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Article

Antimicrobial Capacity and Surface Alterations Using Photodynamic Therapy and Light Activated Disinfection on Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Material Contaminated with Periodontal Bacteria

1
Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
2
Clinical Dental Science Department, College of Dentistry, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11564, Saudi Arabia
3
Division of Prosthodontics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
4
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110350
Received: 20 September 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy 2021)
This study determined the antimicrobial efficiency of light-activated disinfection (LAD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material contaminated with three periodontal bacteria and explored if PDT and LAD cause PICN surface alterations. Sixty PICN discs were contaminated with Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola and randomly divided into five groups (n = 12 samples/each) according to the treatment groups: Group PDT—PDT (630 ± 10 nm diode laser) with methylene blue; Group DL—808 nm diode laser in contact mode without photosensitizer; Group MB–methylene blue without light application; Group CHX—0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solution and; Group NT—no treatment. Each disc was then placed in tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and vortexed for 30 s to remove the remaining bacteria from the discs. A total of 10× serial dilutions were performed followed by plating of 30 μL of suspension on Brucella agar plates. The colony forming units (CFU) were calculated after 72 h. PICN discs with the attached biofilms were used for confocal microscopy investigation for live/dead bacterial viability. A random single sample from each group was selected to study the bacterial adherence and topographical alterations on PICN discs under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The PDT group showed higher reduction for each bacterial species and total counts of bacteria assessed followed by the DL group (p < 0.05). When compared with MB group, the two laser groups were significantly superior (p < 0.05). The MB group did not show significant differences for any bacteria when compared to NT. The bacteria with the CHX group and DL groups appeared dead with few areas of surviving green stained bacteria. The PDT group showed the highest dead cell count (p < 0.05). PDT and DL groups indicate no significant changes on the surface compared to the sterile PICN discs on visual assessment. Photodynamic therapy produced superior periodontal bacteria reduction over the surface of PICN surface. PDT group showed higher reduction for each bacterial species and total counts of bacteria assessed followed by the DL group. Both PDT and DL treatment strategies are effective without producing surface alterations on PICN. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; laser; ceramics; bacteria; decontamination photodynamic therapy; laser; ceramics; bacteria; decontamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eldwakhly, E.; Saadaldin, S.; Aldegheishem, A.; Salah Mostafa, M.; Soliman, M. Antimicrobial Capacity and Surface Alterations Using Photodynamic Therapy and Light Activated Disinfection on Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Material Contaminated with Periodontal Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110350

AMA Style

Eldwakhly E, Saadaldin S, Aldegheishem A, Salah Mostafa M, Soliman M. Antimicrobial Capacity and Surface Alterations Using Photodynamic Therapy and Light Activated Disinfection on Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Material Contaminated with Periodontal Bacteria. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(11):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eldwakhly, Elzahraa, Selma Saadaldin, Alhanoof Aldegheishem, Marwa Salah Mostafa, and Mai Soliman. 2020. "Antimicrobial Capacity and Surface Alterations Using Photodynamic Therapy and Light Activated Disinfection on Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Material Contaminated with Periodontal Bacteria" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 11: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110350

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