Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sensors, Volume 17, Issue 9 (September 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Sensing principle of dual-mode electro-optical biosensors based on evanescent wave detection. The [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-228
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
High-Sensitivity Encoder-Like Micro Area-Changed Capacitive Transducer for a Nano-g Micro Accelerometer
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092158
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1861 | PDF Full-text (4984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Encoder-like micro area-changed capacitive transducers are advantageous in terms of their better linearity and larger dynamic range compared to gap-changed capacitive transducers. Such transducers have been widely applied in rectilinear and rotational position sensors, lab-on-a-chip applications and bio-sensors. However, a complete model accounting [...] Read more.
Encoder-like micro area-changed capacitive transducers are advantageous in terms of their better linearity and larger dynamic range compared to gap-changed capacitive transducers. Such transducers have been widely applied in rectilinear and rotational position sensors, lab-on-a-chip applications and bio-sensors. However, a complete model accounting for both the parasitic capacitance and fringe effect in area-changed capacitive transducers has not yet been developed. This paper presents a complete model for this type of transducer applied to a high-resolution micro accelerometer that was verified by both simulations and experiments. A novel optimization method involving the insertion of photosensitive polyimide was used to reduce the parasitic capacitance, and the capacitor spacing was decreased to overcome the fringe effect. The sensitivity of the optimized transducer was approximately 46 pF/mm, which was nearly 40 times higher than that of our previous transducer. The displacement detection resolution was measured as 50 pm/√Hz at 0.1 Hz using a precise capacitance detection circuit. Then, the transducer was applied to a sandwich in-plane micro accelerometer, and the measured level of the accelerometer was approximately 30 ng/√Hz at 1Hz. The earthquake that occurred in Taiwan was also detected during a continuous gravity measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors for Positioning and Navigation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sensitive Genotyping of Foodborne-Associated Human Noroviruses and Hepatitis A Virus Using an Array-Based Platform
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092157
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Viewed by 1420 | PDF Full-text (2649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in populations of all ages and are linked to most of the foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is another important foodborne enteric virus and is considered the most common agent causing [...] Read more.
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in populations of all ages and are linked to most of the foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is another important foodborne enteric virus and is considered the most common agent causing acute liver disease worldwide. In the present study, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification of foodborne-associated genotypes of NoV and HAV. By employing a novel algorithm, capture probes were designed to target variable genomic regions commonly used for typing these foodborne viruses. Validation results showed that probe signals, specific for the tested NoV or HAV genotypes, were on average 200-times or 38-times higher than those detected for non-targeted genotypes, respectively. To improve the analytical sensitivity of this method, a 12-mer oligonucleotide spacer sequence was added to the capture probes and resulted in a detection threshold of less than 10 cRNA transcripts. These findings have indicated that this array-based typing sensor has the accuracy and sensitivity for identifying NoV and HAV genotypic profiles predominantly linked to food poisoning. The implementation of this typing sensor would thus provide highly relevant and valuable information for use in surveillance and outbreak attribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
CO2 Sensing Characteristics of a La2O3/SnO2 Stacked Structure with Micromachined Hotplates
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092156
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1700 | PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Demand for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing in various fields, including air-quality monitoring, healthcare, and agriculture. On the other hand, smart gas sensors, in which micromachined gas sensors are integrated with driving circuits, are desirable toward the development [...] Read more.
Demand for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is increasing in various fields, including air-quality monitoring, healthcare, and agriculture. On the other hand, smart gas sensors, in which micromachined gas sensors are integrated with driving circuits, are desirable toward the development of the society of the internet of things. In this study, micromachined hotplate-based CO 2 sensors were fabricated and their characteristics were investigated. The sensors have La 2 O 3 /SnO 2 stacked layers as a sensing material and Pt interdigitated electrodes. A CO 2 response of 2.9 for a CO 2 concentration of 1000 ppm was obtained at 350 °C with low power consumption (approximately 17 mW). A relatively large response was obtained compared with previous studies even though a compact sputtered-SnO 2 film was used. This high response was speculated to be due to a significant contribution of the resistance component near the electrode. Furthermore, CO 2 sensing was successfully performed in the CO 2 range of 200–4000 ppm with at least 200-ppm resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors based on Semiconducting Metal Oxides)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Curvature Continuous and Bounded Path Planning for Fixed-Wing UAVs
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092155
Received: 6 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1569 | PDF Full-text (13249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) play an important role in applications such as data collection and target reconnaissance. An accurate and optimal path can effectively increase the mission success rate in the case of small UAVs. Although path planning for UAVs is similar to [...] Read more.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) play an important role in applications such as data collection and target reconnaissance. An accurate and optimal path can effectively increase the mission success rate in the case of small UAVs. Although path planning for UAVs is similar to that for traditional mobile robots, the special kinematic characteristics of UAVs (such as their minimum turning radius) have not been taken into account in previous studies. In this paper, we propose a locally-adjustable, continuous-curvature, bounded path-planning algorithm for fixed-wing UAVs. To deal with the curvature discontinuity problem, an optimal interpolation algorithm and a key-point shift algorithm are proposed based on the derivation of a curvature continuity condition. To meet the upper bound for curvature and to render the curvature extrema controllable, a local replanning scheme is designed by combining arcs and Bezier curves with monotonic curvature. In particular, a path transition mechanism is built for the replanning phase using minimum curvature circles for a planning philosophy. Numerical results demonstrate that the analytical planning algorithm can effectively generate continuous-curvature paths, while satisfying the curvature upper bound constraint and allowing UAVs to pass through all predefined waypoints in the desired mission region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV or Drones for Remote Sensing Applications) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Generic Compliance Modeling Method for Two-Axis Elliptical-Arc-Filleted Flexure Hinges
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092154
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1785 | PDF Full-text (6724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a kind of important flexible joint, two-axis flexure hinges can realize in-plane and out-of-plane motions and can be used for constructing flexure-based spatial compliant mechanisms. The paper introduces a common two-axis elliptical-arc-filleted flexure hinge that is generated by two different elliptical-arc-filleted cutout [...] Read more.
As a kind of important flexible joint, two-axis flexure hinges can realize in-plane and out-of-plane motions and can be used for constructing flexure-based spatial compliant mechanisms. The paper introduces a common two-axis elliptical-arc-filleted flexure hinge that is generated by two different elliptical-arc-filleted cutout profiles and that provides some new hinge types. The analytical compliance equations of both half-segments of the two-axis elliptical-arc flexure hinges are firstly formulated, and then, based on a generic compliance modeling method of a flexure serial chain, the closed-form compliance and precision matrices of two-axis elliptical-arc-filleted flexure hinges are established and validated by the finite element method. Some numerical simulations are conducted to compare the effect of different design geometric parameters on the performance of the two-axis flexure hinges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Dynamic Multi-Projection-Contour Approximating Framework for the 3D Reconstruction of Buildings by Super-Generalized Optical Stereo-Pairs
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092153
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1320 | PDF Full-text (5472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
In this paper, a novel framework of the 3D reconstruction of buildings is proposed, focusing on remote sensing super-generalized stereo-pairs (SGSPs). As we all know, 3D reconstruction cannot be well performed using nonstandard stereo pairs, since reliable stereo matching could not be achieved [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel framework of the 3D reconstruction of buildings is proposed, focusing on remote sensing super-generalized stereo-pairs (SGSPs). As we all know, 3D reconstruction cannot be well performed using nonstandard stereo pairs, since reliable stereo matching could not be achieved when the image-pairs are collected at a great difference of views, and we always failed to obtain dense 3D points for regions of buildings, and cannot do further 3D shape reconstruction. We defined SGSPs as two or more optical images collected in less constrained views but covering the same buildings. It is even more difficult to reconstruct the 3D shape of a building by SGSPs using traditional frameworks. As a result, a dynamic multi-projection-contour approximating (DMPCA) framework was introduced for SGSP-based 3D reconstruction. The key idea is that we do an optimization to find a group of parameters of a simulated 3D model and use a binary feature-image that minimizes the total differences between projection-contours of the building in the SGSPs and that in the simulated 3D model. Then, the simulated 3D model, defined by the group of parameters, could approximate the actual 3D shape of the building. Certain parameterized 3D basic-unit-models of typical buildings were designed, and a simulated projection system was established to obtain a simulated projection-contour in different views. Moreover, the artificial bee colony algorithm was employed to solve the optimization. With SGSPs collected by the satellite and our unmanned aerial vehicle, the DMPCA framework was verified by a group of experiments, which demonstrated the reliability and advantages of this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Surface Protective Coating to Enhance Environment-Withstanding Property of the MEMS 2D Wind Direction and Wind Speed Sensor
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092152
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2423 | PDF Full-text (8020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) two-dimensional (2D) wind direction and wind speed sensor consisting of a square heating source and four thermopiles was manufactured using the heat detection method. The heating source and thermopiles of the manufactured sensor must be exposed [...] Read more.
In this study, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) two-dimensional (2D) wind direction and wind speed sensor consisting of a square heating source and four thermopiles was manufactured using the heat detection method. The heating source and thermopiles of the manufactured sensor must be exposed to air to detect wind speed and wind direction. Therefore, there are concerns that the sensor could be contaminated by deposition or adhesion of dust, sandy dust, snow, rain, and so forth, in the air, and that the membrane may be damaged by physical shock. Hence, there was a need to protect the heating source, thermopiles, and the membrane from environmental and physical shock. The upper protective coating to protect both the heating source and thermopiles and the lower protective coating to protect the membrane were formed by using high-molecular substances such as SU-8, Teflon and polyimide (PI). The sensor characteristics with the applied protective coatings were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated MEMS Sensors for the IoT Era)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Deployment of a Smart Structural Health Monitoring System for Long-Span Arch Bridges: A Review and a Case Study
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092151
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3345 | PDF Full-text (9823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and summarized. A case study about a SHM system of a long-span arch bridge (the Jiubao bridge in China) was systematically incorporated in each part to advance our understanding of deployment and investigation of a SHM system for long-span arch bridges. The applications of SHM systems of long-span arch bridge were also introduced. From the illustrations, the challenges and future trends for development a SHM system were concluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Transportation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New First Break Picking for Three-Component VSP Data Using Gesture Sensor and Polarization Analysis
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092150
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1276 | PDF Full-text (2987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new first break picking for three-component (3C) vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy of first arrivals, which adopts gesture detection calibration and polarization analysis based on the eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. This study aims at [...] Read more.
A new first break picking for three-component (3C) vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy of first arrivals, which adopts gesture detection calibration and polarization analysis based on the eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. This study aims at addressing the problem that calibration is required for VSP data using the azimuth and dip angle of geophones, due to the direction of geophones being random when applied in a borehole, which will further lead to the first break picking possibly being unreliable. Initially, a gesture-measuring module is integrated in the seismometer to rapidly obtain high-precision gesture data (including azimuth and dip angle information). Using re-rotating and re-projecting using earlier gesture data, the seismic dataset of each component will be calibrated to the direction that is consistent with the vibrator shot orientation. It will promote the reliability of the original data when making each component waveform calibrated to the same virtual reference component, and the corresponding first break will also be properly adjusted. After achieving 3C data calibration, an automatic first break picking algorithm based on the autoregressive-Akaike information criterion (AR-AIC) is adopted to evaluate the first break. Furthermore, in order to enhance the accuracy of the first break picking, the polarization attributes of 3C VSP recordings is applied to constrain the scanning segment of AR-AIC picker, which uses the maximum eigenvalue calculation of the covariance matrix. The contrast results between pre-calibration and post-calibration using field data show that it can further improve the quality of the 3C VSP waveform, which is favorable to subsequent picking. Compared to the obtained short-term average to long-term average (STA/LTA) and the AR-AIC algorithm, the proposed method, combined with polarization analysis, can significantly reduce the picking error. Applications of actual field experiments have also confirmed that the proposed method may be more suitable for the first break picking of 3C VSP. Test using synthesized 3C seismic data with low SNR indicates that the first break is picked with an error between 0.75 ms and 1.5 ms. Accordingly, the proposed method can reduce the picking error for 3C VSP data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Direct Coarray Interpolation Approach for Direction Finding
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092149
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1251 | PDF Full-text (771 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sparse arrays have gained considerable attention in recent years because they can resolve more sources than the number of sensors. The coprime array can resolve O(MN) sources with only O(M+N) sensors, and is a [...] Read more.
Sparse arrays have gained considerable attention in recent years because they can resolve more sources than the number of sensors. The coprime array can resolve O ( M N ) sources with only O ( M + N ) sensors, and is a popular sparse array structure due to its closed-form expressions for array configuration and the reduction of the mutual coupling effect. However, because of the existence of holes in its coarray, the performance of subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms such as MUSIC and ESPRIT is limited. Several coarray interpolation approaches have been proposed to address this issue. In this paper, a novel DOA estimation approach via direct coarray interpolation is proposed. By using the direct coarray interpolation, the reshaping and spatial smoothing operations in coarray-based DOA estimation are not needed. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed approach can achieve a better accuracy with lower complexity. In addition, an improved angular resolution capability is obtained by using the proposed approach. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enabling Large-Scale IoT-Based Services through Elastic Publish/Subscribe
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092148
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2336 | PDF Full-text (2296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors’ data. This algorithm is able to provide an [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors’ data. This algorithm is able to provide an uninterrupted service to end users even during the scaling operation since its internal state repartitioning is transparent for publishers or subscribers; its scaling operation is time-bounded and depends only on the dimension of the state partitions to be transmitted to the different nodes. We describe its implementation in E-SilboPS, an elastic content-based publish/subscribe (CBPS) system specifically designed to support context-aware sensing and communication in IoT-based services. E-SilboPS is a key internal asset of the FIWARE IoT services enablement platform, which offers an architecture of components specifically designed to capture data from, or act upon, IoT devices as easily as reading/changing the value of attributes linked to context entities. In addition, we discuss the quantitative measurements used to evaluate the scale-out process, as well as the results of this evaluation. This new feature rounds out the context-aware content-based features of E-SilboPS by providing, for example, the necessary middleware for constructing dashboards and monitoring panels that are capable of dynamically changing queries and continuously handling data in IoT-based services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Robust Inner and Outer Loop Control Method for Trajectory Tracking of a Quadrotor
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092147
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2106 | PDF Full-text (5109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to achieve the complicated trajectory tracking of quadrotor, a geometric inner and outer loop control scheme is presented. The outer loop generates the desired rotation matrix for the inner loop. To improve the response speed and robustness, a geometric SMC controller [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the complicated trajectory tracking of quadrotor, a geometric inner and outer loop control scheme is presented. The outer loop generates the desired rotation matrix for the inner loop. To improve the response speed and robustness, a geometric SMC controller is designed for the inner loop. The outer loop is also designed via sliding mode control (SMC). By Lyapunov theory and cascade theory, the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed. Next, the tracking performance is validated by tracking three representative trajectories. Then, the robustness of the proposed control method is illustrated by trajectory tracking in presence of model uncertainty and disturbances. Subsequently, experiments are carried out to verify the method. In the experiment, ultra wideband (UWB) is used for indoor positioning. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for fusing inertial measurement unit (IMU) and UWB measurements. The experimental results show the feasibility of the designed controller in practice. The comparative experiments with PD and PD loop demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using the Two-Step Geometrically-Intuitive Correction Algorithm
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092146
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2095 | PDF Full-text (6355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
In order to reduce the computational complexity, and improve the pitch/roll estimation accuracy of the low-cost attitude heading reference system (AHRS) under conditions of magnetic-distortion, a novel linear Kalman filter, suitable for nonlinear attitude estimation, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the computational complexity, and improve the pitch/roll estimation accuracy of the low-cost attitude heading reference system (AHRS) under conditions of magnetic-distortion, a novel linear Kalman filter, suitable for nonlinear attitude estimation, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is the combination of two-step geometrically-intuitive correction (TGIC) and the Kalman filter. In the proposed algorithm, the sequential two-step geometrically-intuitive correction scheme is used to make the current estimation of pitch/roll immune to magnetic distortion. Meanwhile, the TGIC produces a computed quaternion input for the Kalman filter, which avoids the linearization error of measurement equations and reduces the computational complexity. Several experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the filter design. The results demonstrate that the mean time consumption and the root mean square error (RMSE) of pitch/roll estimation under magnetic disturbances are reduced by 45.9% and 33.8%, respectively, when compared with a standard filter. In addition, the proposed filter is applicable for attitude estimation under various dynamic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Repetitive Immunosensor with a Fiber-Optic Device and Antibody-Coated Magnetic Beads for Semi-Continuous Monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092145
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Viewed by 1413 | PDF Full-text (7756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rapid and reproducible fiber-optic immunosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) was described. The biosensor consisted of a flow cell, an optical fiber with a thin Ni layer, and a PC linked fluorometer. First, the samples with E. coli O157:H7 [...] Read more.
A rapid and reproducible fiber-optic immunosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) was described. The biosensor consisted of a flow cell, an optical fiber with a thin Ni layer, and a PC linked fluorometer. First, the samples with E. coli O157:H7 were incubated with magnetic beads coated with anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies and anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies labeled cyanine 5 (Cy5) to make sandwich complexes. Then the Cy5-(E. coli O157:H7)-beads were injected into a flow cell and pulled to the magnetized Ni layer on the optical fiber set in the flow cell. An excitation light (λ = 635 nm) was used to illuminate the optical fiber, and the Cy5 florescent molecules facing the optical fiber were exposed to an evanescent wave from the optical fiber. The 670 nm fluorescent light was measured using a photodiode. Finally, the magnetic intensity of the Ni layer was removed and the Cy5-E. coli O157:H7-beads were washed out for the next immunoassay. E. coli O157:H7, diluted with phosphate buffer (PB), was measured from 1 × 105 to 1 × 107 cells/mL. The total time required for an assay was less than 15 min (except for the pretreatment process) and repeating immunoassay on one optical fiber was made possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A New Hydrogen Sensor Based on SNS Fiber Interferometer with Pd/WO3 Coating
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092144
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1739 | PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new hydrogen sensor based on a single mode–no core–single mode (SNS) fiber interferometer structure. The surface of the no core fiber (NCF) was coated by Pd/WO3 film to detect the variation of hydrogen concentration. If the hydrogen concentration [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new hydrogen sensor based on a single mode–no core–single mode (SNS) fiber interferometer structure. The surface of the no core fiber (NCF) was coated by Pd/WO3 film to detect the variation of hydrogen concentration. If the hydrogen concentration changes, the refractive index of the Pd/WO3 film as well as the boundary condition for light propagating in the NCF will all be changed, which will then cause a shift into the resonant wavelength of interferometer. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration can be deduced by measuring the shift of the resonant wavelength. Experimental results demonstrated that this proposed sensor had a high detection sensitivity of 1.26857 nm/%, with good linearity and high accuracy (maximum 0.0055% hydrogen volume error). Besides, it also possessed the advantages of simple structure, low cost, good stability, and repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches to Biosensing with Nanoparticles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Evidential-IOWA Sensor Data Fusion Approach in Fault Diagnosis
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092143
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1130 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an important tool of information fusion, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in handling the uncertain information in fault diagnosis. However, an incorrect result may be obtained if the combined evidence is highly conflicting, which may leads to failure in locating the [...] Read more.
As an important tool of information fusion, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in handling the uncertain information in fault diagnosis. However, an incorrect result may be obtained if the combined evidence is highly conflicting, which may leads to failure in locating the fault. To deal with the problem, an improved evidential-Induced Ordered Weighted Averaging (IOWA) sensor data fusion approach is proposed in the frame of Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. In the new method, the IOWA operator is used to determine the weight of different sensor data source, while determining the parameter of the IOWA, both the distance of evidence and the belief entropy are taken into consideration. First, based on the global distance of evidence and the global belief entropy, the α value of IOWA is obtained. Simultaneously, a weight vector is given based on the maximum entropy method model. Then, according to IOWA operator, the evidence are modified before applying the Dempster’s combination rule. The proposed method has a better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each evidence is taken into consideration. A numerical example and a case study in fault diagnosis are presented to show the rationality and efficiency of the proposed method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Frame Super-Resolution of Gaofen-4 Remote Sensing Images
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092142
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1373 | PDF Full-text (6781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gaofen-4 is China’s first geosynchronous orbit high-definition optical imaging satellite with extremely high temporal resolution. The features of staring imaging and high temporal resolution enable the super-resolution of multiple images of the same scene. In this paper, we propose a super-resolution (SR) technique [...] Read more.
Gaofen-4 is China’s first geosynchronous orbit high-definition optical imaging satellite with extremely high temporal resolution. The features of staring imaging and high temporal resolution enable the super-resolution of multiple images of the same scene. In this paper, we propose a super-resolution (SR) technique to reconstruct a higher-resolution image from multiple low-resolution (LR) satellite images. The method first performs image registration in both the spatial and range domains. Then the point spread function (PSF) of LR images is parameterized by a Gaussian function and estimated by a blind deconvolution algorithm based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP). Finally, the high-resolution (HR) image is reconstructed by a MAP-based SR algorithm. The MAP cost function includes a data fidelity term and a regularized term. The data fidelity term is in the L2 norm, and the regularized term employs the Huber-Markov prior which can reduce the noise and artifacts while preserving the image edges. Experiments with real Gaofen-4 images show that the reconstructed images are sharper and contain more details than Google Earth ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Impedance Measurements to Characterize Surface Modified with Gold Nanoparticles
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092141
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2143 | PDF Full-text (2541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection [...] Read more.
With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection allows for greater versatility in the detection of biological molecules. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based POC biosensor that can detect changes in the surface modification of a micro-fabricated chip using impedance spectroscopy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been employed to evaluate the sensing ability of our new chip using impedance measurements. Furthermore, we used impedance measurements to monitor surface functionalization progress on the sensor’s interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). Electrodes made from aluminum and gold were employed and the results were analyzed to compare the impact of electrode material. GNPs coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid were also used as a model of biomolecules to greatly enhance chemical affinity to the silicon substrate. The portable sensor can be used as an alternative technology to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. This system has advantages over PCR and ELISA both in the amount of time required for testing and the ease of use of our sensor. With other techniques, larger, expensive equipment must be utilized in a lab environment, and procedures have to be carried out by trained professionals. The simplicity of our sensor system can lead to an automated and portable sensing system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Canada 2017)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Robust Vehicle Localization Approach Based on GNSS/IMU/DMI/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Vehicles
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092140
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2762 | PDF Full-text (2404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments), a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to [...] Read more.
Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments), a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to smooth the vehicle locations in spite of GNSS jumps. Furthermore, the lateral localization error is compensated by the point cloud-based lateral localization method proposed in this paper. Experiment results have verified the algorithms proposed in this paper, which shows that the algorithms proposed in this paper are capable of providing precise and robust vehicle localization. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Worst-Case Energy Efficiency Maximization in a 5G Massive MIMO-NOMA System
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092139
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1962 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we examine the robust beamforming design to tackle the energy efficiency (EE) maximization problem in a 5G massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) downlink system with imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station. A novel joint user [...] Read more.
In this paper, we examine the robust beamforming design to tackle the energy efficiency (EE) maximization problem in a 5G massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) downlink system with imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station. A novel joint user pairing and dynamic power allocation (JUPDPA) algorithm is proposed to minimize the inter user interference and also to enhance the fairness between the users. This work assumes imperfect CSI by adding uncertainties to channel matrices with worst-case model, i.e., ellipsoidal uncertainty model (EUM). A fractional non-convex optimization problem is formulated to maximize the EE subject to the transmit power constraints and the minimum rate requirement for the cell edge user. The designed problem is difficult to solve due to its nonlinear fractional objective function. We firstly employ the properties of fractional programming to transform the non-convex problem into its equivalent parametric form. Then, an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed established on the constrained concave-convex procedure (CCCP) that solves and achieves convergence to a stationary point of the above problem. Finally, Dinkelbach’s algorithm is employed to determine the maximum energy efficiency. Comprehensive numerical results illustrate that the proposed scheme attains higher worst-case energy efficiency as compared with the existing NOMA schemes and the conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
OrMAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol Using Orthogonal Codes for Channel Access in M2M Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092138
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476 | PDF Full-text (2933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access protocol named orthogonal coded medium access control (OrMAC), which extends the principle of distributed queuing collision avoidance protocol (DQCA) of wireless local area network (WLAN) to delay-sensitive machine-to-machine (M2M) networks. OrMAC pre-assigns [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access protocol named orthogonal coded medium access control (OrMAC), which extends the principle of distributed queuing collision avoidance protocol (DQCA) of wireless local area network (WLAN) to delay-sensitive machine-to-machine (M2M) networks. OrMAC pre-assigns orthogonal codes, which serve as the channel contention signals, to the nodes entering the network. The “pre-assignment” eliminates contention collisions since it guarantees that no two nodes share the same contention code. Moreover, OrMAC employs a prioritized channel access by allowing nodes to control the transmission power of the contention signal depending on the delay sensitivity of the data. The power at which a contention signal arrives at the access point reflects the urgency of the packets waiting for transmission in the buffer. A contention signal with a high received power is assigned a high priority and vice versa for a contention signal with a low received power. Numerical experiments are carried out to compare the performance of OrMAC to that of DQCA in terms of the packet delivery ratio, latency, discarded packet ratio, and throughput. The results show that OrMAC can outperform DQCA in all the aforementioned performance metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Eccentricity Based Data Routing Protocol with Uniform Node Distribution in 3D WSN
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092137
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1903 | PDF Full-text (5745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to nonuniform node distribution, the energy consumption of nodes are imbalanced in clustering-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It might have more impact when nodes are deployed in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. In this regard, we propose the eccentricity based data routing (EDR) [...] Read more.
Due to nonuniform node distribution, the energy consumption of nodes are imbalanced in clustering-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It might have more impact when nodes are deployed in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. In this regard, we propose the eccentricity based data routing (EDR) protocol in a 3D WSN with uniform node distribution. It includes network partitions called 3D subspaces/clusters of equal member nodes, an energy-efficient routing centroid (RC) nodes election and data routing algorithm. The RC nodes election conducts in a quasi-static nature until a certain period unlike the periodic cluster heads election of typical clustering-based routing. It not only reduces the energy consumption of nodes during the election phase, but also in intra-communication. At the same time, the routing algorithm selects a forwarding node in such a way that balances the energy consumption among RC nodes and reduces the number of hops towards the sink. The simulation results validate and ensure the performance supremacy of the EDR protocol compared to existing protocols in terms of various metrics such as steady state and network lifetime in particular. Meanwhile, the results show the EDR is more robust in uniform node distribution compared to nonuniform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092136
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2000 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in [...] Read more.
New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092135
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2655 | PDF Full-text (7787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their [...] Read more.
In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome) based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sensors for Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Buildings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of a Textile Nanocomposite as Naked Eye Indicator of the Exposition to Strong Acids
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092134
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical burns, mainly produced by acids, are a topic of concern. A new sensing material for the detection of strong acids able to be incorporated into textiles has been developed. The material is prepared by the covalent attachment of 2,2′,4,4′,4″-pentamethoxy triphenyl methanol to [...] Read more.
Chemical burns, mainly produced by acids, are a topic of concern. A new sensing material for the detection of strong acids able to be incorporated into textiles has been developed. The material is prepared by the covalent attachment of 2,2′,4,4′,4″-pentamethoxy triphenyl methanol to a mesoporous material which further is included in a nitro resin to obtain a colourless composite. The response of this composite to diverse acid solutions was tested showing the appearance of an intense purple colour (with a colour difference higher than 160) that can be monitored by the naked eye or could be easily digitised to feed an instrumental sensor. Reversibility and resistance to washing cycles were studied with positive results. Finally, the response of the sensing composite to acid vapours was assayed, observing a colour change similar to that found in solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Short-Circuit Fault Detection and Classification Using Empirical Wavelet Transform and Local Energy for Electric Transmission Line
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092133
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2774 | PDF Full-text (6281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve the classification accuracy of recognizing short-circuit faults in electric transmission lines, a novel detection and diagnosis method based on empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and local energy (LE) is proposed. First, EWT is used to deal with the original short-circuit [...] Read more.
In order to improve the classification accuracy of recognizing short-circuit faults in electric transmission lines, a novel detection and diagnosis method based on empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and local energy (LE) is proposed. First, EWT is used to deal with the original short-circuit fault signals from photoelectric voltage transformers, before the amplitude modulated-frequency modulated (AM-FM) mode with a compactly supported Fourier spectrum is extracted. Subsequently, the fault occurrence time is detected according to the modulus maxima of intrinsic mode function (IMF2) from three-phase voltage signals processed by EWT. After this process, the feature vectors are constructed by calculating the LE of the fundamental frequency based on the three-phase voltage signals of one period after the fault occurred. Finally, the classifier based on support vector machine (SVM) which was constructed with the LE feature vectors is used to classify 10 types of short-circuit fault signals. Compared with complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and improved CEEMDAN methods, the new method using EWT has a better ability to present the frequency in time. The difference in the characteristics of the energy distribution in the time domain between different types of short-circuit faults can be presented by the feature vectors of LE. Together, simulation and real signals experiment demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the new approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Achieving Congestion Mitigation Using Distributed Power Control for Spectrum Sensor Nodes in Sensor Network-Aided Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092132
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1374 | PDF Full-text (3025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The data sequence of spectrum sensing results injected from dedicated spectrum sensor nodes (SSNs) and the data traffic from upstream secondary users (SUs) lead to unpredictable data loads in a sensor network-aided cognitive radio ad hoc network (SN-CRN). As a result, network congestion [...] Read more.
The data sequence of spectrum sensing results injected from dedicated spectrum sensor nodes (SSNs) and the data traffic from upstream secondary users (SUs) lead to unpredictable data loads in a sensor network-aided cognitive radio ad hoc network (SN-CRN). As a result, network congestion may occur at a SU acting as fusion center when the offered data load exceeds its available capacity, which degrades network performance. In this paper, we present an effective approach to mitigate congestion of bottlenecked SUs via a proposed distributed power control framework for SSNs over a rectangular grid based SN-CRN, aiming to balance resource load and avoid excessive congestion. To achieve this goal, a distributed power control framework for SSNs from interior tier (IT) and middle tier (MT) is proposed to achieve the tradeoff between channel capacity and energy consumption. In particular, we firstly devise two pricing factors by considering stability of local spectrum sensing and spectrum sensing quality for SSNs. By the aid of pricing factors, the utility function of this power control problem is formulated by jointly taking into account the revenue of power reduction and the cost of energy consumption for IT or MT SSN. By bearing in mind the utility function maximization and linear differential equation constraint of energy consumption, we further formulate the power control problem as a differential game model under a cooperation or noncooperation scenario, and rigorously obtain the optimal solutions to this game model by employing dynamic programming. Then the congestion mitigation for bottlenecked SUs is derived by alleviating the buffer load over their internal buffers. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach under the rectangular grid based SN-CRN scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092131
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1927 | PDF Full-text (9352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW [...] Read more.
A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm2. In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Wave Resonator-Based Sensors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Sparse Dictionary Learning-Based Adaptive Patch Inpainting Method for Thick Clouds Removal from High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092130
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1850 | PDF Full-text (3800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents a sparse dictionary learning-based image inpainting method for adaptively recovering the missing information corrupted by thick clouds patch-by-patch. A feature dictionary was learned from exemplars in the cloud-free regions, which was later utilized to infer the missing patches via sparse representation. To maintain the coherence of structures, structure sparsity was brought in to encourage first filling-in of missing patches on image structures. The optimization model of patch inpainting was formulated under the adaptive neighborhood-consistency constraint, which was solved by a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. In light of these ideas, the thick-cloud removal scheme was designed and applied to images with simulated and true clouds. Comparisons and experiments show that our method can not only keep structures and textures consistent with the surrounding ground information, but also yield rare smoothing effect and block effect, which is more suitable for the removal of clouds from high-spatial resolution RS imagery with salient structures and abundant textured features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor with Graphene Oxide Coating for Humidity Sensing
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092129
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2357 | PDF Full-text (8023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we propose a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) humidity sensor fabricated using the phase mask method to produce a TFBG that was then etched with five different diameters of 20, 35, 50, 55 and 60 μm, after which piezoelectric inkjet [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) humidity sensor fabricated using the phase mask method to produce a TFBG that was then etched with five different diameters of 20, 35, 50, 55 and 60 μm, after which piezoelectric inkjet technology was used to coat the grating with graphene oxide. According to the experimental results, the diameter of 20 μm yielded the best sensitivity. In addition, the experimental results showed that the wavelength sensitivity was −0.01 nm/%RH and the linearity was 0.996. Furthermore, the measurement results showed that when the relative humidity was increased, the refractive index of the sensor was decreased, meaning that the TFBG cladding mode spectrum wavelength was shifted. Therefore, the proposed graphene oxide film TFBG humidity sensor has good potential to be an effective relative humidity monitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top