Next Article in Journal
An Optimization Model for a Wetland Restoration Project under Uncertainty
Previous Article in Journal
Association Between Sport Participation, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Social Correlates Among Adolescents: The PAHL Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Shedding Light on the Shade: How Nurseries Protect Their Children from Ultraviolet Radiation
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommentary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2794;

Sun Exposure Public Health Directives

Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV Radiation and Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [238 KB, uploaded 10 December 2018]


There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. This brief commentary lists several of the many important recent studies of adverse health effects associated with low sun exposure, including some specific cancers, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Our conclusion is that non-burning UV exposure is a health benefit and—in moderation—should be recommended as such. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV radiation; vitamin D; nitric oxide; melanoma; cancer; cardiovascular UV radiation; vitamin D; nitric oxide; melanoma; cancer; cardiovascular
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hoel, D.G.; De Gruijl, F.R. Sun Exposure Public Health Directives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2794.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top