completed the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sport Questionnaire, the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire, Version Two, and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire. The structural regression model showed that the mastery climate positively predicted the belief in incremental ability and that this in turn positively predicts both belief in athletic success through effort and ability. The results reflected the importance of the coach in the formative process of the player and the search for performance in sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Profiles of Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Settings: An Examination of Differences in Contextual Motivation, Affect, and Achievement Goals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122871 - 14 Dec 2018
Abstract
Understanding leisure-time physical activity is vital for a healthy world. It is well known that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence positive behavioral outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study [...] Read more.
Understanding leisure-time physical activity is vital for a healthy world. It is well known that physical activity has positive effects on psychological health, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence positive behavioral outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the differences in contextual motivation, affect, and achievement goals according to profiles of basic psychological needs in adult exercisers. The sample consisted of 401 young adult exercisers ranging in age from 18 to 40 years from fitness centers in Izmir, Turkey. Participants completed measures of basic needs satisfaction, exercise motivations, trait affect, and achievement goals. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-mean cluster analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and post hoc analyses were performed. The results in this study revealed that the participants in Cluster 1, who were labeled as “very satisfied”, had higher scores than the other clusters in terms of positive behavioral outcomes. The results of this study revealed that greater satisfaction of the basic psychological needs leads to positive behavioral consequences in exercise contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Association Between Sport Participation, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Social Correlates Among Adolescents: The PAHL Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122793 - 09 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Evidence suggests that social support impacts on participation in sport or physical activity (PA), and is associated with health benefits, although the link is complex and not well understood. The study aim was to examine whether participation in organized sports is [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence suggests that social support impacts on participation in sport or physical activity (PA), and is associated with health benefits, although the link is complex and not well understood. The study aim was to examine whether participation in organized sports is related to body composition, physical fitness, and social correlates for PA. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 238 adolescents (90 boys and 148 girls), mean age 14.9 ± 0.8 years, who were participants in the Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study, were collected. The participants were divided into two groups: sport participation (SP) and non-sport participation (NSP). Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were assessed according to standard procedures. Weight (kg) and height (m2) were used to calculate body mass index (BMI), and skinfolds were used to calculate body fat percentage. The European Test of Physical Fitness (EUROFIT) battery of tests was used to assess physical fitness. The standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and Social Support for PA questionnaires were used to obtain information on PA and social correlates for PA, respectively. Participants were asked to choose between participation and non-participation in sport. Results: The SP group had lower BMI component values (p = 0.011, d = 0.52 for percentage body fat (%BF); p = 0.011, d = 0.53 for sum of skinfolds (∑SKF) obtained higher physical fitness scores in selected items (p = 0.003, d = 0.64 for sit ups (SUP); p < 0.000, d = 0.96 for maximal oxygen consumption VO2max) and received higher social support (p < 0.001, d = 0.86 for social support (SS)), than the NSP group. The social support received by those participating in sport correlated positively with most fitness components (p = 0.013, r2 = 18% for bent arm hang (BAH); p = 0.000, r2 = 12% for sit ups (SUP); p = 0.000, r2 = 17% for VO2max). Physical fitness components were negatively associated with most body composition components for both groups. Conclusions: The results provide a better understanding of sport participation in organized sports-related, body composition-related and physical fitness-related associations with changes in social support received by adolescents and may contribute to the development of more accurate promotive strategies to increase children’s and adolescents’ engagement in sport and PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Children’s Improvement of a Motor Response during Backward Falls through the Implementation of a Safe Fall Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122669 - 27 Nov 2018
Abstract
The World Health Organization has warned that, in children, the second cause of death from unintentional injuries are falls. The objective of this study was to analyze the motor response of primary schoolchildren when a backwards fall occurs. These analyses occurred before and [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization has warned that, in children, the second cause of death from unintentional injuries are falls. The objective of this study was to analyze the motor response of primary schoolchildren when a backwards fall occurs. These analyses occurred before and after interventions of the Safe Fall program, which aims to teach safe and protected ways of backward falling. A quasi-experimental research design was used, with a sample of 122 Spanish (Sevillian) schoolchildren in the 10–12 age bracket. The INFOSECA ad-hoc observation scale was used for data collection: this scale registers 5 essential physical reactions throughout the process of a safe and protected backwards fall. After that, a number of descriptive, correlational and contrast statistics were applied. The value used in the McNemar test to establish statistical significance was p < 0.05. Results showed that over 85% of students had developed the competence to correctly perform all five physical motions that allow for a safer backward fall. The teaching of safe and protected techniques for falling backwards in child population in Primary Education is possible through the implementation of the Safe Fall program in Physical Education classes, which can help making falls safer, diminishing the risk and severity of the injuries they cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying the Incidence of Exercise Dependence Attitudes, Levels of Body Perception, and Preferences for Use of Fitness Technology Monitoring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122614 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The study was focused on identifying the relationship between the incidence of exercise dependence attitudes, the level of body perception, and preferences for use of fitness technology monitoring. Methods: We investigated 241 students from physical education and sports specializations. We used [...] Read more.
Background: The study was focused on identifying the relationship between the incidence of exercise dependence attitudes, the level of body perception, and preferences for use of fitness technology monitoring. Methods: We investigated 241 students from physical education and sports specializations. We used a questionnaire structured in 5 parts: personal information (age, gender, weight, height, and institutional membership), Exercise Dependence Scale-R (EDS-21), the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET), Body perception questionnaire, and Fitness Monitoring Technology. Results: Application of EDS-21 revealed 8.3% with dependence and CET with 13.4%. Body mass index (BMI) in combination with self-image body: 18 (7.4%) of subjects over-estimated themselves, 18 (7.4%) of subjects underestimated themselves, 38.6% of the subjects were satisfied with their appearance, 17% were very satisfied and none were dissatisfied. A total of 36.1% thought they had the correct weight and 8.7% thought of losing weight. The most preferred monitoring technologies were the treadmill and the smartphone’s fitness applications. A total of 11.6% of the subjects always used technologies, and 17% of subjects never did so. Conclusions: In order to identify the level of incidence of exercise dependence, body perception, and preference and frequency of use of monitoring technology, it is necessary to expand the level of knowledge about health and physical activities. The approach would diminish medical incidences of addiction, improve proactive behaviors, and correct prohealth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Application of a Program of Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) on the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FOF) for the Health Sustainability of the Elderly Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112526 - 12 Nov 2018
Abstract
This research analyzes the fall history of a group of elderly people and studies the effects of an intervention program based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) to teach fall control in subjects with fear of falling syndrome (FOF). We adopted a quasi-experimental research [...] Read more.
This research analyzes the fall history of a group of elderly people and studies the effects of an intervention program based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) to teach fall control in subjects with fear of falling syndrome (FOF). We adopted a quasi-experimental research design with pre-post measurement of the experimental group, in a healthy, pre-fragile sample of 12 women aged 71.5 ± 8 years, chosen using non-probabilistic-incidental accessibility sampling. The WHO questionnaire was used for the functional assessment of the fall. To evaluate FOF, we applied the 16-item version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), (pretest and posttest). This intervention program was based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo and conducted over 8 weeks, with two 60-minute sessions each week. After analyzing the scores obtained by the subjects in the pre and post FES-I, we found that the intervention with the JUA program had been significant for the experimental group with p ≤ 0.004, and there was an 11.9% decrease in the fear of falling (FES-I pos = 18.17). The results show that after the application of the JUA program there were significant improvements in subjects’ perception of FOF, with this being greater in those who had the highest levels of fear of falling before the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Model of Psychosocial Factors and Healthy Habits in University Students of Physical Education Depending on Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112430 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
(1) Background: Several researches have shown the relationship between healthy habits and physical and mental health. Thus, it is essential to study how some psychosocial factors can promote positive behaviours in university students, specifically in those who will be teachers of Physical Education. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several researches have shown the relationship between healthy habits and physical and mental health. Thus, it is essential to study how some psychosocial factors can promote positive behaviours in university students, specifically in those who will be teachers of Physical Education. (2) Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 775 university students of Physical Education from Spain. This study aims to develop an explanatory model for the relationships between motivational climate, healthy habits (Mediterranean Diet (MD), Physical Activity (PA) and substance consumption) and some indicators of physical health (oxygen consumption (VO2MAX)) and mental health (self-concept) according to gender, using structural equations analysis. (3) Results: The motivational climate was positively associated with PA, showing a stronger relationship for ego-oriented climate in women. The adherence to MD showed a positive association with PA and self-concept, while it is negative for the consumption of tobacco in men. Likewise, PA was directly related to VO2MAX with a higher regression weight for women. The ego-oriented motivational climate was negatively related to tobacco consumption in women. (4) Conclusions: Task-oriented goals are related to more positive and healthy behaviours such as PA, although it was no association was found with MD. Therefore, we can conclude the importance of promoting task-oriented goals in educational contexts linked to Physical Education in order to avoid negative behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Citius, Altius, Fortius vs. Slow Sport: A New Era of Sustainable Sport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112414 - 31 Oct 2018
Abstract
The objective of the article is to present the slow sport movement as a phenomenon developing in the postmodern era in opposition to the idea of citius, altius, fortius (Eng. faster, higher, stronger). The theoretical part of the article describes the health repercussions [...] Read more.
The objective of the article is to present the slow sport movement as a phenomenon developing in the postmodern era in opposition to the idea of citius, altius, fortius (Eng. faster, higher, stronger). The theoretical part of the article describes the health repercussions of slow movement and its implications for the sports industry and sports tourism. It also points to new challenges in sports management and sports tourism implemented in the slow style. The empirical part of the article aims at determining what influence the achievement of a self-set sports goal has on the degree of satisfaction with participation in a running event among runners. Could runners who did not set themselves any sports goal and ran for pleasure (according to the idea of slow sport) achieve the same degree of satisfaction as runners who set themselves an ambitious sports goal and achieved it (according to the idea of citius, altius, fortius)? The case study is the 6th Poznan Half Marathon, a cyclical, popular running event taking place in Poland. A total of 560 runners (n = 560) took part in the diagnostic survey conducted using the interview technique. The ANOVA Rang Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s test were used in the study. The results show that athletes who did not set a sporting goal (ran for pleasure, company, atmosphere, participation, etc.) experienced the same level of satisfaction as athletes who achieved their intended sporting goal. It turns out, therefore, that sport and physical activity done for pleasure in accordance with the slow sport idea can provide the same level of satisfaction as sport practiced in the spirit of citius, altius, fortius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity, Residential Environment, and Nature Relatedness in Young Men—A Population-Based MOPO Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102322 - 22 Oct 2018
Abstract
Background: In general, nature relatedness is positively associated with physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. However, increased residence in urban areas, and the decrease in natural spaces, may affect the younger generation most adversely. The associated environmental changes can increase youths’ risk [...] Read more.
Background: In general, nature relatedness is positively associated with physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. However, increased residence in urban areas, and the decrease in natural spaces, may affect the younger generation most adversely. The associated environmental changes can increase youths’ risk of spending most of their time indoors, and weaken their nature relatedness, making them less likely to enjoy nature’s health benefits. This is a serious public health issue, since inadequate physical activity, combined with minimum time spent in green space, can affect health across the whole lifespan. Thus, to develop effective interventions for physical activation and promote health and well-being among young men, further knowledge of the determinants of their nature relatedness is necessary. Aims: To explore factors related to nature relatedness, including physical activity, physical activity with parents, and residential environment. Methods: The study population consisted of all 914 young men (mean—17.8 years; SD—0.5) who participated in mandatory call-ups for military service and completed the study questionnaire in 2013. The questionnaire inquired about their nature relatedness, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to assess the features of their residential environments. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: Physical activity (p = 0.021) and physical activity with parents at primary school age (p = 0.007), and currently (p = 0.001) as well as good self-rated health (p = 0.001), and father’s higher socioeconomic status (p = 0.041), were positively connected to nature relatedness. Conclusions: Physical activity in general, physical activity with parents, and nature relatedness were positively related. This knowledge can be utilized in promoting physical activity and health among young men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102262 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The main goal of this study was to recognize the motives of participation in mass running events (Poznan Half Marathon case study). The second aim was to examine the motivations to participate in a half-marathon among two groups of respondents: men and women, [...] Read more.
The main goal of this study was to recognize the motives of participation in mass running events (Poznan Half Marathon case study). The second aim was to examine the motivations to participate in a half-marathon among two groups of respondents: men and women, and to evaluate the differences between them. The empirical research among runners (n = 560) conducted during the one of the most important running events in Poland recognized the motives for participation in the sports event in accordance with the four basic types of orientation: social orientation, experience orientation, factual orientation, and result orientation (Freyer & Gross, 2002). The significant difference between surveyed men and women appeared in the motives of desire to get away from everyday life and its prevailing fashion, which turned out to be more important for women than for men. The desire to win was not important for the respondents. All respondents reported that what was very important for them was the need to experience strong emotions related to participation, the desire to feel unity and integration with other people, and the desire to test themselves. In general, the results show that people participate in running events not only for physical activity, but also for mental well-being and socio-psychological effects. They experience strong emotions, adrenaline, pleasure, relaxation, and an escape from the duties and hardships of everyday life and have an opportunity to build social relationships thanks to mass sports events organized in urban agglomerations. The article constitutes a conceptualization of the running event in the dimension of social and psychological interactions, which reveal and demonstrate its creative layers and contemporary meaning which has already gone deeply beyond functions of running for health and improving the physical condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Martial Arts as a Form of Undertaking Physical Activity in Leisure Time Analysis of Factors Determining Participation of Poles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091989 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: The aim of this paper was to analyze selected sociodemographic and economic factors that determine practicing martial arts (MA) in Poland. Our hypothesis states that MA constitute a niche sport, which is a result of conditions shaping the decision to undertake them: [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this paper was to analyze selected sociodemographic and economic factors that determine practicing martial arts (MA) in Poland. Our hypothesis states that MA constitute a niche sport, which is a result of conditions shaping the decision to undertake them: perception through the lens of the media/entertainment business (rather than primary values), insufficient space for practicing, as well as high costs. Methods: The study was based on a survey conducted on a representative sample of Poles (n = 12,183). Results for 470 participants declaring some level of proficiency in MA were presented (including 124 declaring active participation). In order to verify statistically significant differences, a Chi-Square test, single-agent logistic regression analysis, and adds ratio were applied. Results: 3.0% of respondents declared basic skills in MA, while advanced skills were declared by 0.9% participants. Only 1% were active practitioners. The leading motivation was “pleasure” (62.1%), followed by “keeping fit and maintaining healthy body shape” (21.8%) and “health” (7.3%). The probability of participation in MA decreased with age (40 years of age being the turning point). As for young people, there is a 15 times lower chance of married individuals undertaking MA, while possessing advanced skills doubles the probability. School provides a place to practice MA during school years, but there is a problem with continuation at a later age (18.8% declaring classes organized at school vs. 5.4% organized at work). Conclusions: Reversing the trend of decreasing popularity of MA requires promotion on each level of education and creating opportunities to continue participation after graduation. There is a need to increase the availability of cheap sport facilities in the vicinity of the place of residence or work. In case of adults, it is important to build platforms facilitating contact with MA centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity in Older Mexican Americans Living in Two Cities on the U.S.-Mexico Border
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091820 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: There is limited information on physical activity in marginalized older populations like that on the U.S.-Mexico border. This study aims to understand physical activity engagement among older Hispanics residing in two U.S.-Mexico Border counties. Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was [...] Read more.
Background: There is limited information on physical activity in marginalized older populations like that on the U.S.-Mexico border. This study aims to understand physical activity engagement among older Hispanics residing in two U.S.-Mexico Border counties. Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure physical activity in El Paso and Cameron County, Texas. Physical activity levels were reported for vigorous, moderate, and walking met/mins. Adjusted and unadjusted modeling was conducted to determine county differences and sociodemographic covariates. Results: There were 784 participants and 92.9% were less than 65 years of age. El Paso participants reported a significantly greater natural log met/mins of vigorous (β = 1.34, p = 0.000) and walking (β = 0.331, p = 0.006). Significant sociodemographic covariates in El Paso for vigorous met/mins were gender (females β = −1.20, p = 0.003), having a regular doctor (β = −0.779, p = 0.029), and acculturation (β = 0.513, p = 0.019). Significant associations in Cameron County were having a regular doctor (β = −1.03, p = 0.000) and fair/poor health status (β = −0.475, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Level of physical activity may differ in older Hispanics by urban context on the U.S.-Mexico border. Future physical activity programs to promote physical activity should take context into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Level of and Factors Determining Physical Activity in Students in Ukraine and the Visegrad Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081738 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Examining the level of physical activity in students is a vital issue as these young people are the future social elite. Methods: The research was conducted in the years 2013–2016 and comprised 5008 males and females, mean age of 20.5 [...] Read more.
Background: Examining the level of physical activity in students is a vital issue as these young people are the future social elite. Methods: The research was conducted in the years 2013–2016 and comprised 5008 males and females, mean age of 20.5 ± 2.1 years, including 2237 (55.3%) students from students from Eastern European National University, Lutsk, and Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine, as well as 2237 (44.7%) from the Visegrad countries, i.e., University of Pécs in Hungary, University in Kosice, Slovakia, University of Olomunec in the Czech Republic and the State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland. It applied a diagnostic survey—the extended version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), supplemented with original questions regarding body weight, height, self-assessment of physical fitness and amount of leisure time. Results: The comparison of students’ PA from selected European countries, members of the Visegrad group and Ukraine, is particularly vital to the latter country as it demonstrates a different level of socio-economic development. There was noted a significantly higher level of physical activity in students from the Visegrad countries than in Ukraine. Further, there was an overall lower level of physical activity in females compared to males. What was positive about the studied samples was a healthy BMI index in the majority of the male and female respondents, with a significantly higher indicator in Ukraine. Conclusions: Among the factors significantly affecting higher physical activity in both researched samples were the BMI and high self-assessment of physical fitness. There was no significant variation in the level of physical activity and the amount of leisure time, both in those studying in the Visegrad states and Ukraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Heart Rate Variability in Physically Inactive Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071508 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80 [...] Read more.
Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80 years) were randomly assigned to HIIT (N = 7) or MICT (N = 6). The HIIT program consisted of 20 min of interval training with cycling to rest ratio of 10/50 s at ≥90% HRpeak, while the MICT program consisted of 40 min of continuous cycling at 60–75% HRpeak. Both groups completed eight sessions of training within two weeks. Time and frequency domains of HRV were measured for 20 min with Actiwave-Cardio monitor (CamNtech, UK). The number of R-R interval and inter-beat interval (IBI) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both HIIT and MICT programs following eight sessions of training. A significant interaction effect for group by time was found in the lnLF/HF ratio (p < 0.05) where it was only improved in the HIIT group from pre- to post-test. The HIIT program is superior to MICT in improving HRV in physically inactive adults. The HIIT program can be applied as a time-efficient program for improving cardiac-autoregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercising in Air Pollution: The Cleanest versus Dirtiest Cities Challenge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071502 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated [...] Read more.
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated exercise sessions at cleanest and dirtiest cities reported by World Health Organization (WHO) considering air quality. Methods: Minute ventilation data were extracted from laboratory-based exercise of 116 incremental running tests and used to calculate total ventilation of a hypothetical 30-min moderate continuous exercise routine. Afterwards, total ventilation values were combined with particulate matter (PM) data reported by the WHO for the 10 cleanest and 10 dirtiest cities, to calculate inhaled doses and the relative risk of all-cause mortality by exercising in different air pollution concentrations. Findings: The dirtiest cities are located at less developed countries compared to cleanest cities. The inhaled dose of PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly higher in the dirtiest cities compared to the cleanest cities at rest and exercise, and significantly higher during exercise compared to the rest at dirtiest cities. The relative risk of all-cause mortality analysis showed that, while exercise in the cleanest cities improved health benefits throughout up to 90 min, there were no further health benefits after 15 min of exercise in the dirtiest cities, and the air pollution health risks surpassed the exercise benefits after 75 min. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that a traditional 30-min of moderate aerobic exercise session might induce inhalation of high levels of pollutants when performed at dirtiest cities. Considering several adverse health effects from air pollutants inhalation, so the results suggest that the air pollution levels of the cities should be taken into account for physical exercise recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of an Intervention Program Based on Active Video Games and Motor Games on Health Indicators in University Students: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071329 - 25 Jun 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention [...] Read more.
(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention program based on the application of active video games and motor games on health status indicators, problematic use of video games, and resilience capacity in university students. Besides, the content blocks of the Physical Education (PE) field are worked on through these devices, revealing their potential as an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) resource. A longitudinal study with a pre-experimental design with pretest–posttest measurements in a single group (n = 47) was performed, using as main instruments a Tanita TBF300® bioimpedance scale, the 20mSRT test for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Test (KIDMED), the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video games (QERV) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC); (3) Results: The main results were a discrete improvement in the percentage of fat mass and VO2max, representing a small effect size in both cases. The quality of the diet followed and the confidence and tolerance for adversity as a resilience factor were also improved, representing a medium size effect for this last variable; (4) Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this study as it does not have a control group, the main conclusions are that active video games and motor games can be a motivational resource to follow an active lifestyle, helping to improve health status indicators in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050953 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that [...] Read more.
This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050894 - 01 May 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI). A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069). (3) Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4) Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040738 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive [...] Read more.
Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive statistics in order to identify the patterns and determinants of table-tennis practice in Poland. Results: Table tennis is practised by 2.8% of population, and by 6.6% of physically active Poles. Among adults it is predominantly an occasional recreational game, not performed as a sport per se. Among children, it is often the part of physical education (PE) classes. Statistically significant predictors of contact with table tennis are: gender, age, income, place of residence, children in the household and being a student. Conclusions: Due to the undeniable benefits of table tennis (health, pleasure, personal and social development), the sport is recommended for use as a tool in increasing the (overall low) physical activity of Poles. Its popularization requires promotion in the media (as a health-oriented activity) and using various channels, including public places, the workplace (as part of corporate social responsibility) and physical education classes at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Benefits of Outdoor Sports for Society. A Systematic Literature Review and Reflections on Evidence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060937 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The combination of physical activity and being in nature is recognized as providing a range of significant benefits. The objective of this literature review was to compile an overview of the social benefits and costs associated with outdoor sports within the academic literature [...] Read more.
The combination of physical activity and being in nature is recognized as providing a range of significant benefits. The objective of this literature review was to compile an overview of the social benefits and costs associated with outdoor sports within the academic literature and to reflect on the quality of underlying evidence that supports the relationship. A systematic review was carried out with seven partners from different European countries, including Bulgaria, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. From a total of 17,560 studies identified, 133 studies were selected with relevant data extracted to standardized forms. The selected studies have been analyzed with qualitative research methods. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to the heterogeneity of the study designs and outcome measures. As a result, the review gives an overview of the social impacts associated with outdoor sports which have been clustered to six broad categories: physical health, mental health and wellbeing, education and lifelong learning, active citizenship, crime reduction, and anti-social behavior, as well as additional benefits. The review furthermore revealed gaps in the evidence base which are especially notable in the long-term effects that outdoor sports can have on personal and social development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Mind-Body Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122791 - 09 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: As the situation of cognitive aging is getting worse, preventing or treating cognitive decline through effective strategies is highly important. This systematic review aims to investigate whether mind-body exercise is an effective approach for treating cognition decline. Methods: Searches for [...] Read more.
Background: As the situation of cognitive aging is getting worse, preventing or treating cognitive decline through effective strategies is highly important. This systematic review aims to investigate whether mind-body exercise is an effective approach for treating cognition decline. Methods: Searches for the potential studies were performed on the eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PsycArtilces, CNKI, and Wanfang). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of mind-body exercise on cognitive performance in older adults were included. Data were extracted and effect sizes were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using random-effects models. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale was employed to examine the study quality. Results: Nineteen RCTs including 2539 elders (67.3% female) with fair to good study quality were identified. Mind-body exercise, relative to control intervention, showed significant benefits on cognitive performance, global cognition (Hedges’g = 0.23), executive functions (Hedges’g = 0.25 to 0.65), learning and memory (Hedges’g = 0.37 to 0.49), and language (Hedges’g = 0.35). In addition, no significant adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Mind-body exercise may be a safe and effective intervention for enhancing cognitive function among people aged 60 years or older. Further research evidence is still needed to make a more conclusive statement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
Mind–Body (Baduanjin) Exercise Prescription for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091830 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Baduanjin exercise is a traditional Chinese health Qigong routine created by an ancient physician for health promotion. Its mild-to-moderate exercise intensity is suitable for individuals with medical conditions. Recently, a large number of trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of Baduanjin [...] Read more.
Baduanjin exercise is a traditional Chinese health Qigong routine created by an ancient physician for health promotion. Its mild-to-moderate exercise intensity is suitable for individuals with medical conditions. Recently, a large number of trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of Baduanjin exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains to be determined whether Baduanjin exercise prescription is beneficial for the management of COPD patients. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to objectively evaluate the existing literature on this topic. We searched six databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang) from inception until early May 2018. The adapted Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used for study quality assessment of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Based on 95% confidence interval (CI), the pooled effect size (Hedge’s g) of exercise capability (6-Minute Walking Test, 6-MWT), lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1; forced volume vital capacity, FVC; FEV1/FVC ratio), and quality of life were calculated based on the random-effects model. Twenty RCTs (n = 1975 COPD patients) were included in this review, with sum scores of the adapted PEDro scale between 5 and 9. Study results of the meta-analysis indicate that Baduanjin is effective in improving exercise capability (Hedge’s g = 0.69, CI 0.44 to 0.94, p < 0.001, I2 = 66%), FEV1 (Hedge’s g = 0.47, CI 0.22 to 0.73, p < 0.001, I2 = 68.01%), FEV1% (Hedge’s g = 0.38, CI 0.21 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 54.74%), FVC (Hedge’s g = 0.39, CI 0.22 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 14.57%), FEV1/FVC (Hedge’s g = 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.68, p < 0.001, I2 = 53.49%), and the quality of life of COPD patients (Hedge’s g = −0.45, CI −0.77 to −0.12, p < 0.05, I2 = 77.02%), as compared to control groups. Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive treatment may potentially improve exercise capability and pulmonary function of COPD patients as well as quality of life. Baduanjin exercise could be tentatively prescribed for COPD in combination with the conventional rehabilitation program to quicken the process of recovery. To confirm the positive effects of Baduanjin exercise for COPD patients, future researchers need to consider our suggestions mentioned in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Mind–Body Movements on Balance Function in Stroke Survivors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061292 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an [...] Read more.
Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an inception until January 2018. Randomized controlled studies were included in our meta-analysis. Data was independently extracted by two review authors using a pre-developed table and confirmed by a third party to reach a consensus. Pooled effect size (Hedge’s g) was computed while the random-effect model was set. Results: The meta-analytic results showed a significant benefit of the MBM intervention on increased balance function compared to the control groups (Hedge’s g = 1.59, CI 0.98 to 2.19, p < 0.001, I2 = 94.95%). Additionally, the meta-regression indicated that the total number of sessions (β = 0.00142, 95% CI 0.0039 to 0.0244, p = 0.0067) and dose of weekly training (β = 0.00776, 95% CI 0.00579 to 0.00972, p = 0.00) had significantly positive effects on balance function. Conclusions: The study encouraging findings indicate the rehabilitative effect of a MBM intervention for balance function in stroke survivors. However, there were significant limitations in the design among several of the included trials. Additional studies with more robust methodologies are needed to provide a more definitive conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040800 - 19 Apr 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports [...] Read more.
Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports and cognitive functions. The keywords “children, cognition, cognitive function, physical activity, and brain” were searched for using PsycInfo, Medline, and Google Scholar, with publication dates ranging from January 2000 to November 2017. Of the 617 results, 58 articles strictly connected to the main topics of physical activity and cognitive functioning were then reviewed. The areas of attention, thinking, language, learning, and memory were analyzed relative to sports and childhood. Results suggest that engaging in sports in late childhood positively influences cognitive and emotional functions. There is a paucity of publications that investigate the impact of sports on pre-adolescents’ cognitive functions, or explore which cognitive functions are developed by which sporting disciplines. Such knowledge would be useful in developing training programs for pre-adolescents, aimed at improving cognitive functions that may guide both researchers and practitioners relative to the wide range of benefits that result from physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Baduanjin Exercise for Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040600 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials against the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality by using the revised PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was only performed for balance function. Results: In total, there were eight randomized controlled trials selected in this systematic review. The aggregated result of four trials has shown a significant benefit in favor of Baduanjin on balance function (Hedges’ g = 2.39, 95% CI 2.14 to 2.65, p < 0.001, I2 = 61.54). Additionally, Baduanjin exercise effectively improved sensorimotor function of lower extremities and ability of daily activities as well as reduced depressive level, leading to improved quality of life. Conclusion: Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive and safe method may be conducive to help stroke patients achieve the best possible short-term outcome and should be integrated with mainstream rehabilitation programs. More rigorous randomized controlled trials with long-term intervention periods among a large sample size of stroke patients are needed to draw a firm conclusion regarding the rehabilitative effects for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based (Baduanjin) Exercise for Alleviating Musculoskeletal Pain and Improving Sleep Quality in People with Chronic Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020206 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 26
Abstract
Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI [...] Read more.
Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI and Wangfang) electronic databases were used to search relevant articles. We used a modified PEDro scale to evaluate risk of bias across studies selected. All eligible RCTS were considered for meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference was calculated for the pooled effects to determine the magnitude of the Baduanjin intervention effect. For the moderator analysis, we performed subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables. Results: The aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin at alleviating musculoskeletal pain (SMD = −0.88, 95% CI −1.02 to −0.74, p < 0.001, I2 = 10.29%) and improving overall sleep quality (SMD = −0.48, 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01, p = 004, I2 = 84.42%). Conclusions: Mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise may be effective for alleviating musculoskeletal pain and improving overall sleep quality in people with chronic illness. Large, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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