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Shedding Light on the Shade: How Nurseries Protect Their Children from Ultraviolet Radiation
Open AccessCommentary

Sun Exposure Public Health Directives

Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2794;
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV Radiation and Health)
There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. This brief commentary lists several of the many important recent studies of adverse health effects associated with low sun exposure, including some specific cancers, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Our conclusion is that non-burning UV exposure is a health benefit and—in moderation—should be recommended as such. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV radiation; vitamin D; nitric oxide; melanoma; cancer; cardiovascular UV radiation; vitamin D; nitric oxide; melanoma; cancer; cardiovascular
MDPI and ACS Style

Hoel, D.G.; De Gruijl, F.R. Sun Exposure Public Health Directives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2794.

AMA Style

Hoel DG, De Gruijl FR. Sun Exposure Public Health Directives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(12):2794.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoel, David G.; De Gruijl, Frank R. 2018. "Sun Exposure Public Health Directives" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 12: 2794.

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