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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessArticle What Contributes to the Regularity of Patients with Hypertension or Diabetes Seeking Health Services? A Pilot Follow-Up, Observational Study in Two Sites in Hubei Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121268
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2192 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regular maintenance of non-communicable chronic diseases can constrain disease progression in diabetic and hypertensive patients. To identify the individual and social factors that are associated with positive health-seeking behaviors and regular maintenance of chronic diseases, we have conducted a follow up study in
[...] Read more.
Regular maintenance of non-communicable chronic diseases can constrain disease progression in diabetic and hypertensive patients. To identify the individual and social factors that are associated with positive health-seeking behaviors and regular maintenance of chronic diseases, we have conducted a follow up study in 2015 on diabetic and hypertensive patients in Hubei Province. We used binary logistic regression models to determine specific factors associated with diabetic and hypertensive patients that sought healthcare services for their conditions in accordance with current Chinese Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) guidelines. Our findings show that 42.16% of 510 people living with chronic conditions (PLCDs) sought health services in line with existing guidelines. Findings also show a higher probability (8.418 times) for PLCDs seeking healthcare services at higher-tiered hospitals (secondary and tertiary hospitals) than for PLCDs seeking care at primary hospitals (odds ratio (OR) = 8.418, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.82, 14.27, p < 0.001). These analyses underscore the importance of having patient advocates who can provide support, where necessary, and encourage positive health-seeking behavior. The study also shows a negative impact on regular maintenance for PLCDs in households with high financial constraints. In contrast, the study shows positive impacts for increased household income, age, and residency in rural locations. In sum, this study underscores the importance of primary hospitals as key points of care and critical players in care coordination for PLCDs. The study provides more evidence for Chinese policymakers seeking to contain costs and improve population health. The findings also underscore the need for community-based interventions, specifically interventions that link local primary hospitals, friends/family members, and PLCDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity in Primary Care)
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Open AccessReview Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121267
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1696 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of
[...] Read more.
Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle Parental Perceptions of the Social Environment Are Inversely Related to Constraint of Adolescents’ Neighborhood Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121266
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE)), constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors) and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. Methods: Adolescents (n = 71; 11–18 years (14.2,
[...] Read more.
Background: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE)), constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors) and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. Methods: Adolescents (n = 71; 11–18 years (14.2, SD ± 1.6); male = 37 (52%); non-white = 24 (33.8%); low-income = 20 (29%); overweight/obese = 40 (56%)) and their parents/guardians enrolled in the Molecular and Social Determinants of Obesity in Developing Youth study were included in the current study. Questionnaires measured parents’/guardians’ PCE, constrained outdoor play practices and offspring neighborhood physical activity. Systematic social observation performed at the parcel-level using Google Street View assessed neighborhood incivilities. t-tests and chi-square tests determined differences by incivilities. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between PCE and: (1) constrained behaviors; and (2) neighborhood physical activity. The Hayes (2013) macro determined the mediating role of constrained behaviors. Results: Parents who had higher PCE reported lower levels of avoidance (p = 0.04) and defensive (p = 0.05) behaviors. However, demographic variables (i.e., gender, race and annual household income) limited these results. The direct relationship between PCE and parent-reported neighborhood physical activity was statistically significant in high-incivility neighborhoods only. Neither avoidance nor defensive behavior mediated the relationship between PCE and neighborhood physical activity. Conclusions: PCE influences parenting behaviors related to youth physical activity. Community-based programs that seek to facilitate social cohesion and control may be needed to increase adolescents’ physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Maternal and Child Health)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Driver Behavior near Intersections in Hidden Markov Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121265
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965 | PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in
[...] Read more.
Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in the dilemma zone, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is utilized in this study. With the discrete data processing, the observed dynamic data of vehicles are used for the inference of the Hidden Markov Model. The Baum-Welch (B-W) estimation algorithm is applied to calculate the vehicle state transition probability matrix and the observation probability matrix. When combined with the Forward algorithm, the most likely state of the driver can be obtained. Thus the model can be used to measure the stability and risk of driver behavior. It is found that drivers’ behaviors in the dilemma zone are of lower stability and higher risk compared with those in other regions around intersections. In addition to the B-W estimation algorithm, the Viterbi Algorithm is utilized to predict the potential dangers of vehicles. The results can be applied to driving assistance systems to warn drivers to avoid possible accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Injury Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121264
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1298 | PDF Full-text (656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find
[...] Read more.
Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121263
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette
[...] Read more.
While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003) and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011) were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121262
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1462 | PDF Full-text (1924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and
[...] Read more.
Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), and total nitrogen (TN) were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU) decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Wargame Simulation Theory and Evaluation Method for Emergency Evacuation of Residents from Urban Waterlogging Disaster Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121260
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146 | PDF Full-text (4921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban waterlogging seriously threatens the safety of urban residents and properties. Wargame simulation research on resident emergency evacuation from waterlogged areas can determine the effectiveness of emergency response plans for high risk events at low cost. Based on wargame theory and emergency evacuation
[...] Read more.
Urban waterlogging seriously threatens the safety of urban residents and properties. Wargame simulation research on resident emergency evacuation from waterlogged areas can determine the effectiveness of emergency response plans for high risk events at low cost. Based on wargame theory and emergency evacuation plans, we used a wargame exercise method, incorporating qualitative and quantitative aspects, to build an urban waterlogging disaster emergency shelter using a wargame exercise and evaluation model. The simulation was empirically tested in Daoli District of Harbin. The results showed that the wargame simulation scored 96.40 points, evaluated as good. From the simulation results, wargame simulation of urban waterlogging emergency procedures for disaster response can improve the flexibility and capacity for command, management and decision-making in emergency management departments. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Spatiotemporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Diffusion and Epidemiology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121261
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerging infectious diseases, and the resurgence of previously controlled infectious disease (e.g., malaria, tuberculosis), are a major focus for public health concern, as well as providing challenges for establishing aetiology and transmission. [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-temporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle The Detoxification and Degradation of Benzothiazole from the Wastewater in Microbial Electrolysis Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121259
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1261 | PDF Full-text (2935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the high-production-volume chemical benzothiazole (BTH) from synthetic water was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates of simple organic acids using an up-flow internal circulation microbial electrolysis reactor (UICMER) under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The bioelectrochemical system
[...] Read more.
In this study, the high-production-volume chemical benzothiazole (BTH) from synthetic water was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates of simple organic acids using an up-flow internal circulation microbial electrolysis reactor (UICMER) under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The bioelectrochemical system was operated at 25 ± 2 °C and continuous-flow mode. The BTH loading rate varied during experiments from 20 g·m−3·day−1 to 110 g·m−3·day−1. BTH and soluble COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal efficiency reached 80% to 90% under all BTH loading rates. Bioluminescence based Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 ecotoxicity testing demonstrated that toxicity was largely decreased compared to the BTH wastewater influent and effluent of two control experiments. The results indicated that MEC (Microbial Electrolysis Cell) was useful and reliable for improving BTH wastewater treatment efficiency, enabling the microbiological reactor to more easily respond to the requirements of higher loading rate, which is meaningful for economic and efficient operation in future scale-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121258
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 999 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessReply Response to the Boucher et al. Comments on Fleury et al. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 999
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121257
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 999 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We thank Boucher et al. [1] for their interest in our recently published review [2]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessComment Exploring the Role of Vitamin D. Comments on Fleury et al. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 999
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121256
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1040 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanistic data presented in this interesting review suggests that long-term exposure to safe levels of ultra-violet radiation (UVR) has protective effects against the development of obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction beyond those induced by the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 through factors such
[...] Read more.
The mechanistic data presented in this interesting review suggests that long-term exposure to safe levels of ultra-violet radiation (UVR) has protective effects against the development of obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction beyond those induced by the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 through factors such as the induction of cutaneous NO secretion [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle Perception of Environmental Risks and Health Promotion Attitudes of French Perinatal Health Professionals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121255
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1247 | PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The exposure of pregnant women to environmental contaminants is a subject of international concern. However, the risk perception of these contaminants by health professionals (HP) has not been extensively investigated. The main objective of the PERI–HELPE study (Perception of Risk–HEaLth Professionals & Environment
[...] Read more.
The exposure of pregnant women to environmental contaminants is a subject of international concern. However, the risk perception of these contaminants by health professionals (HP) has not been extensively investigated. The main objective of the PERI–HELPE study (Perception of Risk–HEaLth Professionals & Environment Study) was to assess the risk perception of environmental exposure of pregnant women by perinatal HPs. The secondary objectives were to describe the preventive attitudes of perinatal HPs concerning chemicals exposure of pregnant women and to identify the barriers to preventive attitude. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2015 in France. One hundred eighty-nine HPs (obstetricians, midwives, and general practitioners) replied to an online self-administered questionnaire (participation rate: 11%). Carbon monoxide, pesticides and lead were the contaminants most frequently perceived as a high risk for pregnant women. A minority of HPs asked women about their chemical exposure and advised them to reduce exposure. The lack of information, training and scientific evidence in environmental health were the main difficulties declared by the HPs to advise pregnant women. Despite the low response rate, our findings provide important information to encourage French health authorities to take into account the difficulties encountered by HPs and set up appropriate training programs in Environmental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle On-Line Monitoring the Growth of E. coli or HeLa Cells Using an Annular Microelectrode Piezoelectric Biosensor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121254
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469 | PDF Full-text (3448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological information is obtained from the interaction between the series detection electrode and the organism or the physical field of biological cultures in the non-mass responsive piezoelectric biosensor. Therefore, electric parameter of the electrode will affect the biosensor signal. The electric field distribution
[...] Read more.
Biological information is obtained from the interaction between the series detection electrode and the organism or the physical field of biological cultures in the non-mass responsive piezoelectric biosensor. Therefore, electric parameter of the electrode will affect the biosensor signal. The electric field distribution of the microelectrode used in this study was simulated using the COMSOL Multiphysics analytical tool. This process showed that the electric field spatial distribution is affected by the width of the electrode finger or the space between the electrodes. In addition, the characteristic response of the piezoelectric sensor constructed serially with an annular microelectrode was tested and applied for the continuous detection of Escherichia coli culture or HeLa cell culture. Results indicated that the piezoelectric biosensor with an annular microelectrode meets the requirements for the real-time detection of E. coli or HeLa cells in culture. Moreover, this kind of piezoelectric biosensor is more sensitive than the sensor with an interdigital microelectrode. Thus, the piezoelectric biosensor acts as an effective analysis tool for acquiring online cell or microbial culture information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121253
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280 | PDF Full-text (2427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area
[...] Read more.
This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS) of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD), in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Variations in Lung Cancer Mortality in China between 2006 and 2012: A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121252
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1139 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated temporal trends and geographical variations in lung cancer mortality in China from 2006 to 2012. Lung cancer mortality counts for people aged over 40 years were extracted from the China Mortality Surveillance System for 161 disease surveillance points. Negative binomial regression
[...] Read more.
We investigated temporal trends and geographical variations in lung cancer mortality in China from 2006 to 2012. Lung cancer mortality counts for people aged over 40 years were extracted from the China Mortality Surveillance System for 161 disease surveillance points. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate potential spatiotemporal variation and correlations with age, gender, urbanization, and region. Lung cancer mortality increased in China over the study period from 78.77 to 85.63 (1/100,000), with higher mortality rates evident in men compared to women. Median rate ratios (MRRs) indicated important geographical variation in lung cancer mortality between provinces (MRR = 1.622) and counties/districts (MRR = 1.447). On average, lung cancer mortality increased over time and was positively associated with county-level urbanization (relative risk (RR) = 1.15). Lung cancer mortality seemed to decrease in urban and increase in rural areas. Compared to the northwest, mortality was higher in the north (RR = 1.98), east (RR = 1.87), central (RR = 1.87), and northeast (RR = 2.44). Regional differences and county-level urbanization accounted for 49.4% and 8.7% of provincial and county variation, respectively. Reductions in lung cancer mortality in urban areas may reflect improvements in access to preventive healthcare and treatment services. Rising mortality in rural areas may reflect a clustering of risk factors associated with rapid urbanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121251
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1117 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette
[...] Read more.
To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
Open AccessArticle Exploration of Pedestrian Head Injuries—Collision Parameter Relationships through a Combination of Retrospective Analysis and Finite Element Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121250
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
There are a very limited number of reports concerning the relationship between pedestrian head injuries and collision parameters through a combination of statistical analysis methods and finite element method (FEM). This study aims to explore the characteristics of pedestrian head injuries in car–pedestrian
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There are a very limited number of reports concerning the relationship between pedestrian head injuries and collision parameters through a combination of statistical analysis methods and finite element method (FEM). This study aims to explore the characteristics of pedestrian head injuries in car–pedestrian collisions at different parameters by using the two means above. A retrospective analysis of pedestrian head injuries was performed based on detailed investigation data of 61 car–pedestrian collision cases. The head damage assessment parameters (head injury criterion (HIC), peak stress on the skull, maximal principal strain for the brain) in car–pedestrian simulation experiments with four contact angles and three impact velocities were obtained by FEM. The characteristics of the pedestrian head injuries were discussed by comparing and analyzing the statistical analysis results and finite element analysis results. The statistical analysis results demonstrated a significant difference in skull fractures, contusion and laceration of brain and head injuries on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS)3+ was found at different velocities (p < 0.05) and angles (p < 0.05). The simulation results showed that, in pedestrian head-to-hood impacts, the values of head damage assessment parameters increased with impact velocities. At the same velocity, these values from the impact on the pedestrian’s back were successively greater than on the front or the side. Furthermore, head injury reconstruction and prediction results of two selected cases were consistent with the real injuries. Overall, it was further spelled out that, for shorter stature pedestrians, increased head impact velocity results in greater head injury severity in car–pedestrian collision, especially in pedestrian head-to-hood impacts. Under a back impact, the head has also been found to be at greater damage risk for shorter stature pedestrians, which may have implications on automotive design and pedestrian protection research if prevention and treatment of these injuries is to be prioritized over head injuries under a front or side impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Injury Prevention)
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Open AccessReview HIV, Other Blood-Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmitted Infections amongst Expatriates and Travellers to Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121249
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI
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In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI related knowledge, risk behavior and acquisition amongst expatriates and travelers, particularly males, travelling from high to low- and middle-income countries. Seven academic databases were searched for 26 peer reviewed articles that met inclusion criteria. Significant variability in the studies was noted, in age, travel duration and frequency and outcomes/risk factors measured and reported on. Risk factors described included longer duration of stay; being single; travel for romance or sex; alcohol and other drug use; lack of travel advice; being male; higher number of sexual partners; and inconsistent condom use. Vaccination, pre-travel health advice, and having fewer sexual partners were described as protective. Studies are needed focusing on the social context in which risk-taking occurs. Better collaboration is essential to deliver comprehensive health promotion interventions alongside more consistent pre- and post- travel testing and advice. Policy measures are crucial, including consistent evaluation indicators to assess impacts of HIV, other BBVs or STIs in the context of mobility. Risks and responses for these epidemics are shared globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Lifestyle Change—Participatory Design of Support Together with Persons with Obesity in the Third Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121248
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons’ needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in
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Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons’ needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in designing support for a sustainable lifestyle change. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with persons aged 61–72 living in Northern Sweden. A participatory and appreciative reflection and action (PAAR) approach was used in the group-sessions. Probes were used to increase reflections and achieve a deeper knowledge about the participants’ needs of support. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Our findings revealed that to be able to succeed with a lifestyle change a focus has to be on a converted way of thinking, managing vulnerability, and achieving an emotional balance. To achieve a sustainable lifestyle change due to obesity in the third age the focus has to be on a health identity instead of a weight identity. Personalised support with enjoyable physical activities should be designed and developed. Strategies for emotional balance based on autonomy and self-empowerment must be included. This knowledge is important when designing support for sustainable change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Informatics and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121247
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma (n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated
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We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma (n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121246
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania) in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We monitored and analysed the PM2.5
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The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania) in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015) and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years) with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01) compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01) in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Problem Formulation in Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) for Environmental Risk Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121245
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
With the growing popularity of data analytics and data science in the field of environmental risk management, a formalized Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) process that incorporates all applicable analytical techniques for a specific environmental risk management problem is essential. In this
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With the growing popularity of data analytics and data science in the field of environmental risk management, a formalized Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) process that incorporates all applicable analytical techniques for a specific environmental risk management problem is essential. In this emerging field, there is limited research dealing with the use of decision support to elicit environmental risk management (ERM) objectives and identify analytical goals from ERM decision makers. In this paper, we address problem formulation in the ERM understanding phase of the KDDA process. We build a DM3 ontology to capture ERM objectives and to inference analytical goals and associated analytical techniques. A framework to assist decision making in the problem formulation process is developed. It is shown how the ontology-based knowledge system can provide structured guidance to retrieve relevant knowledge during problem formulation. The importance of not only operationalizing the KDDA approach in a real-world environment but also evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed procedure is emphasized. We demonstrate how ontology inferencing may be used to discover analytical goals and techniques by conceptualizing Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) exposure shifts based on a multilevel analysis of the level of urbanization (and related economic activity) and the degree of Socio-Economic Deprivation (SED) at the local neighborhood level. The HAPs case highlights not only the role of complexity in problem formulation but also the need for integrating data from multiple sources and the importance of employing appropriate KDDA modeling techniques. Challenges and opportunities for KDDA are summarized with an emphasis on environmental risk management and HAPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Economics, Environmental Health Policy and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle No Ifs, No Butts: Compliance with Smoking Cessation in Secondary Care Guidance (NICE PH48) by Providers of Cancer Therapies (Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy) in the UK
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121244
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Background: Legislation preventing smoking in public places was introduced in England in July 2007. Since then, smoke-free policies have been extended to the majority of hospitals including those providing cancer therapies. Whilst studies have been conducted on the impact and effectiveness of
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Background: Legislation preventing smoking in public places was introduced in England in July 2007. Since then, smoke-free policies have been extended to the majority of hospitals including those providing cancer therapies. Whilst studies have been conducted on the impact and effectiveness of hospital smoke-free policy in the UK and other countries, there have not been any studies with a focus on cancer care providers. Cancer patients are a priority group for smoking cessation and support and this study aimed to examine implementation of the National Institute Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance (PH48) in acute cancer care trusts in the UK. Methods: Participants were recruited from UK radiotherapy and chemotherapy departments (total 80 sites, 65 organisations) and asked to complete a 15 min online questionnaire exploring the implementation of NICE guidance at their hospital site. Results: Considerable variability in implementation of the NICE guidance was observed. A total of 79.1% trusts were smoke-free in theory; however, only 18.6% were described as smoke-free in practice. Areas of improvement were identified in information and support for patients and staff including in Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) provision, staff training and clarity on e-cigarette policies. Conclusions: While some trusts have effective smoke-free policies and provide valuable cessation support services for patients, improvements are required to ensure that all sites fully adopt the NICE guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle Additive Interaction of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Polymorphisms with Being Overweight/Obesity on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121243
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Although both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions with being overweight/obesity on T2D risk remain unclear. To evaluate the associations of the two polymorphisms
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Although both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions with being overweight/obesity on T2D risk remain unclear. To evaluate the associations of the two polymorphisms with T2D and their interactions with being overweight/obesity on T2D risk, a case-control study of 180 T2D patients and 350 healthy controls was conducted in northern China. Additive interaction was estimated using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S). After adjustments for age and gender, borderline significant associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with T2D were observed under recessive (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.98–2.10) and dominant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00–2.06) models, respectively. There was a significant interaction between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and being overweight/obesity on T2D risk (AP = 0.404, 95% CI: 0.047–0.761), in addition to the MTRR 66AG/GG genotypes (RERI = 1.703, 95% CI: 0.401–3.004; AP = 0.528, 95% CI: 0.223–0.834). Our findings suggest that individuals with the MTHFR 677TT or MTRR 66AG/GG genotypes are more susceptible to the detrimental effect of being overweight/obesity on T2D. Further large-scale studies are still needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle Latino and Non-Latino Perceptions of the Air Quality in California’s San Joaquin Valley
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121242
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California has poor air quality, high rates of asthma, and high rates of obesity. Informational campaigns aimed at increasing awareness of the health impacts of poor air quality and promoting behavior change need to be tailored to
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The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California has poor air quality, high rates of asthma, and high rates of obesity. Informational campaigns aimed at increasing awareness of the health impacts of poor air quality and promoting behavior change need to be tailored to the specific target audiences. The study examined perceptions of air quality, perceived health impacts, and methods of accessing information about air quality between Latinos and other groups in the SJV. Residents of the SJV (n = 744) where surveyed via one of three methods: community organizations (256), public locations (251), and an internet panel (237). The results suggest that people perceive the air quality in their region to be generally unhealthy, particularly for sensitive groups. The air quality is more likely to be reported as being unhealthy by people with health problems and less unhealthy by Latinos and people who report regularly exercising. Latinos are more likely to report working outdoors regularly, but also more likely to report being able to reduce their exposure if the air quality is unhealthy. The results report differences in informational sources about air quality, suggesting that informational campaigns should target high risk groups using a variety of media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle High Contributions of Secondary Inorganic Aerosols to PM2.5 under Polluted Levels at a Regional Station in Northern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121202
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was
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Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional site in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region in 2015. Samples were subject to chemical analysis for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and major water-soluble inorganic ions. The annual average PM2.5 mass concentration was 53 ± 36 μg·m−3 with the highest seasonal average concentration in spring and the lowest in summer. Water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols accounted for 34% ± 15% and 33% ± 9%, respectively, of PM2.5 mass on annual average. The excellent, good, lightly polluted, moderately polluted, and heavily polluted days based on the Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 accounted for 40%, 42%, 11%, 4%, and 3%, respectively, of the year. The sum of the average concentration of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased from 4.2 ± 2.9 μg·m−3 during excellent days to 85.9 ± 22.4 μg·m−3 during heavily polluted days, and their contributions to PM2.5 increased from 15% ± 8% to 49% ± 10% accordingly. In contrast, the average concentration of carbonaceous aerosols increased from 9.2 ± 2.8 μg·m−3 to 51.2 ± 14.1 μg·m−3, and their contributions to PM2.5 decreased from 34% ± 6% to 29% ± 7%. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis revealed that the major sources for high PM2.5 and its dominant chemical components were within the area mainly covering Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces. Regional pollutant transport from Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia autonomous region located in the west direction of SDZ was also important during the heating season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Human Health Risk)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Synergising Public Health Concepts with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Conceptual Glossary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121241
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that
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The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address underlying risk factors. Both public health and the emergency management sector face similar challenges related to developing and implementing strategies that involve structural change, facilitating community resilience and addressing individual risk factors. Familiarity with public health principles enables an understanding of the holistic approach to risk reduction that is outlined within the Sendai Framework. We present seven concepts that resonate with contemporary public health practice, namely: the social determinants of health; inequality and inequity; the inverse care law; community-based and community development approaches; hard to reach communities and services; the prevention paradox; and the inverse prevention law. These ideas from public health provide a useful conceptual base for the ”new” agenda in disaster risk management that underpins the 2015 Sendai Framework. The relevance of these ideas to disaster risk management and research is illustrated through drawing on the Sendai Framework, disaster literature and exemplars from the 2010–2011 earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Relationship between Science and Disaster Risk Reduction)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality Screening Strategies: A Step-Wise Approach for IAQ Screening
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121240
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
Conducting a full indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in air-conditioned offices requires large-scale material and manpower resources. However, an IAQ index can be adopted as a handy screening tool to identify any premises (with poor IAQ) that need more comprehensive IAQ assessments to
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Conducting a full indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in air-conditioned offices requires large-scale material and manpower resources. However, an IAQ index can be adopted as a handy screening tool to identify any premises (with poor IAQ) that need more comprehensive IAQ assessments to prioritize IAQ improvements. This study proposes a step-wise IAQ screening protocol to facilitate its cost-effective management among building owners and managers. The effectiveness of three IAQ indices, namely θ1 (with one parameter: CO2), θ2 (with two parameters: CO2 and respirable suspended particulates, RSP) and θ3 (with three parameters: CO2, RSP, and total volatile organic compounds, TVOC) are evaluated. Compared in a pairwise manner with respect to the minimum satisfaction levels as stated in the IAQ Certification Scheme by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the results show that a screening test with more surrogate IAQ parameters is good at identifying both lower and higher risk groups for unsatisfactory IAQ, and thus offers higher resolution. Through the sensitivity and specificity for identifying IAQ problems, the effectiveness of alternative IAQ screening methods with different monitoring parameters is also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health 2016)
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