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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092157

Sensitive Genotyping of Foodborne-Associated Human Noroviruses and Hepatitis A Virus Using an Array-Based Platform

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, Produce Safety and Microbiology Unit, Albany, CA 94710, USA
2
Arrayit Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA 94085, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
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Abstract

Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in populations of all ages and are linked to most of the foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is another important foodborne enteric virus and is considered the most common agent causing acute liver disease worldwide. In the present study, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification of foodborne-associated genotypes of NoV and HAV. By employing a novel algorithm, capture probes were designed to target variable genomic regions commonly used for typing these foodborne viruses. Validation results showed that probe signals, specific for the tested NoV or HAV genotypes, were on average 200-times or 38-times higher than those detected for non-targeted genotypes, respectively. To improve the analytical sensitivity of this method, a 12-mer oligonucleotide spacer sequence was added to the capture probes and resulted in a detection threshold of less than 10 cRNA transcripts. These findings have indicated that this array-based typing sensor has the accuracy and sensitivity for identifying NoV and HAV genotypic profiles predominantly linked to food poisoning. The implementation of this typing sensor would thus provide highly relevant and valuable information for use in surveillance and outbreak attribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: food safety; foodborne pathogen; genotyping; hepatitis A virus; microarray; norovirus; pathogen detection; viruses food safety; foodborne pathogen; genotyping; hepatitis A virus; microarray; norovirus; pathogen detection; viruses
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Quiñones, B.; Lee, B.G.; Martinsky, T.J.; Yambao, J.C.; Haje, P.K.; Schena, M. Sensitive Genotyping of Foodborne-Associated Human Noroviruses and Hepatitis A Virus Using an Array-Based Platform. Sensors 2017, 17, 2157.

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