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Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms

A special issue of Current Issues in Molecular Biology (ISSN 1467-3045). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 22287

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Maternal-Fetal Biology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: cell therapy; regenerative therapy; cell biotechnology; 3D culture; nanoparticles; bioimaging; biobank; cryopreservation; stem cell; health technology assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to examine the effects of nanoparticles on living organisms (human or animal, organs, tissues, and cells). Nanoparticles are used in food, agriculture, drug discovery, and medicine (prevention and diagnosis). For example, in the medical field, it is used as a contrast agent in MRI and PET to reveal the internal structure of blood vessels, organs, and tissues. In the drug discovery field, drugs must be safe and effective and able to be delivered to the target site. Therefore, we need to understand the properties and behavior of nanoparticles. Otherwise, they can cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as immunological, inflammatory, and allergic diseases.

Nanoparticles that have adsorbed or absorbed toxic substances, particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5), and inorganic dust in the environment significantly impact living organisms in terms of health effects, exposure, toxicity, and body dynamics and deposition. In current social discourse, particulate matter is cited as key to the risk of viral infections (SARS-Cov-2 virus: COVID-19) and serious illnesses.

Here, we call for reports on the effects of nanoparticles on living organisms (nanoparticles functionalization, in vitro/in vivo evaluation, 3D models, ADME, toxicity, and biomedical applications, etc.) at the molecular level. Therefore, the objective of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality articles, including original research, reviews, short communications, and clinical trials.

Dr. Yoshitaka Miyamoto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Current Issues in Molecular Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • particulate matter
  • medicine
  • prevention
  • diagnosis
  • drug delivery
  • environment
  • nanoparticles functionalization
  • in vitro/in vivo Evaluation
  • 3D model
  • ADME
  • toxicity
  • biomedical applications
  • respiratory and cardiovascular diseases
  • immunological, inflammatory, and allergic diseases

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 174 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue: “Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms”
by Yoshitaka Miyamoto
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(2), 1568-1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45020100 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 939
Abstract
This Special Issue provides an overview of the “Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)

Research

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11 pages, 2793 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophage Polarization via Lipid Nanoparticles Mediated Delivery of Anti-Prostaglandin-E2 siRNA
by Ahmad Almatroudi, Mohammed A. Alsahli, Mansoor Ali Syed, Amjad Ali Khan and Arshad Husain Rahmani
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization is crucial in acute inflammatory diseases like Acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is believed to promote inflammation in such cases. Therefore, our study aimed to deliver anti-prostaglandin E synthase 2 small interfering [...] Read more.
Pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization is crucial in acute inflammatory diseases like Acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is believed to promote inflammation in such cases. Therefore, our study aimed to deliver anti-prostaglandin E synthase 2 small interfering RNA antibodies (anti-PGE2-siRNA) through lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in RAW264.7 (The murine macrophage cell line) to find a possible cure to the acute inflammatory diseases. LNPs were synthesized by using thin layer evaporation method and were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta potential, SEM and TEM analysis. The obtained NPs were spherical with an average size of 73 nm and zeta potential +29mV. MTT assay revealed that these NPs were non-toxic in nature. Gel retardation assay displayed 5:2 ratio of siRNA and NPs as the best siRNA:LNPs ratio for the delivery of siRNA into cells. After siRNA delivery by using LNPs, real time gene expression analysis revealed significant decrease in the expression of PGE2. Western blot results confirmed that silencing of PGE2 gene influence inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interlukin-1β (1L-1β), markers involved in pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. Our study revealed that LNPs synthesized in present study can be one of the effective methods to deliver anti-PGE2-siRNA to control pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization for the treatment of acute inflammatory response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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18 pages, 4643 KiB  
Article
The Study of Nanosized Silicate-Substituted Hydroxyapatites Co-Doped with Sr2+ and Zn2+ Ions Related to Their Influence on Biological Activities
by Justyna Rewak-Soroczynska, Nicole Nowak, Sara Targonska, Agata Piecuch and Rafal J. Wiglusz
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(12), 6229-6246; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44120425 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Nanosized silicate-substituted hydroxyapatites, characterized by the general formula Ca9.8−x−nSrnZnx(PO4)6−y(SiO4)y(OH)2 (where: n = 0.2 [mol%]; x = 0.5–3.5 [mol%]; y = 4–5 [mol%]), co-doped with Zn2+ and Sr [...] Read more.
Nanosized silicate-substituted hydroxyapatites, characterized by the general formula Ca9.8−x−nSrnZnx(PO4)6−y(SiO4)y(OH)2 (where: n = 0.2 [mol%]; x = 0.5–3.5 [mol%]; y = 4–5 [mol%]), co-doped with Zn2+ and Sr2+ ions, were synthesized with the help of a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The structural properties were determined using XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The morphology, size and shape of biomaterials were detected using scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The reference strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to assess bacterial survivability and the impact on biofilm formation in the presence of nanosilicate-substituted strontium-hydroxyapatites. Safety evaluation was also performed using the standard cytotoxicity test (MTT) and hemolysis assay. Moreover, the mutagenic potential of the materials was assessed (Ames test). The obtained results suggest the dose-dependent antibacterial activity of nanomaterials, especially observed for samples doped with 3.5 mol% Zn2+ ions. Moreover, the modification with five SiO4 groups enhanced the antibacterial effect; however, a rise in the toxicity was observed as well. No harmful activity was detected in the hemolysis assay as well as in the mutagenic assay (Ames test). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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13 pages, 2805 KiB  
Article
Effect of Curcumin-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles on the Head and Neck Cancer Cell Line, HN5
by Simin Sharifi, Elaheh Dalir Abdolahinia, Mohammad Ali Ghavimi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Michael Aschner, Luciano Saso and Haroon Khan
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(11), 5247-5259; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44110357 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Curcumin is an active ingredient isolated from Curcuma longa. It has several pharmacological effects, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Due to its low bioavailability, chemical structure instability, and easy oxidation, the application of curcumin has been limited. In this study, to [...] Read more.
Curcumin is an active ingredient isolated from Curcuma longa. It has several pharmacological effects, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Due to its low bioavailability, chemical structure instability, and easy oxidation, the application of curcumin has been limited. In this study, to overcome these limitations, curcumin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cur-MSN) were prepared, and the anticancerous effect of Cur-MSNs on head and neck cancer cells, HN5, was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed rod-shaped mesoporous nanoparticles with average particle size smaller than 100 nm. Higher cytotoxicity of Cur-MSNs was seen in treated cancer cells compared with free curcumin. The expression of Bcl-2 was significantly reduced in the presence of Cur-MSNs compared to the control (untreated HN5 cells) (p < 0.05). A 3.43-fold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was seen in Cur-MSNs treated HN5 cells at the IC50. Cur-MSNs increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Based on these novel results, we suggest that Cur-MSNs offer efficacy for cancer treatment and future studies should further characterize their properties in various experimental cancer models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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16 pages, 3626 KiB  
Article
Hepatoprotective Effect of Silver Nanoparticles at Two Different Particle Sizes: Comparative Study with and without Silymarin
by Mahmoud A. Elfaky, Alaa Sirwi, Sameh H. Ismail, Heba H. Awad and Sameh S. Gad
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(7), 2923-2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44070202 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles have been used for numerous therapeutic purposes because of their increased biodegradability and bioavailability, yet their toxicity remains questionable as they are known to interact easily with biological systems because of their small size. This study aimed to investigate and compare [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles have been used for numerous therapeutic purposes because of their increased biodegradability and bioavailability, yet their toxicity remains questionable as they are known to interact easily with biological systems because of their small size. This study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of silver nanoparticles’ particle size in terms of their potential hazard, as well as their potential protective effect in an LPS-induced hepatotoxicity model. Liver slices were obtained from Sprague Dawley adult male rats, and the thickness of the slices was optimized to 150 μm. Under regulated physiological circumstances, freshly cut liver slices were divided into six different groups; GP1: normal, GP2: LPS (control), GP3: LPS + AgNpL (positive control), GP4: LPS + silymarin (standard treatment), GP5: LPS + AgNpS + silymarin (treatment I), GP6: LPS + AgNpL + silymarin (treatment II). After 24 h of incubation, the plates were gently removed, and the supernatant and tissue homogenate were all collected and then subjected to the following biochemical parameters: Cox2, NO, IL-6, and TNF-α. The LPS elicited marked hepatic tissue injury manifested by elevated cytokines and proinflammatory markers. Both small silver nanoparticles and large silver nanoparticles efficiently attenuated LPS hepatotoxicity, mainly via preserving the cytokines’ level and diminishing the inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, large silver nanoparticles exhibited effective hepatoprotective capabilities over small silver nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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Review

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15 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Lipid Nanoparticles: A Novel Gene Delivery Technique for Clinical Application
by Ryuichi Mashima and Shuji Takada
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(10), 5013-5027; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44100341 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6006
Abstract
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are an emerging vehicle for gene delivery that accommodate both nucleic acid and protein. Based on the experience of therapeutic liposomes, current LNPs have been developed based on the chemistry of lipids and RNA and on the biology of human [...] Read more.
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are an emerging vehicle for gene delivery that accommodate both nucleic acid and protein. Based on the experience of therapeutic liposomes, current LNPs have been developed based on the chemistry of lipids and RNA and on the biology of human disease. LNPs have been used for the development of Onpattro, an siRNA drug for transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis, in 2018. The subsequent outbreak of COVID-19 required a vaccine for its suppression. LNP-based vaccine production received much attention for this and resulted in great success. In this review, the essential technology of LNP gene delivery has been described according to the chemistry for LNP production and biology for its clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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17 pages, 757 KiB  
Review
Application of Nanoparticles and Melatonin for Cryopreservation of Gametes and Embryos
by Hyun-Woo Choi and Hoon Jang
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(9), 4028-4044; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44090276 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5976
Abstract
Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, a technique widely applied in human infertility clinics and to preserve desirable genetic traits of livestock, has been developed over 30 years as a component of the artificial insemination process. A number of researchers have conducted studies to [...] Read more.
Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, a technique widely applied in human infertility clinics and to preserve desirable genetic traits of livestock, has been developed over 30 years as a component of the artificial insemination process. A number of researchers have conducted studies to reduce cell toxicity during cryopreservation using adjuvants leading to higher gamete and embryo survival rates. Melatonin and Nanoparticles are novel cryoprotectants and recent studies have investigated their properties such as regulating oxidative stresses, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation in order to protect gametes and embryos during vitrification. This review presented the current status of cryoprotectants and highlights the novel biomaterials such as melatonin and nanoparticles that may improve the survivability of gametes and embryos during this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nanoparticles on Living Organisms)
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