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Special Issue "Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion"

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Masao Kanamori

College of Sport and Health Science/Department of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto/Kusatu Prefecture 525-8577, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: physical activity; leisure-sport; heath; health effect

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

People try to escape the crowds of cities, seeking to improve their moods by going out to the countryside and highlands/mountains. We are seeking research papers on health effects, such as physiological changes due to leisure–sports/physical activity. We are seeking, not only research on the effects of diseases but also recent research findings, such as the elimination of anxiety, mood changes, and improving quality of life.

Prof. Masao Kanamori
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • physical activity
  • leisure-sport
  • heath
  • health effect

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of the Application of a Program of Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) on the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FOF) for the Health Sustainability of the Elderly Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112526
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
This research analyzes the fall history of a group of elderly people and studies the effects of an intervention program based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) to teach fall control in subjects with fear of falling syndrome (FOF). We adopted a quasi-experimental research
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This research analyzes the fall history of a group of elderly people and studies the effects of an intervention program based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo (JUA) to teach fall control in subjects with fear of falling syndrome (FOF). We adopted a quasi-experimental research design with pre-post measurement of the experimental group, in a healthy, pre-fragile sample of 12 women aged 71.5 ± 8 years, chosen using non-probabilistic-incidental accessibility sampling. The WHO questionnaire was used for the functional assessment of the fall. To evaluate FOF, we applied the 16-item version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), (pretest and posttest). This intervention program was based on Adapted Utilitarian Judo and conducted over 8 weeks, with two 60-minute sessions each week. After analyzing the scores obtained by the subjects in the pre and post FES-I, we found that the intervention with the JUA program had been significant for the experimental group with p ≤ 0.004, and there was an 11.9% decrease in the fear of falling (FES-I pos = 18.17). The results show that after the application of the JUA program there were significant improvements in subjects’ perception of FOF, with this being greater in those who had the highest levels of fear of falling before the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Model of Psychosocial Factors and Healthy Habits in University Students of Physical Education Depending on Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112430
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Several researches have shown the relationship between healthy habits and physical and mental health. Thus, it is essential to study how some psychosocial factors can promote positive behaviours in university students, specifically in those who will be teachers of Physical Education.
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(1) Background: Several researches have shown the relationship between healthy habits and physical and mental health. Thus, it is essential to study how some psychosocial factors can promote positive behaviours in university students, specifically in those who will be teachers of Physical Education. (2) Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 775 university students of Physical Education from Spain. This study aims to develop an explanatory model for the relationships between motivational climate, healthy habits (Mediterranean Diet (MD), Physical Activity (PA) and substance consumption) and some indicators of physical health (oxygen consumption (VO2MAX)) and mental health (self-concept) according to gender, using structural equations analysis. (3) Results: The motivational climate was positively associated with PA, showing a stronger relationship for ego-oriented climate in women. The adherence to MD showed a positive association with PA and self-concept, while it is negative for the consumption of tobacco in men. Likewise, PA was directly related to VO2MAX with a higher regression weight for women. The ego-oriented motivational climate was negatively related to tobacco consumption in women. (4) Conclusions: Task-oriented goals are related to more positive and healthy behaviours such as PA, although it was no association was found with MD. Therefore, we can conclude the importance of promoting task-oriented goals in educational contexts linked to Physical Education in order to avoid negative behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Citius, Altius, Fortius vs. Slow Sport: A New Era of Sustainable Sport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112414
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the article is to present the slow sport movement as a phenomenon developing in the postmodern era in opposition to the idea of citius, altius, fortius (Eng. faster, higher, stronger). The theoretical part of the article describes the health repercussions
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The objective of the article is to present the slow sport movement as a phenomenon developing in the postmodern era in opposition to the idea of citius, altius, fortius (Eng. faster, higher, stronger). The theoretical part of the article describes the health repercussions of slow movement and its implications for the sports industry and sports tourism. It also points to new challenges in sports management and sports tourism implemented in the slow style. The empirical part of the article aims at determining what influence the achievement of a self-set sports goal has on the degree of satisfaction with participation in a running event among runners. Could runners who did not set themselves any sports goal and ran for pleasure (according to the idea of slow sport) achieve the same degree of satisfaction as runners who set themselves an ambitious sports goal and achieved it (according to the idea of citius, altius, fortius)? The case study is the 6th Poznan Half Marathon, a cyclical, popular running event taking place in Poland. A total of 560 runners (n = 560) took part in the diagnostic survey conducted using the interview technique. The ANOVA Rang Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s test were used in the study. The results show that athletes who did not set a sporting goal (ran for pleasure, company, atmosphere, participation, etc.) experienced the same level of satisfaction as athletes who achieved their intended sporting goal. It turns out, therefore, that sport and physical activity done for pleasure in accordance with the slow sport idea can provide the same level of satisfaction as sport practiced in the spirit of citius, altius, fortius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Physical Activity, Residential Environment, and Nature Relatedness in Young Men—A Population-Based MOPO Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102322
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: In general, nature relatedness is positively associated with physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. However, increased residence in urban areas, and the decrease in natural spaces, may affect the younger generation most adversely. The associated environmental changes can increase youths’ risk
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Background: In general, nature relatedness is positively associated with physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. However, increased residence in urban areas, and the decrease in natural spaces, may affect the younger generation most adversely. The associated environmental changes can increase youths’ risk of spending most of their time indoors, and weaken their nature relatedness, making them less likely to enjoy nature’s health benefits. This is a serious public health issue, since inadequate physical activity, combined with minimum time spent in green space, can affect health across the whole lifespan. Thus, to develop effective interventions for physical activation and promote health and well-being among young men, further knowledge of the determinants of their nature relatedness is necessary. Aims: To explore factors related to nature relatedness, including physical activity, physical activity with parents, and residential environment. Methods: The study population consisted of all 914 young men (mean—17.8 years; SD—0.5) who participated in mandatory call-ups for military service and completed the study questionnaire in 2013. The questionnaire inquired about their nature relatedness, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical activity, health, and subjective well-being. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to assess the features of their residential environments. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: Physical activity (p = 0.021) and physical activity with parents at primary school age (p = 0.007), and currently (p = 0.001) as well as good self-rated health (p = 0.001), and father’s higher socioeconomic status (p = 0.041), were positively connected to nature relatedness. Conclusions: Physical activity in general, physical activity with parents, and nature relatedness were positively related. This knowledge can be utilized in promoting physical activity and health among young men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102262
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The main goal of this study was to recognize the motives of participation in mass running events (Poznan Half Marathon case study). The second aim was to examine the motivations to participate in a half-marathon among two groups of respondents: men and women,
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The main goal of this study was to recognize the motives of participation in mass running events (Poznan Half Marathon case study). The second aim was to examine the motivations to participate in a half-marathon among two groups of respondents: men and women, and to evaluate the differences between them. The empirical research among runners (n = 560) conducted during the one of the most important running events in Poland recognized the motives for participation in the sports event in accordance with the four basic types of orientation: social orientation, experience orientation, factual orientation, and result orientation (Freyer & Gross, 2002). The significant difference between surveyed men and women appeared in the motives of desire to get away from everyday life and its prevailing fashion, which turned out to be more important for women than for men. The desire to win was not important for the respondents. All respondents reported that what was very important for them was the need to experience strong emotions related to participation, the desire to feel unity and integration with other people, and the desire to test themselves. In general, the results show that people participate in running events not only for physical activity, but also for mental well-being and socio-psychological effects. They experience strong emotions, adrenaline, pleasure, relaxation, and an escape from the duties and hardships of everyday life and have an opportunity to build social relationships thanks to mass sports events organized in urban agglomerations. The article constitutes a conceptualization of the running event in the dimension of social and psychological interactions, which reveal and demonstrate its creative layers and contemporary meaning which has already gone deeply beyond functions of running for health and improving the physical condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Martial Arts as a Form of Undertaking Physical Activity in Leisure Time Analysis of Factors Determining Participation of Poles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091989
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this paper was to analyze selected sociodemographic and economic factors that determine practicing martial arts (MA) in Poland. Our hypothesis states that MA constitute a niche sport, which is a result of conditions shaping the decision to undertake them:
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Background: The aim of this paper was to analyze selected sociodemographic and economic factors that determine practicing martial arts (MA) in Poland. Our hypothesis states that MA constitute a niche sport, which is a result of conditions shaping the decision to undertake them: perception through the lens of the media/entertainment business (rather than primary values), insufficient space for practicing, as well as high costs. Methods: The study was based on a survey conducted on a representative sample of Poles (n = 12,183). Results for 470 participants declaring some level of proficiency in MA were presented (including 124 declaring active participation). In order to verify statistically significant differences, a Chi-Square test, single-agent logistic regression analysis, and adds ratio were applied. Results: 3.0% of respondents declared basic skills in MA, while advanced skills were declared by 0.9% participants. Only 1% were active practitioners. The leading motivation was “pleasure” (62.1%), followed by “keeping fit and maintaining healthy body shape” (21.8%) and “health” (7.3%). The probability of participation in MA decreased with age (40 years of age being the turning point). As for young people, there is a 15 times lower chance of married individuals undertaking MA, while possessing advanced skills doubles the probability. School provides a place to practice MA during school years, but there is a problem with continuation at a later age (18.8% declaring classes organized at school vs. 5.4% organized at work). Conclusions: Reversing the trend of decreasing popularity of MA requires promotion on each level of education and creating opportunities to continue participation after graduation. There is a need to increase the availability of cheap sport facilities in the vicinity of the place of residence or work. In case of adults, it is important to build platforms facilitating contact with MA centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Physical Activity in Older Mexican Americans Living in Two Cities on the U.S.-Mexico Border
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091820
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: There is limited information on physical activity in marginalized older populations like that on the U.S.-Mexico border. This study aims to understand physical activity engagement among older Hispanics residing in two U.S.-Mexico Border counties. Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was
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Background: There is limited information on physical activity in marginalized older populations like that on the U.S.-Mexico border. This study aims to understand physical activity engagement among older Hispanics residing in two U.S.-Mexico Border counties. Methods: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure physical activity in El Paso and Cameron County, Texas. Physical activity levels were reported for vigorous, moderate, and walking met/mins. Adjusted and unadjusted modeling was conducted to determine county differences and sociodemographic covariates. Results: There were 784 participants and 92.9% were less than 65 years of age. El Paso participants reported a significantly greater natural log met/mins of vigorous (β = 1.34, p = 0.000) and walking (β = 0.331, p = 0.006). Significant sociodemographic covariates in El Paso for vigorous met/mins were gender (females β = −1.20, p = 0.003), having a regular doctor (β = −0.779, p = 0.029), and acculturation (β = 0.513, p = 0.019). Significant associations in Cameron County were having a regular doctor (β = −1.03, p = 0.000) and fair/poor health status (β = −0.475, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Level of physical activity may differ in older Hispanics by urban context on the U.S.-Mexico border. Future physical activity programs to promote physical activity should take context into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Level of and Factors Determining Physical Activity in Students in Ukraine and the Visegrad Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081738
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Background: Examining the level of physical activity in students is a vital issue as these young people are the future social elite. Methods: The research was conducted in the years 2013–2016 and comprised 5008 males and females, mean age of 20.5
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Background: Examining the level of physical activity in students is a vital issue as these young people are the future social elite. Methods: The research was conducted in the years 2013–2016 and comprised 5008 males and females, mean age of 20.5 ± 2.1 years, including 2237 (55.3%) students from students from Eastern European National University, Lutsk, and Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine, as well as 2237 (44.7%) from the Visegrad countries, i.e., University of Pécs in Hungary, University in Kosice, Slovakia, University of Olomunec in the Czech Republic and the State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska, Poland. It applied a diagnostic survey—the extended version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), supplemented with original questions regarding body weight, height, self-assessment of physical fitness and amount of leisure time. Results: The comparison of students’ PA from selected European countries, members of the Visegrad group and Ukraine, is particularly vital to the latter country as it demonstrates a different level of socio-economic development. There was noted a significantly higher level of physical activity in students from the Visegrad countries than in Ukraine. Further, there was an overall lower level of physical activity in females compared to males. What was positive about the studied samples was a healthy BMI index in the majority of the male and female respondents, with a significantly higher indicator in Ukraine. Conclusions: Among the factors significantly affecting higher physical activity in both researched samples were the BMI and high self-assessment of physical fitness. There was no significant variation in the level of physical activity and the amount of leisure time, both in those studying in the Visegrad states and Ukraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Heart Rate Variability in Physically Inactive Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071508
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80
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Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80 years) were randomly assigned to HIIT (N = 7) or MICT (N = 6). The HIIT program consisted of 20 min of interval training with cycling to rest ratio of 10/50 s at ≥90% HRpeak, while the MICT program consisted of 40 min of continuous cycling at 60–75% HRpeak. Both groups completed eight sessions of training within two weeks. Time and frequency domains of HRV were measured for 20 min with Actiwave-Cardio monitor (CamNtech, UK). The number of R-R interval and inter-beat interval (IBI) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both HIIT and MICT programs following eight sessions of training. A significant interaction effect for group by time was found in the lnLF/HF ratio (p < 0.05) where it was only improved in the HIIT group from pre- to post-test. The HIIT program is superior to MICT in improving HRV in physically inactive adults. The HIIT program can be applied as a time-efficient program for improving cardiac-autoregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Exercising in Air Pollution: The Cleanest versus Dirtiest Cities Challenge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071502
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated
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Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated exercise sessions at cleanest and dirtiest cities reported by World Health Organization (WHO) considering air quality. Methods: Minute ventilation data were extracted from laboratory-based exercise of 116 incremental running tests and used to calculate total ventilation of a hypothetical 30-min moderate continuous exercise routine. Afterwards, total ventilation values were combined with particulate matter (PM) data reported by the WHO for the 10 cleanest and 10 dirtiest cities, to calculate inhaled doses and the relative risk of all-cause mortality by exercising in different air pollution concentrations. Findings: The dirtiest cities are located at less developed countries compared to cleanest cities. The inhaled dose of PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly higher in the dirtiest cities compared to the cleanest cities at rest and exercise, and significantly higher during exercise compared to the rest at dirtiest cities. The relative risk of all-cause mortality analysis showed that, while exercise in the cleanest cities improved health benefits throughout up to 90 min, there were no further health benefits after 15 min of exercise in the dirtiest cities, and the air pollution health risks surpassed the exercise benefits after 75 min. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that a traditional 30-min of moderate aerobic exercise session might induce inhalation of high levels of pollutants when performed at dirtiest cities. Considering several adverse health effects from air pollutants inhalation, so the results suggest that the air pollution levels of the cities should be taken into account for physical exercise recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an Intervention Program Based on Active Video Games and Motor Games on Health Indicators in University Students: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071329
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention
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(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention program based on the application of active video games and motor games on health status indicators, problematic use of video games, and resilience capacity in university students. Besides, the content blocks of the Physical Education (PE) field are worked on through these devices, revealing their potential as an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) resource. A longitudinal study with a pre-experimental design with pretest–posttest measurements in a single group (n = 47) was performed, using as main instruments a Tanita TBF300® bioimpedance scale, the 20mSRT test for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Test (KIDMED), the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video games (QERV) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC); (3) Results: The main results were a discrete improvement in the percentage of fat mass and VO2max, representing a small effect size in both cases. The quality of the diet followed and the confidence and tolerance for adversity as a resilience factor were also improved, representing a medium size effect for this last variable; (4) Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this study as it does not have a control group, the main conclusions are that active video games and motor games can be a motivational resource to follow an active lifestyle, helping to improve health status indicators in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050953
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that
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This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050894
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety
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(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI). A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069). (3) Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4) Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040738
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive
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Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive statistics in order to identify the patterns and determinants of table-tennis practice in Poland. Results: Table tennis is practised by 2.8% of population, and by 6.6% of physically active Poles. Among adults it is predominantly an occasional recreational game, not performed as a sport per se. Among children, it is often the part of physical education (PE) classes. Statistically significant predictors of contact with table tennis are: gender, age, income, place of residence, children in the household and being a student. Conclusions: Due to the undeniable benefits of table tennis (health, pleasure, personal and social development), the sport is recommended for use as a tool in increasing the (overall low) physical activity of Poles. Its popularization requires promotion in the media (as a health-oriented activity) and using various channels, including public places, the workplace (as part of corporate social responsibility) and physical education classes at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mind–Body (Baduanjin) Exercise Prescription for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091830
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Baduanjin exercise is a traditional Chinese health Qigong routine created by an ancient physician for health promotion. Its mild-to-moderate exercise intensity is suitable for individuals with medical conditions. Recently, a large number of trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of Baduanjin
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Baduanjin exercise is a traditional Chinese health Qigong routine created by an ancient physician for health promotion. Its mild-to-moderate exercise intensity is suitable for individuals with medical conditions. Recently, a large number of trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of Baduanjin exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It remains to be determined whether Baduanjin exercise prescription is beneficial for the management of COPD patients. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to objectively evaluate the existing literature on this topic. We searched six databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang) from inception until early May 2018. The adapted Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used for study quality assessment of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Based on 95% confidence interval (CI), the pooled effect size (Hedge’s g) of exercise capability (6-Minute Walking Test, 6-MWT), lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1; forced volume vital capacity, FVC; FEV1/FVC ratio), and quality of life were calculated based on the random-effects model. Twenty RCTs (n = 1975 COPD patients) were included in this review, with sum scores of the adapted PEDro scale between 5 and 9. Study results of the meta-analysis indicate that Baduanjin is effective in improving exercise capability (Hedge’s g = 0.69, CI 0.44 to 0.94, p < 0.001, I2 = 66%), FEV1 (Hedge’s g = 0.47, CI 0.22 to 0.73, p < 0.001, I2 = 68.01%), FEV1% (Hedge’s g = 0.38, CI 0.21 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 54.74%), FVC (Hedge’s g = 0.39, CI 0.22 to 0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 14.57%), FEV1/FVC (Hedge’s g = 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.68, p < 0.001, I2 = 53.49%), and the quality of life of COPD patients (Hedge’s g = −0.45, CI −0.77 to −0.12, p < 0.05, I2 = 77.02%), as compared to control groups. Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive treatment may potentially improve exercise capability and pulmonary function of COPD patients as well as quality of life. Baduanjin exercise could be tentatively prescribed for COPD in combination with the conventional rehabilitation program to quicken the process of recovery. To confirm the positive effects of Baduanjin exercise for COPD patients, future researchers need to consider our suggestions mentioned in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Mind–Body Movements on Balance Function in Stroke Survivors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061292
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an
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Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an inception until January 2018. Randomized controlled studies were included in our meta-analysis. Data was independently extracted by two review authors using a pre-developed table and confirmed by a third party to reach a consensus. Pooled effect size (Hedge’s g) was computed while the random-effect model was set. Results: The meta-analytic results showed a significant benefit of the MBM intervention on increased balance function compared to the control groups (Hedge’s g = 1.59, CI 0.98 to 2.19, p < 0.001, I2 = 94.95%). Additionally, the meta-regression indicated that the total number of sessions (β = 0.00142, 95% CI 0.0039 to 0.0244, p = 0.0067) and dose of weekly training (β = 0.00776, 95% CI 0.00579 to 0.00972, p = 0.00) had significantly positive effects on balance function. Conclusions: The study encouraging findings indicate the rehabilitative effect of a MBM intervention for balance function in stroke survivors. However, there were significant limitations in the design among several of the included trials. Additional studies with more robust methodologies are needed to provide a more definitive conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040800
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports
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Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports and cognitive functions. The keywords “children, cognition, cognitive function, physical activity, and brain” were searched for using PsycInfo, Medline, and Google Scholar, with publication dates ranging from January 2000 to November 2017. Of the 617 results, 58 articles strictly connected to the main topics of physical activity and cognitive functioning were then reviewed. The areas of attention, thinking, language, learning, and memory were analyzed relative to sports and childhood. Results suggest that engaging in sports in late childhood positively influences cognitive and emotional functions. There is a paucity of publications that investigate the impact of sports on pre-adolescents’ cognitive functions, or explore which cognitive functions are developed by which sporting disciplines. Such knowledge would be useful in developing training programs for pre-adolescents, aimed at improving cognitive functions that may guide both researchers and practitioners relative to the wide range of benefits that result from physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Baduanjin Exercise for Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040600
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials
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Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials against the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality by using the revised PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was only performed for balance function. Results: In total, there were eight randomized controlled trials selected in this systematic review. The aggregated result of four trials has shown a significant benefit in favor of Baduanjin on balance function (Hedges’ g = 2.39, 95% CI 2.14 to 2.65, p < 0.001, I2 = 61.54). Additionally, Baduanjin exercise effectively improved sensorimotor function of lower extremities and ability of daily activities as well as reduced depressive level, leading to improved quality of life. Conclusion: Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive and safe method may be conducive to help stroke patients achieve the best possible short-term outcome and should be integrated with mainstream rehabilitation programs. More rigorous randomized controlled trials with long-term intervention periods among a large sample size of stroke patients are needed to draw a firm conclusion regarding the rehabilitative effects for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based (Baduanjin) Exercise for Alleviating Musculoskeletal Pain and Improving Sleep Quality in People with Chronic Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020206
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI
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Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI and Wangfang) electronic databases were used to search relevant articles. We used a modified PEDro scale to evaluate risk of bias across studies selected. All eligible RCTS were considered for meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference was calculated for the pooled effects to determine the magnitude of the Baduanjin intervention effect. For the moderator analysis, we performed subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables. Results: The aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin at alleviating musculoskeletal pain (SMD = −0.88, 95% CI −1.02 to −0.74, p < 0.001, I2 = 10.29%) and improving overall sleep quality (SMD = −0.48, 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01, p = 004, I2 = 84.42%). Conclusions: Mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise may be effective for alleviating musculoskeletal pain and improving overall sleep quality in people with chronic illness. Large, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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