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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111409

Sleep and Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy: Findings from the GUSTO Cohort

1
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117549, Singapore
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore 119074, Singapore
3
Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
4
Department of Reproductive Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
5
Department of Pediatrics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
6
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 308232, Singapore
7
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
8
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
9
Department of Pediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
10
Department of Psychiatry, VU Medical Centre, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
11
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Tahir Foundation Building, 12 Science Drive 2, #09-01Q, Singapore 117549, Singapore
12
Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117609, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
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Abstract

Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26–28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a 24-h recall to assess dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index for pregnant women in Singapore (HEI-SGP) score and previously derived dietary patterns (vegetables-fruit-rice, seafood-noodles, and pasta-cheese-meat pattern). Eating behaviors studied included the longest night-time fasting interval, frequency of consumption occasions, energy from discretionary foods, and nighttime eating. Adjusted means were estimated between poor/good quality and short/normal sleepers using linear regressions, including covariates. Good sleep quality versus poor sleep quality, was associated with better diet quality (mean HEI-SGP 54.6 vs. 52.0; p = 0.032), greater adherence to the vegetables-fruit-rice pattern (mean 0.03 vs. −0.15; p = 0.039), lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle pattern (mean −0.14 vs. 0.03; p = 0.024), and a trending lower calories from discretionary foods (mean 330.5 vs. 382.6 kcal; p = 0.073), after adjusting for covariates. After additional adjustment for anxiety, only sleep quality and the seafood-noodle pattern remained significantly associated (p = 0.018). Short sleep was not associated with any diet or eating behavior. In conclusion, good sleep quality is associated with a better diet quality and a greater adherence to the vegetable-fruit-rice pattern, but with lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle diets in pregnant women. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; diet quality; sleep quality; sleep duration; eating behaviors; pregnancy dietary patterns; diet quality; sleep quality; sleep duration; eating behaviors; pregnancy
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van Lee, L.; Chia, A.-R.; Loy, S.L.; Colega, M.; Tham, E.K.H.; Cai, S.; Yap, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Teoh, O.H.; Goh, D.; Tan, K.H.; Chong, Y.-S.; Broekman, B.F.P.; Chong, M.F. Sleep and Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy: Findings from the GUSTO Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1409.

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