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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Central and Inner Asian deserts contribute 20% of global dust and create a significant health risk [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111436
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1396 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse
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This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Evaluation of Coupling Coordination for Land Use Change and Ecological Security: A Case Study in Wuhan City of Hubei Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111435
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1261 | PDF Full-text (8883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As land resources and ecosystems provide necessary materials and conditions for human development, land use change and ecological security play increasingly important roles in sustainable development. This study aims to reveal the mutual-influence and interaction between land use change and ecological security in
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As land resources and ecosystems provide necessary materials and conditions for human development, land use change and ecological security play increasingly important roles in sustainable development. This study aims to reveal the mutual-influence and interaction between land use change and ecological security in Wuhan, based on the coupling coordination degree model. As such, it provides strategies for the achievement of the synchronous and coordinated development of urbanization and ecological security. The results showed that, during the period from 2006 to 2012, the size of built-up area in Wuhan increased to 26.16%, and that all the other types of land use reduced due to the urbanization process, which appeared to be the main driving force of land use change. The ecological security in Wuhan has been improving as a whole although it was somewhat held back from 2006 to 2008 due to the rapid growth of built-up area. The coupling coordination analysis revealed that the relationship between built-up area and ecological security was more coordinated after 2008. The results can provide feasible recommendations for land use management and environmental protection from the viewpoint of coordinated development. To achieve sustainable development from economic and ecological perspective, policy makers should control the rate of urban expansion and exert more effort on intensive land use, clean energy development and emission reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111434
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of
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Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001), “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001), and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002). In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088), and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001). However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Tale of Asbestos in Sweden 1972–1986—The Pathway to a Near-Total Ban
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111433
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270 | PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown
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This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown in a Communist Party parliamentary motion describing asbestos as a health hazard and requesting action to prohibit its use. Although the motion was rejected, it initiated the extensive charting of asbestos sources on a tripartite basis, involving government agencies, and employer and trade-union organizations. Restrictive asbestos management practices were enforced from July 1982. The year 1985 saw the Government Asbestos Commission review, covering use-determining factors, international regulations, and assessments of cancer risks. The relative risks of chrysotile and amphibole were considered internationally (by the IARC), since chrysotile (a Canadian export) was regarded as unharmful in Canada at that time. Prohibiting asbestos use resulted in its virtual disappearance as an import to Sweden from the early 1980s. However, asbestos has undergone a transition from an occupational to a public-health hazard (although some work-related hazards, such as handling and disposal, remain). The transition reflects the public’s exposure to existing stocks, in homes, workplaces, etc. Mesothelioma incidence has come to be regarded as an indicator of prevention effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Urban Green Space and the Pursuit of Health Equity in Parts of the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111432
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2191 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we
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Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges. The projects cover locations such as Atlanta (GA), Los Angeles (CA), the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.), South Bronx (NY), and Utica (NY). Such insight can develop our understanding of green space projects that support health equity and inform the dialogue on this topic in ways that advance research and advocacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111431
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 964 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children.
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The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111430
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 969 | PDF Full-text (4799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment.
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Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland) > W–L (lake wetland) > W–M (grassy marsh wetland) > W–A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144), where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Mortality in Patients with Isolated Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using a Decision Tree Classifier: A Retrospective Analysis Based on a Trauma Registry System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111420
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1177 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In contrast to patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) in the presence of other types of intracranial hemorrhage, the prognosis of patients with isolated tSAH is good. The incidence of mortality in these patients ranges from 0–2.5%. However, few data or predictive
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Background: In contrast to patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) in the presence of other types of intracranial hemorrhage, the prognosis of patients with isolated tSAH is good. The incidence of mortality in these patients ranges from 0–2.5%. However, few data or predictive models are available for the identification of patients with a high mortality risk. In this study, we aimed to construct a model for mortality prediction using a decision tree (DT) algorithm, along with data obtained from a population-based trauma registry, in a Level 1 trauma center. Methods: Five hundred and forty-five patients with isolated tSAH, including 533 patients who survived and 12 who died, between January 2009 and December 2016, were allocated to training (n = 377) or test (n = 168) sets. Using the data on demographics and injury characteristics, as well as laboratory data of the patients, classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was performed based on the Gini impurity index, using the rpart function in the rpart package in R. Results: In this established DT model, three nodes (head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≤4, creatinine (Cr) <1.4 mg/dL, and age <76 years) were identified as important determinative variables in the prediction of mortality. Of the patients with isolated tSAH, 60% of those with a head AIS >4 died, as did the 57% of those with an AIS score ≤4, but Cr ≥1.4 and age ≥76 years. All patients who did not meet the above-mentioned criteria survived. With all the variables in the model, the DT achieved an accuracy of 97.9% (sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 98.1%) and 97.7% (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.7%), for the training set and test set, respectively. Conclusions: The study established a DT model with three nodes (head AIS score ≤4, Cr <1.4, and age <76 years) to predict fatal outcomes in patients with isolated tSAH. The proposed decision-making algorithm may help identify patients with a high risk of mortality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111429
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries,
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Distribution of U5MR and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111428
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035 | PDF Full-text (19752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important
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Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicate that the space pattern of a high U5MR had been narrowed notably during the period from 2001 to 2010. Nighttime lights (NL) and the digital elevation model (DEM) both have obvious influences on the U5MR, with the NL having a negative impact and DEM having a positive impact. Additionally, the relationship between the NL and DEM varied over space in China. Moreover, the relevance between U5MR and DEM was narrowed in 2010 compared to 2001, which indicates that the development of economic and medical standards can overcome geographical limits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical Fighting and Associated Factors among Adolescents Aged 13–15 Years in Six Western Pacific Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111427
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 892 | PDF Full-text (308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved
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Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved in at least one physical fight during the past 12 months) in selected LMICs, and its relations with potential risk factors. We included 6377 school-going adolescents aged 13–15 years from six Western Pacific (WP) countries that had recently conducted a Global School-based Student Health Survey. Information was gathered through a self-administered anonymous closed-ended questionnaire. The prevalence of adolescent physical fighting varied across countries, ranging from 34.5% in Kiribati to 63.3% in Samoa. The prevalence was higher in boys than in girls, and lower at age 15 than 13–14 years. Physical fighting was significantly associated (pooled odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) with smoking (1.78, 1.53–2.06), drinking (1.57, 1.33–1.85), drug use (1.72, 1.33–2.23), and missing school (1.72, 1.51–1.95). The association with physical fighting increased with increasing number of joint adverse behaviors (increased from 1.99 (1.73–2.29) for one risk behavior to 4.95 (4.03–6.07) for at least 3 risk behaviors, versus having none of the 4 risk behaviors). The high prevalence of physical fighting and the associations with risk behaviors emphasize the need for comprehensive prevention programs to reduce youth violence and associated risk behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Violence as a Public Health Issue)
Open AccessArticle Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111426
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment.
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Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = −0.38; 90% CI, −0.64 to −0.12; p-value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p-value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Environment, Diet, and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Exposure to Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, Bisphenol A, and Phthalates in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder Living near the Gulf of Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111425
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Environmental exposure to organic endocrine disrupting chemicals, including dioxins, dibenzofurans, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot monitoring study of 30 ASD cases and 10 typically developing (TD) controls ages
[...] Read more.
Environmental exposure to organic endocrine disrupting chemicals, including dioxins, dibenzofurans, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We conducted a pilot monitoring study of 30 ASD cases and 10 typically developing (TD) controls ages 2–8 years from communities along the Gulf of Mexico near Alabama, which houses 14 Superfund sites, to assess the concentrations of dioxins and dibenzofurans in serum, and BPA and phthalate ester metabolites in urine. Based on General Linear Models, the lipid- or creatinine-adjusted geometric mean concentrations of the aforementioned chemicals did not differ between the ASD case and TD control groups (all p ≥ 0.27). We compared our findings to the adjusted means as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, survey years 2011–2012, and found that TD controls in our study had lower BPA (59%) and MEHHP (26%) concentrations, higher MBP (50%) concentration, and comparable (<20% difference) MEP, MBZP, MEOHP, and MCPP concentrations. We also conducted a preliminary investigation of dietary exposures and found that the consumption of certain types of fish may be associated with higher OCDD concentrations, and the consumption of soft drinks and juices may be associated with lower BPA and MEOHP concentrations, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using Twitter to Explore (un)Healthy Housing: Learning from the #Characterbuildings Campaign in New Zealand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111424
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 897 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While increasingly used for research, Twitter remains largely untapped as a source of data about housing. We explore the growth of social media and use of Twitter in health and social research, and question why housing researchers have avoided using Twitter to explore
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While increasingly used for research, Twitter remains largely untapped as a source of data about housing. We explore the growth of social media and use of Twitter in health and social research, and question why housing researchers have avoided using Twitter to explore housing issues to date. We use the #characterbuildings campaign, initiated by an online media platform in New Zealand in 2014 to illustrate that Twitter can provide insights into housing as a public health and social problem. We find that Twitter users share details of problems with past and present homes on this public platform, and that this readily available data can contribute to the case for improving building quality as a means of promoting public health. Moreover, the way people responded to the request to share details about their housing experiences provides insight into how New Zealanders conceive of housing problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Towards More Nuanced Classification of NGOs and Their Services to Improve Integrated Planning across Disaster Phases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111423
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are being integrated into U.S. strategies to expand the services that are available during health security threats like disasters. Identifying better ways to classify NGOs and their services could optimize disaster planning. We surveyed NGOs about the types of services
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Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are being integrated into U.S. strategies to expand the services that are available during health security threats like disasters. Identifying better ways to classify NGOs and their services could optimize disaster planning. We surveyed NGOs about the types of services they provided during different disaster phases. Survey responses were used to categorize NGO services as core—critical to fulfilling their organizational mission—or adaptive—services implemented during a disaster based on community need. We also classified NGOs as being core or adaptive types of organizations by calculating the percentage of each NGO’s services classified as core. Service types classified as core were mainly social services, while adaptive service types were those typically relied upon during disasters (e.g., warehousing, food services, etc.). In total, 120 NGOs were classified as core organizations, meaning they mainly provided the same services across disaster phases, while 100 NGOs were adaptive organizations, meaning their services changed. Adaptive NGOs were eight times more likely to report routinely participating in disaster planning as compared to core NGOs. One reason for this association may be that adaptive NGOs are more aware of the changing needs in their communities across disaster phases because of their involvement in disaster planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111422
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment
[...] Read more.
Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB), which influenced the study’s design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Behavior and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Sectional Serological Survey for Leptospira spp. in Beef and Dairy Cattle in Two Districts in Uganda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111421
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in cattle is unknown in Uganda. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of L. interrogans Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, L. kirschneri Butembo, Grippotyphosa, L. borgpetersenii Nigeria, Hardjo, Wolfii, and Kenya and an overall seroprevalence in cattle from
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Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in cattle is unknown in Uganda. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of L. interrogans Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, L. kirschneri Butembo, Grippotyphosa, L. borgpetersenii Nigeria, Hardjo, Wolfii, and Kenya and an overall seroprevalence in cattle from Kole and Mbale districts. Two hundred-seventy five bovine sera from 130 small holder farms from Kole (n = 159) and Mbale (n = 116), collected between January and July 2015, were tested for antibodies against eight Leptospira strains by Microscopic Agglutination Test. A titer of ≥100 was considered seropositive, indicating past exposure. Overall, the seroprevalence was 19.27% (95% CI 14.9–24.5%). Pomona seroprevalence was highest with 9.45% (6.4–13.7%), followed by Kenya 5.09% (2.9–8.6%), Nigeria 4.00% (2.1–7.2%), Wolfii 3.27% (1.6–6.3%), Butembo 1.86% (0.7–4.4%), Hardjo 1.45% (0.5–3.9%), and Icterohaemorragiae and Grippotyphosa with less than 1% positive. Seroprevalence did not differ between districts and gender (p ≥ 0.05). Seven animals had titers ≥400. Cross-reactions or exposure to ≥1 serovar was measured in 43% of serum samples. Seroprevalence of 19% implies exposure of cattle to leptospires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) Research, Management and Response)
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Open AccessArticle The Short-Term Effects of Visibility and Haze on Mortality in a Coastal City of China: A Time-Series Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111419
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Few studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of visibility and haze, which may be regarded as proxy indicators of ambient air pollution. We used a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) combined with quasi-Poisson regression to estimate the relationship between
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Few studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of visibility and haze, which may be regarded as proxy indicators of ambient air pollution. We used a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) combined with quasi-Poisson regression to estimate the relationship between visibility, haze and mortality in Ningbo, a coastal city of China. We found that the mortality risk of visibility was statistically significant only on the current day, while the risk of haze and PM10 peaked on the second day and could last for three days. When the visibility was less than 10 km, each 1 km decrease of visibility at lag 0 day was associated with a 0.78% (95% CI: 0.22–1.36%) increase in total mortality and a 1.61% (95% CI: 0.39–2.85%) increase in respiratory mortality. The excess risk of haze at lag 0–2 days on total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 7.76% (95% CI: 3.29–12.42%), 7.73% (95% CI: 0.12–15.92%) and 17.77% (95% CI: 7.64–28.86%), respectively. Greater effects of air pollution were observed during the cold season than in the warm season, and the elderly were at higher risk compared to youths. The effects of visibility and haze were attenuated by single pollutants. These findings suggest that visibility and haze could be used as surrogates of air quality where pollutant data are scarce, and strengthen the evidence to develop policy to control air pollution and protect vulnerable populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Beneficial Effects of Using Crystalloid only in Recipients of Living Donor Liver Transplantation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111418
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery associated with intraoperative massive fluid shift, which is usually replaced by crystalloid, 5% albumin (colloid) and blood products. We studied 15 patients from 477 consecutive recipients of adult living donor liver transplantation. Each patient
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Objective: Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery associated with intraoperative massive fluid shift, which is usually replaced by crystalloid, 5% albumin (colloid) and blood products. We studied 15 patients from 477 consecutive recipients of adult living donor liver transplantation. Each patient received crystalloid only during LT. Whether LT provides any clinical benefit is not clear and must be determined. Methods and Patients: The anesthesia records of 477 adult LDLT were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to the fluids received. Group I (GI) had received blood products, 5% albumin and crystalloid, group II (GII) received 5% albumin and crystalloid, and group III (GIII) received crystalloid only. The characteristic intraoperative variable and postoperative acute rejection and survival rate were compared amongst groups by using One Way ANOVA post hoc with Bonferroni and by Ficher’s Exact test and Chi-square χ2 test. Results and Conclusions: GIII had less intraoperative ascites and blood loss; they also had more stable hemodynamics. Furthermore, they could be extubated significantly earlier than GI, and the one- and three-year survival rates were excellent, with 100% in GIII, while that of GI and GII were 94.1%, 90.5% and 98.6%, 94.5%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is School Type Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 15-Year-Olds?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111417
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
The main aims of this study were: (1) to determine the objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns in urban 15-year-old male and female adolescents according to school type and (2) to assess the differences in PA between school days and weekend days. In
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The main aims of this study were: (1) to determine the objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns in urban 15-year-old male and female adolescents according to school type and (2) to assess the differences in PA between school days and weekend days. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 187 secondary-school male and female adolescents (61.4% females) attending grammar and vocational schools. Patterns of PA were objectively evaluated using a multi-sensor body monitor for 5 consecutive days. Confounders assessed included biological age, socio-economic status, sum of 4 skinfolds, maximal temperature and the amount of rainfall. Males and females from grammar schools achieved higher total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and active energy expenditure (AEE) compared to their peers from vocational schools (TEE: 50 ± 12 kcal/kg/day vs. 47 ± 12 kcal/kg/day, p = 0.02; AEE: 23 ± 5 kcal/kg/day vs. vocational = 21 ± 6 kcal/kg/day, p = 0.04). No differences in time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity were noted between the two groups (p = 0.16–0.43). Next, a significant decline in TEE and MPA between school days and weekends was observed (p< 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), while VPA remained the same throughout the week (p = 0.76). Weekly patterns of PA did not show differences by school type or gender (p for interactions = 0.21–0.50). In addition, significantly lower amount of MPA was accumulated during weekends compared to school days, resulting in lower TEE, regardless of school type or gender. Policies and strategies on PA in adolescents should focus vocational schools and weekend days. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111416
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding
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In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global warming effect. Several subsidy policies such as shared solar energy arrangements and performance-based incentive (PBI) are proposed to integrate the market users and the PV supply chains. This study serves as a pioneering study into the dual PV supply chain research which is very limited in the PV management and policy study literature. The findings and several untended issues provide a foundation for the future PV supply chain studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle OMI and Ground-Based In-Situ Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Observations over Several Important European Cities during 2005–2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111415
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone
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In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), while the NO2 volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA) air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23.72° E), Berlin (52.51° N, 13.41° E), Bucharest (44.43° N, 26.10° E), Madrid (40.38° N, 3.71° W), Lisbon (38.71° N, 9.13° W), Paris (48.85° N, 2.35° E), Rome (41.9° N, 12.50° E), and Rotterdam (51.91° N, 4.46° E). We show that OMI NO2 tropospheric column data can be used to assess the evolution of NO2 over important European cities. According to the statistical analysis, using the seasonal variation, we found good correlations (R > 0.50) between OMI and ground-based in-situ observations for all of the cities presented in this work. Highest correlation coefficients (R > 0.80) between ground-based monitoring stations and OMI observations were calculated for the cities of Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Both types of observations, in-situ and remote sensing, show an NO2 negative trend for all of locations presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation and Analysis of Soil, Air, and Water Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) in Ultraviolet (UV)-Filters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111414
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their
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Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h) of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 × 10−3 and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF) method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge and Practices of Toxoplasmosis among Clinical Laboratory Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Durango, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111413
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis in a sample of clinical laboratory professionals in Mexico. Methods: 192 clinical laboratory professionals were surveyed. They were asked about (1) Toxoplasma gondii;
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Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis in a sample of clinical laboratory professionals in Mexico. Methods: 192 clinical laboratory professionals were surveyed. They were asked about (1) Toxoplasma gondii; (2) clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology of toxoplasmosis; and (3) their practices with respect to toxoplasmosis. Results: The range of animals infected by T. gondii was known by 44.8% of participants. Clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis were known by up to 44.3% of subjects. Correct answers about the interpretation of serological markers of T. gondii infection were provided by up to 32.8% of participants. A minority (32.2%) of participants knew about a high number of false positive results of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody tests. Most participants (90.1%) did not know what the anti-T. gondii IgG avidity test was. Up to 55.7% of participants provided incorrect answers about the interpretation of serology tests for the treatment of pregnant women. Common routes of T. gondii infection were known by <15% of participants. Most (84.4%) participants had not performed tests for detection T. gondii infection. Conclusions: Results indicate incomplete knowledge of T. gondii infection and toxoplasmosis and a limited practice of laboratory tests among the professionals surveyed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Patient–Provider Communication and Counseling about Gestational Weight Gain and Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Latinas Pregnant with their First Child
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111412
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Latina women in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and
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Latina women in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and receive preventive services, education, nutritional support, and other social services to improve pregnancy outcomes. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has numerous negative short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and newborn. We explored nulliparous Latina women’s perceptions about their experiences communicating with their primary healthcare provider about GWG and physical activity (PA) to identify possible intervention targets using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Bilingual, trained research staff conducted 23 interviews with first-time pregnant Latinas between 22 and 36 weeks of gestation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded, and grouped into categories. Women, including those who self-identified as being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, reported receiving limited or no advice from their healthcare providers about GWG or PA. Additionally, analysis revealed that although participants value information received from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program counselors, they would like to receive more information from their primary healthcare providers about adequate GWG. Furthermore, study findings indicate that some participants received conflicting information regarding PA during pregnancy. Study findings suggest the need for increased integration of communication and counseling about GWG and PA into prenatal care services to promote healthy weight gain and PA among low-income Latina women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
Open AccessArticle Is All Urban Green Space the Same? A Comparison of the Health Benefits of Trees and Grass in New York City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111411
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Living near vegetation, often called “green space” or “greenness”, has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total
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Living near vegetation, often called “green space” or “greenness”, has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total vegetation (from the 2010 High Resolution Land Cover dataset for New York City (NYC)) with self-reported health from a survey of NYC adults (n = 1281). We found higher reporting of “very good” or “excellent” health for respondents with the highest, compared to the lowest, quartiles of tree (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06–1.44) but not grass density (relative risk (RR) = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.86–1.17) within 1000 m buffers, adjusting for pertinent confounders. Significant positive associations between trees and self-reported health remained after adjustment for grass, whereas associations with grass remained non-significant. Adjustment for air pollutants increased beneficial associations between trees and self-reported health; adjustment for parks only partially attenuated these effects. Results were null or negative using a 300 m buffer. Findings imply that higher exposure to vegetation, particularly trees outside of parks, may be associated with better health. If replicated, this may suggest that urban street tree planting may improve population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111410
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and
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Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001). Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sleep and Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy: Findings from the GUSTO Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111409
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26–28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a
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Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26–28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a 24-h recall to assess dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index for pregnant women in Singapore (HEI-SGP) score and previously derived dietary patterns (vegetables-fruit-rice, seafood-noodles, and pasta-cheese-meat pattern). Eating behaviors studied included the longest night-time fasting interval, frequency of consumption occasions, energy from discretionary foods, and nighttime eating. Adjusted means were estimated between poor/good quality and short/normal sleepers using linear regressions, including covariates. Good sleep quality versus poor sleep quality, was associated with better diet quality (mean HEI-SGP 54.6 vs. 52.0; p = 0.032), greater adherence to the vegetables-fruit-rice pattern (mean 0.03 vs. −0.15; p = 0.039), lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle pattern (mean −0.14 vs. 0.03; p = 0.024), and a trending lower calories from discretionary foods (mean 330.5 vs. 382.6 kcal; p = 0.073), after adjusting for covariates. After additional adjustment for anxiety, only sleep quality and the seafood-noodle pattern remained significantly associated (p = 0.018). Short sleep was not associated with any diet or eating behavior. In conclusion, good sleep quality is associated with a better diet quality and a greater adherence to the vegetable-fruit-rice pattern, but with lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle diets in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Comfort, Energy Efficiency and Adoption of Personal Cooling Systems in Warm Environments: A Field Experimental Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111408
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
It is well known that personal cooling improves thermal comfort and save energy. This study aims to: (1) compare different personal cooling systems and (2) understand what influences users’ willingness to adopt them. A series of experiments on several types of personal cooling
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It is well known that personal cooling improves thermal comfort and save energy. This study aims to: (1) compare different personal cooling systems and (2) understand what influences users’ willingness to adopt them. A series of experiments on several types of personal cooling systems, which included physical measurements, questionnaires and feedback, was conducted in a real office environment. The obtained results showed that personal cooling improved comfort of participants in warm environments. Then an improved index was proposed and used to compare different types of personal cooling systems in terms of comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously. According to the improved index, desk fans were highly energy-efficient, while the hybrid personal cooling (the combination of radiant cooling desk and desk fan) consumed more energy but showed advantages of extending the comfortable temperature range. Moreover, if personal cooling was free, most participants were willing to adopt it and the effectiveness was the main factor influencing their willingness, whereas if participants had to pay, they probably refused to adopt it due to the cost and the availability of conventional air conditioners. Thus, providing effective and free personal cooling systems should be regarded as a better way for its wider application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Who Participates in the Great ShakeOut? Why Audience Segmentation Is the Future of Disaster Preparedness Campaigns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111407
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: In 2008, the Southern California Earthquake Center in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program launched the first annual Great ShakeOut, the largest earthquake preparedness drill in the history of the United States. Materials and Methods: We collected
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Background: In 2008, the Southern California Earthquake Center in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program launched the first annual Great ShakeOut, the largest earthquake preparedness drill in the history of the United States. Materials and Methods: We collected online survey data from 2052 campaign registrants to assess how people participated, whether audience segments shared behavioral patterns, and whether these segments were associated with five social cognitive factors targeted by the ShakeOut campaign. Results: Participants clustered into four behavioral patterns. The Minimal cluster had low participation in all activities (range: 0–39% participation). The Basic Drill cluster only participated in the drop, cover and hold drill (100% participation). The Community-Oriented cluster, involved in the drill (100%) and other interpersonal activities including attending disaster planning meetings (74%), was positively associated with interpersonal communication (β = 0.169), self-efficacy (β = 0.118), outcome efficacy (β = 0.110), and knowledge about disaster preparedness (β = 0.151). The Interactive and Games cluster, which participated in the drill (79%) and two online earthquake preparedness games (53% and 75%), was positively associated with all five social cognitive factors studied. Conclusions: Our results support audience segmentation approaches to engaging the public, which address the strengths and weaknesses of different segments. Offering games may help “gamers” gain competencies required to prepare for disasters. Targeting the highly active Community-Oriented cluster for leadership roles could help build community resilience by encouraging others to become more involved in disaster planning. We propose that the days of single, national education campaigns without local variation should end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Disasters)
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