Many elderly individuals frequently experience cataracts that interfere with vision. After cataract surgery, the left lens epithelial cell (LEC) exhibited fibrosis and posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Sometimes, there is a need for a second surgery; nevertheless, people try other methods, such as a
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Many elderly individuals frequently experience cataracts that interfere with vision. After cataract surgery, the left lens epithelial cell (LEC) exhibited fibrosis and posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Sometimes, there is a need for a second surgery; nevertheless, people try other methods, such as a good pharmacological agent, to treat PCO to reduce transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) amounts to avoid secondary surgery. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential anti-PCO activity of five 2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (DHPO) derivatives in a TGF-β2-induced fibrogenesis SRA01/04 cell model. The 2-phenyl-5-propyl-DHPO (TSE; no. 2: TSE-2) compound showed the best activity of reduced expression levels of TGF-β2 among five derivatives and therefore was chosen to evaluate the anti-PCO activity and molecular mechanisms on the Sma and mad protein (SMAD) signaling pathway (including TGF-β2, SMADs, and the inhibition of nuclear translocation of SMADs), non-SMAD pathway proteins, including p-extracellular, regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2, or p
-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN) by Western blotting, PCR, or confocal immunofluorescence analyses. Following treatment with 10 μg/mL of the five compounds, the cells displayed great viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In this study, the result of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity measurement did not affect the cytotoxicity of the five compounds. In TGF-β2-induced fibrogenesis in SRA01/04 cells, treatment with the TSE compound decreased the TGF-β2/SMAD signaling genes, including reduced mRNA or expression levels of TGF-β2, SMAD3, and SMAD4, leading to inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrogenesis. Our confocal immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that TSE treatment displays a suppressive effect on SMAD2/3 or SMAD4 translocation to the nucleus. Furthermore, TSE treatment exhibits a reduction in the non-SMAD target gene expression levels of p
- c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JUN), p
- extracellular, regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2, p
- p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), p
-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p
-mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC), p
), and p
). The overall effect of TSE is to reduce the expression levels of collagen I and fibrinogen (FN), thus contributing to antifibrotic effects in cell models mimicking PCO. Our findings reveal the benefits of TSE by regulating TGF-β/SMAD signaling and non-SMAD signaling-related gene proteins to display antifibrotic activity in cells for the possibility of preventing PCO after cataract surgery.