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Sensors, Volume 21, Issue 22 (November-2 2021) – 345 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Ninapro dataset is a publicly available dataset designed to foster research on hand prosthesis, rehabilitation applications, and motor control studies. It has been exploited in several research projects in related fields. In this paper, an application on transfer learning is presented to test two domain adaptation techniques on a random forest classifier on EMG signals. The experiments were conducted on healthy subjects and amputees. Differently from several previous papers, no appreciable improvements were found in terms of accuracy, regardless of the transfer learning techniques tested. The lack of adaptive learning was also demonstrated for the first time in an intra-subject experimental setting when using as a source data acquisitions recorded from the same subject but on different days.View this paper
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Article
CoMeT: Configurable Tagged Memory Extension
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7771; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227771 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Commodity processor architectures are releasing various instruction set extensions to support security solutions for the efficient mitigation of memory vulnerabilities. Among them, tagged memory extension (TME), such as ARM MTE and SPARC ADI, can prevent unauthorized memory access by utilizing tagged memory. However, [...] Read more.
Commodity processor architectures are releasing various instruction set extensions to support security solutions for the efficient mitigation of memory vulnerabilities. Among them, tagged memory extension (TME), such as ARM MTE and SPARC ADI, can prevent unauthorized memory access by utilizing tagged memory. However, our analysis found that TME has performance and security issues in practical use. To alleviate these, in this paper, we propose CoMeT, a new instruction set extension for tagged memory. The key idea behind CoMeT is not only to check whether the tag values in the address tag and memory tag are matched, but also to check the access permissions for each tag value. We implemented the prototype of CoMeT on the RISC-V platform. Our evaluation results confirm that CoMeT can be utilized to efficiently implement well-known security solutions, i.e., shadow stack and in-process isolation, without compromising security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Access Control in the Internet of Things)
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Article
Metrological Characterization and Comparison of D415, D455, L515 RealSense Devices in the Close Range
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7770; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227770 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
RGB-D cameras are employed in several research fields and application scenarios. Choosing the most appropriate sensor has been made more difficult by the increasing offer of available products. Due to the novelty of RGB-D technologies, there was a lack of tools to measure [...] Read more.
RGB-D cameras are employed in several research fields and application scenarios. Choosing the most appropriate sensor has been made more difficult by the increasing offer of available products. Due to the novelty of RGB-D technologies, there was a lack of tools to measure and compare performances of this type of sensor from a metrological perspective. The recent ISO 10360-13:2021 represents the most advanced international standard regulating metrological characterization of coordinate measuring systems. Part 13, specifically, considers 3D optical sensors. This paper applies the methodology of ISO 10360-13 for the characterization and comparison of three RGB-D cameras produced by Intel® RealSense™ (D415, D455, L515) in the close range (100–1500 mm). ISO 10360-13 procedures, which focus on metrological performances, are integrated with additional tests to evaluate systematic errors (acquisition of flat objects, 3D reconstruction of objects). The present paper proposes an off-the-shelf comparison which considers the performance of the sensors throughout their acquisition volume. Results have exposed the strengths and weaknesses of each device. The D415 device showed better reconstruction quality on tests strictly related to the short range. The L515 device performed better on systematic depth errors; finally, the D455 device achieved better results on tests related to the standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Depth Sensors and Applications)
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Article
Development of Road Surface Detection Algorithm Using CycleGAN-Augmented Dataset
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7769; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227769 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Road surface detection is important for safely driving autonomous vehicles. This is because the knowledge of road surface conditions, in particular, dry, wet, and snowy surfaces, should be considered for driving control of autonomous vehicles. With the rise of deep learning technology, road [...] Read more.
Road surface detection is important for safely driving autonomous vehicles. This is because the knowledge of road surface conditions, in particular, dry, wet, and snowy surfaces, should be considered for driving control of autonomous vehicles. With the rise of deep learning technology, road surface detection methods using deep neural networks (DNN) have been widely used for developing road surface detection algorithms. To apply DNN in road surface detection, the dataset should be large and well-balanced for accurate and robust performance. However, most of the images of road surfaces obtained through usual data collection processes are not well-balanced. Most of the collected surface images tend to be of dry surfaces because road surface conditions are highly correlated with weather conditions. This could be a challenge in developing road surface detection algorithms. This paper proposes a method to balance the imbalanced dataset using CycleGAN to improve the performance of a road surface detection algorithm. CycleGAN was used to artificially generate images of wet and snow-covered roads. The road surface detection algorithm trained using the CycleGAN-augmented dataset had a better IoU than the method using imbalanced basic datasets. This result shows that CycleGAN-generated images can be used as datasets for road surface detection to improve the performance of DNN, and this method can help make the data acquisition process easy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Their Applications in Smart Cities)
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Article
Point Cloud Resampling by Simulating Electric Charges on Metallic Surfaces
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7768; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227768 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
3D point cloud resampling based on computational geometry is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a point cloud resampling algorithm inspired by the physical characteristics of the repulsion forces between point electrons. The points in the point cloud are considered [...] Read more.
3D point cloud resampling based on computational geometry is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a point cloud resampling algorithm inspired by the physical characteristics of the repulsion forces between point electrons. The points in the point cloud are considered as electrons that reside on a virtual metallic surface. We iteratively update the positions of the points by simulating the electromagnetic forces between them. Intuitively, the input point cloud becomes evenly distributed by the repulsive forces. We further adopt an acceleration and damping terms in our simulation. This system can be viewed as a momentum method in mathematical optimization and thus increases the convergence stability and uniformity performance. The net force of the repulsion forces may contain a normal directional force with respect to the local surface, which can make the point diverge from the surface. To prevent this, we introduce a simple restriction method that limits the repulsion forces between the points to an approximated local plane. This approach mimics the natural phenomenon in which positive electrons cannot escape from the metallic surface. However, this is still an approximation because the surfaces are often curved rather than being strict planes. Therefore, we project the points to the nearest local surface after the movement. In addition, we approximate the net repulsion force using the K-nearest neighbor to accelerate our algorithm. Furthermore, we propose a new measurement criterion that evaluates the uniformity of the resampled point cloud to compare the proposed algorithm with baselines. In experiments, our algorithm demonstrates superior performance in terms of uniformization, convergence, and run-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Article
Dual-Input and Multi-Channel Convolutional Neural Network Model for Vehicle Speed Prediction
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7767; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227767 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
With the development of technology, speed prediction has become an important part of intelligent vehicle control strategies. However, the time-varying and nonlinear nature of vehicle speed increases the complexity and difficulty of prediction. Therefore, a CNN-based neural network architecture with two channel input [...] Read more.
With the development of technology, speed prediction has become an important part of intelligent vehicle control strategies. However, the time-varying and nonlinear nature of vehicle speed increases the complexity and difficulty of prediction. Therefore, a CNN-based neural network architecture with two channel input (DICNN) is proposed in this paper. With two inputs and four channels, DICNN can predict the speed changes in the next 5 s by extracting the temporal information of 10 vehicle signals and the driver’s intention. The prediction performances of DICNN are firstly examined. The best RMSE, MAE, ME and R2 are obtained compared with a Markov chain combined with Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, a support vector machine (SVM) and a single input CNN (SICNN). Secondly, equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategies (ECMS) combining different vehicle speed prediction methods are constructed. After verification by simulation, the equivalent fuel consumption of the simulation increases by only 4.89% compared with dynamic-programming-based energy management strategy and decreased by 5.40% compared with the speed prediction method with low accuracy. Full article
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Article
A DNN-Based UVI Calculation Method Using Representative Color Information of Sun Object Images
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7766; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227766 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 541
Abstract
As outdoor activities are necessary for maintaining our health, research interest in environmental conditions such as the weather, atmosphere, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is increasing. In particular, UV radiation, which can benefit or harm the human body depending on the degree of exposure, [...] Read more.
As outdoor activities are necessary for maintaining our health, research interest in environmental conditions such as the weather, atmosphere, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is increasing. In particular, UV radiation, which can benefit or harm the human body depending on the degree of exposure, is recognized as an essential environmental factor that needs to be identified. However, unlike the weather and atmospheric conditions, which can be identified to some extent by the naked eye, UV radiation corresponds to wavelength bands that humans cannot recognize; hence, the intensity of UV radiation cannot be measured. Recently, although devices and sensors that can measure UV radiation have been launched, it is very difficult for ordinary users to acquire ambient UV radiation information directly because of the cost and inconvenience caused by operating separate devices. Herein, a deep neural network (DNN)-based ultraviolet index (UVI) calculation method is proposed using representative color information of sun object images. First, Mask-region-based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN) are applied to sky images to extract sun object regions and then detect the representative color of the sun object regions. Then, a deep learning model is constructed to calculate the UVI by inputting RGB color values, which are representative colors detected later along with the altitude angle and azimuth of the sun at that time. After selecting each day of spring and autumn, the performance of the proposed method was tested, and it was confirmed that accurate UVI could be calculated within a range of mean absolute error of 0.3. Full article
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Article
Authorized Shared Electronic Medical Record System with Proxy Re-Encryption and Blockchain Technology
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7765; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227765 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
With the popularity of the internet 5G network, the network constructions of hospitals have also rapidly developed. Operations management in the healthcare system is becoming paperless, for example, via a shared electronic medical record (EMR) system. A shared electronic medical record system plays [...] Read more.
With the popularity of the internet 5G network, the network constructions of hospitals have also rapidly developed. Operations management in the healthcare system is becoming paperless, for example, via a shared electronic medical record (EMR) system. A shared electronic medical record system plays an important role in reducing diagnosis costs and improving diagnostic accuracy. In the traditional electronic medical record system, centralized database storage is typically used. Once there is a problem with the data storage, it could cause data privacy disclosure and security risks. Blockchain is tamper-proof and data traceable. It can ensure the security and correctness of data. Proxy re-encryption technology can ensure the safe sharing and transmission of relatively sensitive data. Based on the above situation, we propose an electronic medical record system based on consortium blockchain and proxy re-encryption to solve the problem of EMR security sharing. Electronic equipment in this process is connected to the blockchain network, and the security of data access is ensured through the automatic execution of blockchain chaincodes; the attribute-based access control method ensures fine-grained access to the data and improves the system security. Compared with the existing electronic medical records based on cloud storage, the system not only realizes the sharing of electronic medical records, but it also has advantages in privacy protection, access control, data security, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Security and Its Application in Internet of Things)
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Article
Verification of a Stiffness-Variable Control System with Feed-Forward Predictive Earthquake Energy Analysis
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7764; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227764 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Semi-active isolation systems with controllable stiffness have been widely developed in the field of seismic mitigation. Most systems with controllable stiffness perform more robustly and effectively for far-field earthquakes than for near-fault earthquakes. Consequently, a comprehensive system that provides comparable reductions in seismic [...] Read more.
Semi-active isolation systems with controllable stiffness have been widely developed in the field of seismic mitigation. Most systems with controllable stiffness perform more robustly and effectively for far-field earthquakes than for near-fault earthquakes. Consequently, a comprehensive system that provides comparable reductions in seismic responses to both near-fault and far-field excitations is required. In this regard, a new algorithm called Feed-Forward Predictive Earthquake Energy Analysis (FPEEA) is proposed to identify the ground motion characteristics of and reduce the structural responses to earthquakes. The energy distribution of the seismic velocity spectrum is considered, and the balance between the kinetic energy and potential energy is optimized to reduce the seismic energy. To demonstrate the performance of the FPEEA algorithm, a two-degree-of-freedom structure was used as the benchmark in the numerical simulation. The peak structural responses under two near-fault and far-field earthquakes of different earthquake intensities were simulated. The isolation layer displacement was suppressed most by the FPEEA, which outperformed the other three control methods. Moreover, superior control on superstructure acceleration was also supported by the FPEEA. Experimental verification was then conducted with shaking table test, and the satisfactory performance of the FPEEA on both isolation layer displacement and superstructure acceleration was demonstrated again. In summary, the proposed FPEEA has potential for practical application to unexpected near-fault and far-field earthquakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring and Smart Structural Control)
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Article
Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Acridine Yellow Adsorbed on Glassy Carbon Electrode
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7763; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227763 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
Electrochemical DNA sensors offer unique opportunities for the sensitive detection of specific DNA interactions. In this work, a voltametric DNA sensor is proposed on the base of glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon black, adsorbed acridine yellow and DNA for highly sensitive determination [...] Read more.
Electrochemical DNA sensors offer unique opportunities for the sensitive detection of specific DNA interactions. In this work, a voltametric DNA sensor is proposed on the base of glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon black, adsorbed acridine yellow and DNA for highly sensitive determination of doxorubicin antitumor drug. The signal recorded by cyclic voltammetry was attributed to irreversible oxidation of the dye. Its value was altered by aggregation of the hydrophobic dye molecules on the carbon black particles. DNA molecules promote disaggregation of the dye and increased the signal. This effect was partially suppressed by doxorubicin compensate for the charge of DNA in the intercalation. Sensitivity of the signal toward DNA and doxorubicin was additionally increased by treatment of the layer with dimethylformamide. In optimal conditions, the linear range of doxorubicin concentrations determined was 0.1 pM–1.0 nM, and the detection limit was 0.07 pM. No influence of sulfonamide medicines and plasma electrolytes on the doxorubicin determination was shown. The DNA sensor was tested on two medications (doxorubicin-TEVA and doxorubicin-LANS) and showed recoveries of 102–105%. The DNA sensor developed can find applications in the determination of drug residues in blood and for the pharmacokinetics studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Article
A New Bearing Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Capsule Network and Markov Transition Field/Gramian Angular Field
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227762 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Compared to time-consuming and unreliable manual analysis, intelligent fault diagnosis techniques using deep learning models can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with their multi-layer nonlinear mapping capabilities. This paper proposes a model to perform fault diagnosis and classification by using a [...] Read more.
Compared to time-consuming and unreliable manual analysis, intelligent fault diagnosis techniques using deep learning models can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with their multi-layer nonlinear mapping capabilities. This paper proposes a model to perform fault diagnosis and classification by using a time series of vibration sensor data as the input. The model encodes the raw vibration signal into a two-dimensional image and performs feature extraction and classification by a deep convolutional neural network or improved capsule network. A fault diagnosis technique based on the Gramian Angular Field (GAF), the Markov Transition Field (MTF), and the Capsule Network is proposed. Experiments conducted on a bearing failure dataset from Case Western Reserve University investigated the impact of two coding methods and different network structures on the diagnosis accuracy. The results show that the GAF technique retains more complete fault characteristics, while the MTF technique contains a small number of fault characteristics but more dynamic characteristics. Therefore, the proposed method incorporates GAF images and MTF images as a dual-channel image input to the capsule network, enabling the network to obtain a more complete fault signature. Multiple sets of experiments were conducted on the bearing fault dataset at Case Western Reserve University, and the Capsule Network in the proposed model has an advantage over other convolutional neural networks and performs well in the comparison of fault diagnosis methods proposed by other researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems for Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis)
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Article
A Scheme with Acoustic Emission Hit Removal for the Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Concrete Structures
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7761; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227761 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
In this study, a scheme of remaining useful lifetime (RUL) prognosis from raw acoustic emission (AE) data is presented to predict the concrete structure’s failure before its occurrence, thus possibly prolong its service life and minimizing the risk of accidental damage. The deterioration [...] Read more.
In this study, a scheme of remaining useful lifetime (RUL) prognosis from raw acoustic emission (AE) data is presented to predict the concrete structure’s failure before its occurrence, thus possibly prolong its service life and minimizing the risk of accidental damage. The deterioration process is portrayed by the health indicator (HI), which is automatically constructed from raw AE data with a deep neural network pretrained and fine-tuned by a stacked autoencoder deep neural network (SAE-DNN). For the deep neural network structure to perform a more accurate construction of health indicator lines, a hit removal process with a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM), which has not been investigated in previous studies, is proposed to extract only the hits which matter the most to the portrait of deterioration. The new set of hits is then harnessed as the training labels for the deep neural network. After the completion of the health indicator line construction, health indicators are forwarded to a long short-term memory recurrent neural network (LSTM-RNN) for the training and validation of the remaining useful life prediction, as this structure is capable of capturing the long-term dependencies, even with a limited set of data. Our prediction result shows a significant improvement in comparison with a similar scheme but without the hit removal process and other methods, such as the gated recurrent unit recurrent neural network (GRU-RNN) and the simple recurrent neural network. Full article
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Article
DDS and OPC UA Protocol Coexistence Solution in Real-Time and Industry 4.0 Context Using Non-Ideal Infrastructure
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7760; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227760 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Continuing the evolution towards Industry 4.0, the industrial communication protocols represent a significant topic of interest, as real-time data exchange between multiple devices constitute the pillar of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) scenarios. Although the legacy protocols are still persistent in the industry, [...] Read more.
Continuing the evolution towards Industry 4.0, the industrial communication protocols represent a significant topic of interest, as real-time data exchange between multiple devices constitute the pillar of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) scenarios. Although the legacy protocols are still persistent in the industry, the transition was initiated by the key Industry 4.0 facilitating protocol, the Open Platform Communication Unified Architecture (OPC UA). OPC UA has to reach the envisioned applicability, and it therefore has to consider coexistence with other emerging real-time oriented protocols in the production lines. The Data Distribution Service (DDS) will certainly be present in future architectures in some areas as robots, co-bots, and compact units. The current paper proposes a solution to evaluate the real-time coexistence of OPC UA and DDS protocols, functioning in parallel and in a gateway context. The purpose is to confirm the compatibility and feasibility between the two protocols alongside a general definition of criteria and expectations from an architectural point of view, pointing out advantages and disadvantages in a neutral manner, shaping a comprehensive view of the possibilities. The researched architecture is meant to comply with both performance comparison scenarios and interaction scenarios over a gateway application. Considering the industrial tendencies, the developed solution is applied using non-ideal infrastructures to provide a more feasible and faster applicability in the production lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Communication
Evaluation of HPC Acceleration and Interconnect Technologies for High-Throughput Data Acquisition
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7759; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227759 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Efficient data movement in multi-node systems is a crucial issue at the crossroads of scientific computing, big data, and high-performance computing, impacting demanding data acquisition applications from high-energy physics to astronomy, where dedicated accelerators such as FPGA devices play a key role coupled [...] Read more.
Efficient data movement in multi-node systems is a crucial issue at the crossroads of scientific computing, big data, and high-performance computing, impacting demanding data acquisition applications from high-energy physics to astronomy, where dedicated accelerators such as FPGA devices play a key role coupled with high-performance interconnect technologies. Building on the outcome of the RECIPE Horizon 2020 research project, this work evaluates the use of high-bandwidth interconnect standards, namely InfiniBand EDR and HDR, along with remote direct memory access functions for direct exposure of FPGA accelerator memory across a multi-node system. The prototype we present aims at avoiding dedicated network interfaces built in the FPGA accelerator itself, leaving most of the resources for user acceleration and supporting state-of-the-art interconnect technologies. We present the detail of the proposed system and a quantitative evaluation in terms of end-to-end bandwidth as concretely measured with a real-world FPGA-based multi-node HPC workload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent IoT Circuits and Systems)
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Article
Dual Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based Magnetorheological Plastomer with Different Ratio of DMSO/Water
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7758; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227758 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based magnetorheological plastomer (MRP) possesses excellent magnetically dependent mechanical properties such as the magnetorheological effect (MR effect) when exposed to an external magnetic field. PVA-based MRP also shows a shear stiffening (ST) effect, which is very beneficial in fabricating pressure sensor. [...] Read more.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based magnetorheological plastomer (MRP) possesses excellent magnetically dependent mechanical properties such as the magnetorheological effect (MR effect) when exposed to an external magnetic field. PVA-based MRP also shows a shear stiffening (ST) effect, which is very beneficial in fabricating pressure sensor. Thus, it can automatically respond to external stimuli such as shear force without the magnetic field. The dual properties of PVA-based MRP mainly on the ST and MR effect are rarely reported. Therefore, this work empirically investigates the dual properties of this smart material under the influence of different solvent compositions (20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20) by varying the ratios of binary solvent mixture (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to water). Upon applying a shear stress with excitation frequencies from 0.01 to 10 Hz, the storage modulus (G′) for PVA-based MRP with DMSO to water ratio of 20:40 increases from 6.62 × 10−5 to 0.035 MPa. This result demonstrates an excellent ST effect with the relative shear stiffening effect (RSTE) up to 52,827%. In addition, both the ST and MR effect show a downward trend with increasing DMSO content to water. Notably, the physical state of hydrogel MRP could be changed with different solvent ratios either in the liquid-like or solid-like state. On the other hand, a transient stepwise experiment showed that the solvent’s composition had a positive effect on the arrangement of CIPs within the matrix as a function of the external magnetic field. Therefore, the solvent ratio (DMSO/water) can influence both ST and MR effects of hydrogel MRP, which need to be emphasized in the fabrication of hydrogel MRP for appropriate applications primarily with soft sensors and actuators for dynamic motion control. Full article
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Article
Lensless Multispectral Camera Based on a Coded Aperture Array
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7757; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227757 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Multispectral imaging can be applied to water quality monitoring, medical diagnosis, and other applications, but the principle of multispectral imaging is different from the principle of hyper-spectral imaging. Multispectral imaging is generally achieved through filters, so multiple photos are required to obtain spectral [...] Read more.
Multispectral imaging can be applied to water quality monitoring, medical diagnosis, and other applications, but the principle of multispectral imaging is different from the principle of hyper-spectral imaging. Multispectral imaging is generally achieved through filters, so multiple photos are required to obtain spectral information. Using multiple detectors to take pictures at the same time increases the complexity and cost of the system. This paper proposes a simple multispectral camera based on lensless imaging, which does not require multiple lenses. The core of the system is the multispectral coding aperture. The coding aperture is divided into different regions and each region transmits the light of one wavelength, such that the spectral information of the target can be coded. By solving the inverse problem of sparse constraints, the multispectral information of the target is inverted. Herein, we analyzed the characteristics of this multispectral camera and developed a principle prototype to obtain experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Article
Assessment and Feedback Control of Paving Quality of Earth-Rock Dam Based on OODA Loop
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7756; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227756 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
Paving thickness and evenness are two key factors that affect the paving operation quality of earth-rock dams. However, in the recent study, both of the key factors characterising the paving quality were measured using finite point random sampling, which resulted in subjectivity in [...] Read more.
Paving thickness and evenness are two key factors that affect the paving operation quality of earth-rock dams. However, in the recent study, both of the key factors characterising the paving quality were measured using finite point random sampling, which resulted in subjectivity in the detection and a lag in the feedback control. At the same time, the on-site control of the paving operation quality based on experience results in a poor and unreliable paving quality. To address the above issues, in this study, a novel assessment and feedback control framework for the paving operation quality based on the observe–orient–decide–act (OODA) loop is presented. First, in the observation module, a cellular automaton is used to convert the location of the bulldozer obtained by monitoring devices into the paving thickness of the levelling layer. Second, in the orient module, the learning automaton is used to update the state of the corresponding and surrounding cells. Third, in the decision module, an overall path planning method is developed to realise feedback control of the paving thickness and evenness. Finally, in the act module, the paving thickness and evenness of the entire work unit are calculated and compared to their control thresholds to determine whether to proceed with the next OODA loop. The experiments show that the proposed method can maintain the paving thickness less than the designed standard value and effectively prevent the occurrence of ultra-thick or ultra-thin phenomena. Furthermore, the paving evenness is improved by 21.5% as compared to that obtained with the conventional paving quality control method. The framework of the paving quality assessment and feedback control proposed in this paper has extensive popularisation and application value for the same paving construction scene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic GNSS Measurement Technique in Aerial Navigation)
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Communication
In Situ Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Fluorophores on Surface of Polyvinyl Alcohol for H2O/Co2+ Sensing and Data Security
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7755; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227755 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
In situ fluorophores were induced on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bulk materials by direct femtosecond laser writing. The generation of fluorophores was ascribed to localized laser-assisted carbonization. The carbonization of PVA polymers was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The distinct fluorescence responses of [...] Read more.
In situ fluorophores were induced on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) bulk materials by direct femtosecond laser writing. The generation of fluorophores was ascribed to localized laser-assisted carbonization. The carbonization of PVA polymers was confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The distinct fluorescence responses of fluorophores in various solutions were harnessed for implementing in situ reagent sensors, metal ion sensors, data encryption, and data security applications. The demonstrated water detection sensor in acetone exhibited a sensitivity of 3%. Meanwhile, a data encryption scheme and a “burn after reading” technique were demonstrated by taking advantage of the respective reversible and irreversible switching properties of the in situ laser-induced fluorophores. Taking a step further, a quantitative cobalt ion measurement was demonstrated based on the concentration-dependent fluorescence recovery. Combined with a laser-induced hydrophilic modification, our scheme could enable “lab-on-a-chip” microfluidics sensors with arbitrary shape, varied flow delay, designed reaction zones, and targeted functionalities in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Optical Sensors Technology in China 2021-2022)
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Article
A Methodology for the Multi-Point Characterization of Short-Term Temperature Fluctuations in Complex Microclimates Based on the European Standard EN 15757:2010: Application to the Archaeological Museum of L’Almoina (Valencia, Spain)
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7754; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227754 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
The monitoring and control of thermo-hygrometric indoor conditions is necessary for an adequate preservation of cultural heritage. The European standard EN 15757:2010 specifies a procedure for determining if seasonal patterns of relative humidity (RH) and temperature are adequate for the long-term preservation of [...] Read more.
The monitoring and control of thermo-hygrometric indoor conditions is necessary for an adequate preservation of cultural heritage. The European standard EN 15757:2010 specifies a procedure for determining if seasonal patterns of relative humidity (RH) and temperature are adequate for the long-term preservation of hygroscopic materials on display at museums, archives, libraries or heritage buildings. This procedure is based on the characterization of the seasonal patterns and the calculation of certain control limits, so that it is possible to assess whether certain changes in the microclimate can be harmful for the preventive conservation of artworks, which would lead to the implementation of corrective actions. In order to discuss the application of this standard, 27 autonomous data-loggers were located in different points at the Archaeological Museum of l’Almoina (Valencia). The HVAC system (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) at the museum tries to reach certain homogeneous environment, which becomes a challenge because parts of the ruins are covered by a skylight that produces a greenhouse effect in summer, resulting in severe thermo-hygrometric gradients. Based on the analysis of temperatures recorded during 16 months, the air conditions in this museum are discussed according to the standard EN 15757:2010, and some corrective measures are proposed to improve the conservation conditions. Although this standard is basically intended for data recorded from a single sensor, an alternative approach proposed in this work is to find zones inside the museum with a homogeneous microclimate and to discuss next the average values collected in each area. A methodology is presented to optimize the application of this standard in places with a complex microclimate like this case, when multiple sensors are located at different positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Article
Design and Performance Verification of a Space Radiation Detection Sensor Based on Graphene
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7753; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227753 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
In order to verify the performance of a graphene-based space radiation detection sensor, the radiation detection principle based on two-dimensional graphene material was analyzed according to the band structure and electric field effect of graphene. The method of space radiation detection based on [...] Read more.
In order to verify the performance of a graphene-based space radiation detection sensor, the radiation detection principle based on two-dimensional graphene material was analyzed according to the band structure and electric field effect of graphene. The method of space radiation detection based on graphene was studied and then a new type of space radiation sensor samples with small volume, high resolution, and radiation-resistance was formed. Using protons and electrons, the electrical performance of GFET radiation sensor was verified. The designed graphene space radiation detection sensor is expected to be applied in the radiation environment monitoring of the space station and the moon, and can also achieve technological breakthroughs in pulsar navigation and other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Materials)
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Article
In-Vehicle Alcohol Detection Using Low-Cost Sensors and Genetic Algorithms to Aid in the Drinking and Driving Detection
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227752 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Worldwide, motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of death, with alcohol-related accidents playing a significant role, particularly in child death. Aiming to aid in the prevention of this type of accidents, a novel non-invasive method capable of detecting the presence [...] Read more.
Worldwide, motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of death, with alcohol-related accidents playing a significant role, particularly in child death. Aiming to aid in the prevention of this type of accidents, a novel non-invasive method capable of detecting the presence of alcohol inside a motor vehicle is presented. The proposed methodology uses a series of low-cost alcohol MQ3 sensors located inside the vehicle, whose signals are stored, standardized, time-adjusted, and transformed into 5 s window samples. Statistical features are extracted from each sample and a feature selection strategy is carried out using a genetic algorithm, and a forward selection and backwards elimination methodology. The four features derived from this process were used to construct an SVM classification model that detects presence of alcohol. The experiments yielded 7200 samples, 80% of which were used to train the model. The rest were used to evaluate the performance of the model, which obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 0.979. These results suggest that the proposed methodology can be used to detect the presence of alcohol and enforce prevention actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone Sensors for Driver Behavior Monitoring Systems)
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Article
Highly Discriminative Physiological Parameters for Thermal Pattern Classification
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7751; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227751 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a non-contact, non-intrusive, and non-ionizing radiation tool used for detecting breast lesions. This paper analyzes the surface temperature distribution (STD) on an optimal Region of Interest (RoI) for extraction of suitable internal heat source parameters. The physiological parameters are [...] Read more.
Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a non-contact, non-intrusive, and non-ionizing radiation tool used for detecting breast lesions. This paper analyzes the surface temperature distribution (STD) on an optimal Region of Interest (RoI) for extraction of suitable internal heat source parameters. The physiological parameters are estimated through the inverse solution of the bio-heat equation and the STD of suspicious areas related to the hottest spots of the RoI. To reach these values, the STD is analyzed by means: the Depth-Intensity-Radius (D-I-R) measurement model and the fitting method of Lorentz curve. A highly discriminative pattern vector composed of the extracted physiological parameters is proposed to classify normal and abnormal breast thermograms. A well-defined RoI is delimited at a radial distance, determined by the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Nevertheless, this distance is less than or equal to 1.8 cm due to the maximum temperature location close to the boundary image. The methodology is applied to 87 breast thermograms that belong to the Database for Mastology Research with Infrared Image (DMR-IR). This methodology does not apply any image enhancements or normalization of input data. At an optimal position, the three-dimensional scattergrams show a correct separation between normal and abnormal thermograms. In other cases, the feature vectors are highly correlated. According to our experimental results, the proposed pattern vector extracted at optimal position a=1.6 cm reaches the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Even more, the proposed technique utilizes a reduced number of physiological parameters to obtain a Correct Rate Classification (CRC) of 100%. The precision assessment confirms the performance superiority of the proposed method compared with other techniques for the breast thermogram classification of the DMR-IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Sensors)
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Article
An Enhanced Ensemble Approach for Non-Intrusive Energy Use Monitoring Based on Multidimensional Heterogeneity
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227750 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Acting as a virtual sensor network for household appliance energy use monitoring, non-intrusive load monitoring is emerging as the technical basis for refined electricity analysis as well as home energy management. Aiming for robust and reliable monitoring, the ensemble approach has been expected [...] Read more.
Acting as a virtual sensor network for household appliance energy use monitoring, non-intrusive load monitoring is emerging as the technical basis for refined electricity analysis as well as home energy management. Aiming for robust and reliable monitoring, the ensemble approach has been expected in load disaggregation, but the obstacles of design difficulty and computational inefficiency still exist. To address this, an ensemble design integrated with multi-heterogeneity is proposed for non-intrusive energy use disaggregation in this paper. Firstly, the idea of utilizing a heterogeneous design is presented, and the corresponding ensemble framework for load disaggregation is established. Then, a sparse coding model is allocated for individual classifiers, and the combined classifier is diversified by introducing different distance and similarity measures without consideration of sparsity, forming mutually heterogeneous classifiers. Lastly, a multiple-evaluations-based decision process is fine-tuned following the interactions of multi-heterogeneous committees, and finally deployed as the decision maker. Through verifications on both a low-voltage network simulator and a field measurement dataset, the proposed approach is demonstrated to be effective in enhancing load disaggregation performance robustly. By appropriately introducing the heterogeneous design into the ensemble approach, load monitoring improvements are observed with reduced computational burden, which stimulates research enthusiasm in investigating valid ensemble strategies for practical non-intrusive load monitoring implementations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Article
Ground-Based GNSS and Satellite Observations of Auroral Ionospheric Irregularities during Geomagnetic Disturbances in August 2018
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7749; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227749 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
The 25–26 August 2018 space weather event occurred during the solar minimum period and surprisingly became the third largest geomagnetic storm of the entire 24th solar cycle. We analyzed the ionospheric response at high latitudes of both hemispheres using multi-site ground-based GNSS observations [...] Read more.
The 25–26 August 2018 space weather event occurred during the solar minimum period and surprisingly became the third largest geomagnetic storm of the entire 24th solar cycle. We analyzed the ionospheric response at high latitudes of both hemispheres using multi-site ground-based GNSS observations and measurements onboard Swarm and DMSP satellites. With the storm development, the zones of intense ionospheric irregularities of auroral origin largely expanded in size and moved equatorward towards midlatitudes as far as ~55–60° magnetic latitude (MLAT) in the American, European, and Australian longitudinal sectors. The main ionospheric trough, associated with the equatorward side of the auroral oval, shifted as far equatorward as 45–50° MLAT at both hemispheres. The interhemispheric comparison revealed a high degree of similarity in a large expansion of the auroral irregularities oval towards midlatitudes, in addition to asymmetrical differences in terms of larger intensity of plasma density gradients and structures over the Southern auroral and polar cap regions. Evolution of the intense ionospheric irregularities and equatorward expansion of the auroral irregularities oval were well correlated with increases of geomagnetic activity and peaks of the auroral electrojet index. Full article
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Article
Effects of Plant Crown Shape on Microwave Backscattering Coefficients of Vegetation Canopy
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227748 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
A microwave scattering model is a powerful tool for determining relationships between vegetation parameters and backscattering characteristics. The crown shape of the vegetation canopy is an important parameter in forestry and affects the microwave scattering modeling results. However, there are few numerical models [...] Read more.
A microwave scattering model is a powerful tool for determining relationships between vegetation parameters and backscattering characteristics. The crown shape of the vegetation canopy is an important parameter in forestry and affects the microwave scattering modeling results. However, there are few numerical models or methods to describe the relationships between crown shapes and backscattering features. Using the Modified Tor Vergata Model (MTVM), a microwave scattering model based on the Matrix Doubling Algorithm (MDA), we quantitatively characterized the effects of crown shape on the microwave backscattering coefficients of the vegetation canopy. FEKO was also used as a computational electromagnetic method to make a complement and comparison with MTVM. In a preliminary experiment, the backscattering coefficients of two ideal vegetation canopies with four representative crown shapes (cylinder, cone, inverted cone and ellipsoid) were simulated: MTVM simulations were performed for the L (1.2 GHz), C (5.3 GHz) and X (9.6 GHz) bands in fully polarimetric mode, and FEKO simulations were carried out for the C (5.3 GHz) band at VV and VH polarization. The simulation results show that, for specific input parameters, the mean relative differences in backscattering coefficients due to variations in crown shape are as high as 127%, which demonstrates that the crown shape has a non-negligible influence on microwave backscattering coefficients of the vegetation canopy. In turn, this also suggests that investigation on effects of plant crown shape on microwave backscattering coefficients may have the potential to improve the accuracy of vegetation microwave scattering models, especially in canopies where volume scattering is the predominant mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Sensing and Applications)
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Article
Results of Large-Scale Propagation Models in Campus Corridor at 3.7 and 28 GHz
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7747; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227747 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
The indoor application of wave propagation in the 5G network is essential to fulfill the increasing demands of network access in an indoor environment. This study investigated the wave propagation properties of line-of-sight (LOS) links at two long corridors of Chosun University (CU). [...] Read more.
The indoor application of wave propagation in the 5G network is essential to fulfill the increasing demands of network access in an indoor environment. This study investigated the wave propagation properties of line-of-sight (LOS) links at two long corridors of Chosun University (CU). We chose wave propagation measurements at 3.7 and 28 GHz, since 3.7 GHz is the closest to the roll-out frequency band of 3.5 GHz in South Korea and 28 GHz is next allocated frequency band for Korean telcos. In addition, 28 GHz is the promising millimeter band adopted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for the 5G network. Thus, the 5G network can use 3.7 and 28 GHz frequencies to achieve the spectrum required for its roll-out frequency band. The results observed were applied to simulate the path loss of the LOS links at extended indoor corridor environments. The minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach was used to evaluate the distance and frequency-dependent optimized coefficients of the close-in (CI) model with a frequency-weighted path loss exponent (CIF), floating-intercept (FI), and alpha–beta–gamma (ABG) models. The outcome shows that the large-scale FI and CI models fitted the measured results at 3.7 and 28 GHz. Full article
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Article
New Results on Small and Dim Infrared Target Detection
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7746; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227746 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
Real-time small infrared (IR) target detection is critical to the performance of the situational awareness system in high-altitude aircraft. However, current IR target detection systems are generally hardware-unfriendly and have difficulty in achieving a robust performance in datasets with clouds occupying a large [...] Read more.
Real-time small infrared (IR) target detection is critical to the performance of the situational awareness system in high-altitude aircraft. However, current IR target detection systems are generally hardware-unfriendly and have difficulty in achieving a robust performance in datasets with clouds occupying a large proportion of the image background. In this paper, we present new results by using an efficient method that extracts the candidate targets in the pre-processing stage and fuses the local scale, blob-based contrast map and gradient map in the detection stage. We also developed mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras for data collection experiments and algorithm evaluations. Experimental results using both publicly available datasets and image sequences acquired by our cameras clearly demonstrated that the proposed method achieves high detection accuracy with the mean AUC being at least 22.3% higher than comparable methods, and the computational cost beating the other methods by a large margin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mid-Infrared Sensors and Applications)
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Editorial
Editorial: Special Issue “Antenna Design for 5G and Beyond”
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227745 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
The demand for high data rate transfer and large capacities of traffic is continuously growing as the world witnesses the development of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communications with the fastest broadband speed yet and low latency [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Design for 5G and Beyond)
Article
Latency Reduction in Vehicular Sensing Applications by Dynamic 5G User Plane Function Allocation with Session Continuity
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227744 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Vehicle automation is driving the integration of advanced sensors and new applications that demand high-quality information, such as collaborative sensing for enhanced situational awareness. In this work, we considered a vehicular sensing scenario supported by 5G communications, in which vehicle sensor data need [...] Read more.
Vehicle automation is driving the integration of advanced sensors and new applications that demand high-quality information, such as collaborative sensing for enhanced situational awareness. In this work, we considered a vehicular sensing scenario supported by 5G communications, in which vehicle sensor data need to be sent to edge computing resources with stringent latency constraints. To ensure low latency with the resources available, we propose an optimization framework that deploys User Plane Functions (UPFs) dynamically at the edge to minimize the number of network hops between the vehicles and them. The proposed framework relies on a practical Software-Defined-Networking (SDN)-based mechanism that allows seamless re-assignment of vehicles to UPFs while maintaining session and service continuity. We propose and evaluate different UPF allocation algorithms that reduce communications latency compared to static, random, and centralized deployment baselines. Our results demonstrated that the dynamic allocation of UPFs can support latency-critical applications that would be unfeasible otherwise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Networks for Vehicular Communications)
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Article
Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Using Adaptive Class Hierarchy
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7743; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227743 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
In sensor-based human activity recognition, many methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been proposed. In the typical CNN-based activity recognition model, each class is treated independently of others. However, actual activity classes often have hierarchical relationships. It is important to consider [...] Read more.
In sensor-based human activity recognition, many methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been proposed. In the typical CNN-based activity recognition model, each class is treated independently of others. However, actual activity classes often have hierarchical relationships. It is important to consider an activity recognition model that uses the hierarchical relationship among classes to improve recognition performance. In image recognition, branch CNNs (B-CNNs) have been proposed for classification using class hierarchies. B-CNNs can easily perform classification using hand-crafted class hierarchies, but it is difficult to manually design an appropriate class hierarchy when the number of classes is large or there is little prior knowledge. Therefore, in our study, we propose a class hierarchy-adaptive B-CNN, which adds a method to the B-CNN for automatically constructing class hierarchies. Our method constructs the class hierarchy from training data automatically to effectively train the B-CNN without prior knowledge. We evaluated our method on several benchmark datasets for activity recognition. As a result, our method outperformed standard CNN models without considering the hierarchical relationship among classes. In addition, we confirmed that our method has performance comparable to a B-CNN model with a class hierarchy based on human prior knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Sensors)
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Review
Electrochemistry/Photoelectrochemistry-Based Immunosensing and Aptasensing of Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7742; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227742 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Recently, electrochemistry- and photoelectrochemistry-based biosensors have been regarded as powerful tools for trace monitoring of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) due to the fact of their intrinsic advantages (e.g., high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, small background, and low cost), which play an important role in early [...] Read more.
Recently, electrochemistry- and photoelectrochemistry-based biosensors have been regarded as powerful tools for trace monitoring of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) due to the fact of their intrinsic advantages (e.g., high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, small background, and low cost), which play an important role in early cancer screening and diagnosis and benefit people’s increasing demands for medical and health services. Thus, this mini-review will introduce the current trends in electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors for CEA assay and classify them into two main categories according to the interactions between target and biorecognition elements: immunosensors and aptasensors. Some recent illustrative examples are summarized for interested readers, accompanied by simple descriptions of the related signaling strategies, advanced materials, and detection modes. Finally, the development prospects and challenges of future electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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